Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 761
Filter
1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 918896, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198845

ABSTRACT

Background: Effective and safe vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are critical to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic and will remain the most important tool in limiting the spread of the virus long after the pandemic is over. Methods: We bring pioneering contributions on the maintenance of the immune response over a year on a real-life basis study in 1,587 individuals (18-90 yrs, median 39 yrs; 1,208 female/379 male) who underwent vaccination with two doses of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 booster after 6-months of primary protocol. Findings: Elevated levels of anti-spike IgG antibodies were detected after CoronaVac vaccination, which significantly decreased after 80 days and remained stable until the introduction of the booster dose. Heterologous booster restored antibody titers up to-1·7-fold, changing overall seropositivity to 96%. Titers of neutralising antibodies to the Omicron variant were lower in all timepoints than those against Delta variant. Individuals presenting neutralising antibodies against Omicron also presented the highest titers against Delta and anti-Spike IgG. Cellular immune response measurement pointed out a mixed immune profile with a robust release of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors on the first month after CoronaVac vaccination followed by a gradual reduction over time and no increase after the booster dose. A stronger interaction between those mediators was noted over time. Prior exposure to the virus leaded to a more robust cellular immune response and a rise in antibody levels 60 days post CoronaVac than in individuals with no previous COVID-19. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated among individuals. Interpretation: Our data approach the effectiveness of CoronaVac association with BNT162b2 from the clinical and biological perspectives, aspects that have important implications for informing decisions about vaccine boosters. Funding: Fiocruz, Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Brazil , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS Med ; 19(10): e1003979, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines can be less immunogenic in people living with HIV (PLWH), but for SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations this is unknown. In this study we set out to investigate, for the vaccines currently approved in the Netherlands, the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in PLWH. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the immunogenicity of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines in adult PLWH without prior COVID-19, and compared to HIV-negative controls. The primary endpoint was the anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG response after mRNA vaccination. Secondary endpoints included the serological response after vector vaccination, anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response, and reactogenicity. Between 14 February and 7 September 2021, 1,154 PLWH (median age 53 [IQR 44-60] years, 85.5% male) and 440 controls (median age 43 [IQR 33-53] years, 28.6% male) were included in the final analysis. Of the PLWH, 884 received BNT162b2, 100 received mRNA-1273, 150 received ChAdOx1-S, and 20 received Ad26.COV2.S. In the group of PLWH, 99% were on antiretroviral therapy, 97.7% were virally suppressed, and the median CD4+ T-cell count was 710 cells/µL (IQR 520-913). Of the controls, 247 received mRNA-1273, 94 received BNT162b2, 26 received ChAdOx1-S, and 73 received Ad26.COV2.S. After mRNA vaccination, geometric mean antibody concentration was 1,418 BAU/mL in PLWH (95% CI 1322-1523), and after adjustment for age, sex, and vaccine type, HIV status remained associated with a decreased response (0.607, 95% CI 0.508-0.725, p < 0.001). All controls receiving an mRNA vaccine had an adequate response, defined as >300 BAU/mL, whilst in PLWH this response rate was 93.6%. In PLWH vaccinated with mRNA-based vaccines, higher antibody responses were predicted by CD4+ T-cell count 250-500 cells/µL (2.845, 95% CI 1.876-4.314, p < 0.001) or >500 cells/µL (2.936, 95% CI 1.961-4.394, p < 0.001), whilst a viral load > 50 copies/mL was associated with a reduced response (0.454, 95% CI 0.286-0.720, p = 0.001). Increased IFN-γ, CD4+ T-cell, and CD8+ T-cell responses were observed after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides in ELISpot and activation-induced marker assays, comparable to controls. Reactogenicity was generally mild, without vaccine-related serious adverse events. Due to the control of vaccine provision by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, there were some differences between vaccine groups in the age, sex, and CD4+ T-cell counts of recipients. CONCLUSIONS: After vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were reduced in PLWH compared to HIV-negative controls. To reach and maintain the same serological responses as HIV-negative controls, additional vaccinations are probably required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NL9214). https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/9214.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 167-179, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The safety and immunogenicity profile of COVID-19 vaccines when administered concomitantly with seasonal influenza vaccines have not yet been reported. We therefore aimed to report the results of a substudy within a phase 3 UK trial, by evaluating the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 when co-administered with licensed seasonal influenza vaccines. METHODS: We did a planned exploratory substudy as part of the randomised, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine (NVX-CoV2373) by co-administrating the influenza vaccine at four study hospitals in the UK. Approximately, the first 400 participants meeting the main study entry criteria-with no contraindications to influenza vaccination-were invited to join the substudy. Participants of the main study were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive two intramuscular injections of either NVX-CoV2373 (5 µg) or placebo (normal saline) 21 days apart; participants enrolled into the substudy were co-vaccinated with a single (0·5 mL) intramuscular, age-appropriate (quadrivalent influenza cell-based vaccine [Flucelvax Quadrivalent; Seqirus UK, Maidenhead] for those aged 18-64 years and adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine [Fluad; Seqirus UK, Maidenhead] for those ≥65 years), licensed, influenza vaccine on the opposite deltoid to that of the first study vaccine dose or placebo. The influenza vaccine was administered in an open-label manner and at the same time as the first study injection. Reactogenicity was evaluated via an electronic diary for 7 days after vaccination in addition to monitoring for unsolicited adverse events, medically attended adverse events, and serious adverse events. Immunogenicity was assessed with influenza haemagglutination inhibition and SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike protein IgG assays. Vaccine efficacy against PCR-confirmed, symptomatic COVID-19 was assessed in participants who were seronegative at baseline, received both doses of study vaccine or placebo, had no major protocol deviations affecting the primary endpoint, and had no confirmed cases of symptomatic COVID-19 from the first dose until 6 days after the second dose (per-protocol efficacy population). Immunogenicity was assessed in participants who received scheduled two doses of study vaccine, had a baseline sample and at least one post-vaccination sample, and had no major protocol violations before unmasking (per-protocol immunogenicity population). Reactogenicity was analysed in all participants who received at least one dose of NVX-CoV2373 or placebo and had data collected for reactogenicity events. Safety was analysed in all participants who received at least one dose of NVX-CoV2373 or placebo. Comparisons were made between participants of the substudy and the main study (who were not co-vaccinated for influenza). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04583995. FINDINGS: Between Sept 28, 2020, and Nov 28, 2020, a total of 15 187 participants were randomised into the main phase 3 trial, of whom 15 139 received treatment (7569 received dose one of NVX-CoV2373 and 7570 received dose one of placebo). 431 participants were co-vaccinated with a seasonal influenza vaccine in the substudy (217 received NVX-CoV2373 plus the influenza vaccine and 214 received placebo plus the influenza vaccine). In general, the substudy participants were younger, more racially diverse, and had fewer comorbid conditions than those in the main study. Reactogenicity events were more common in the co-administration group than in the NVX-CoV2373 alone group: tenderness (113 [64·9%] of 174 vs 592 [53·3%] of 1111) or pain (69 [39·7%] vs 325 [29·3%]) at injection site, fatigue (48 [27·7%] vs 215 [19·4%]), and muscle pain (49 [28·3%] vs 237 [21·4%]). Incidences of unsolicited adverse events, treatment-related medically attended adverse events, and serious adverse events were low and balanced between the co-administration group and the NVX-CoV2373 alone group. No episodes of anaphylaxis or deaths were reported within the substudy. Co-administration resulted in no change to influenza vaccine immune response although a reduction in antibody responses to the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine was noted. NVX-CoV2373 vaccine efficacy in the substudy (ie, participants aged 18 to <65 years) was 87·5% (95% CI -0·2 to 98·4) and in the main study was 89·8% (95% CI 79·7-95·5). INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this substudy is the first to show the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy profile of a COVID-19 vaccine when co-administered with seasonal influenza vaccines. Our results suggest concomitant vaccination might be a viable immunisation strategy. FUNDING: Novavax.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Young Adult
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19087, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106475

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization categorized SARS-CoV-2 as a variant of concern, having numerous mutations in spike protein, which have been found to evade the effect of antibodies stimulated by the COVID-19 vaccine. The susceptibility to omicron variant by immunization-induced antibodies are direly required for risk evaluation. To avoid the risk of arising viral illness, the construction of a specific vaccine that triggers the production of targeted antibodies to combat infection remains highly imperative. The aim of the present study is to develop a particular vaccine exploiting bioinformatics approaches which can target B- and T-cells epitopes. Through this approach, novel epitopes of the S protein-SARS-CoV-2 were predicted for the development of a multiple epitope vaccine. Multiple epitopes were selected on the basis of toxicity, immunogenicity and antigenicity, and vaccine subunit was constructed having potential immunogenic properties. The epitopes were linked with 3 types of linker EAAAK, AAY and GPGPG for vaccine construction. Subsequently, vaccine structure was docked with the receptor and cloned in a pET-28a (+) vector. The constructed vaccine was ligated in pET-28a (+) vector in E. coli using the SnapGene tool for the expression study and a good immune response was observed. Several computational tools were used to predict and analyze the vaccine constructed by using spike protein sequence of omicrons. The current study identified a Multi-Epitope Vaccine (MEV) as a significant vaccine candidate that could potentially help the global world to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computational Biology , Escherichia coli , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 994770, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099271

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Being able to independently determine vaccine induced antibody responses by minimal-invasive methods is of great interest to enable a flexible and effective vaccination strategy. This study aimed to evaluate (1) the accuracy, feasibility, usability and acceptability of capillary blood and saliva self-sampling to determine SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) and health professionals (HP). Methods: IMID patients and HP having received two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, self-collected capillary blood (Tasso+) and saliva samples. Capillary samples were considered interchangeable with venous blood if three criteria were met: Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) > 0.8, non-significant Wilcoxon signed-rank test (i.e., p > 0.05), and a small bias or 95% of tests within 10% difference through Bland-Altman. Participants completed a survey to investigate self-sampling usability (system usability scale; SUS) and acceptability (net promoter score; NPS). Study personnel monitored correct self-sampling completion and recorded protocol deviations. Results: 60 participants (30 IMID patients and 30 HP) were analyzed. We observed interchangeability for capillary samples with an accuracy of 98.3/100% for Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgA antibodies, respectively. Fifty-eight capillary blood samples and all 60 saliva samples were successfully collected within the first attempt. Usability of both self-sampling procedures was rated as excellent, with significantly higher saliva ratings (p < 0.001). Capillary self-sampling was perceived as significantly (p < 0.001) less painful compared to traditional venous blood collection. Participants reported a NPS for capillary and saliva self-sampling of +68% and +63%, respectively. The majority of both groups (73%) preferred capillary self-sampling over professional venous blood collection. Conclusion: Our results indicate that capillary self-sampling is accurate, feasible and preferred over conventional venous blood collection. Implementation could enable easy access, flexible vaccination monitoring, potentially leading to a better protection of vulnerable patient groups. Self-collection of saliva is feasible and safe however more work is needed to determine its application in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Saliva , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral
6.
Vaccine ; 40(49): 7130-7140, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After establishing safety and immunogenicity of Biological-E's CORBEVAX™ vaccine in adult population (18-80 years) in Phase 1-3 studies, vaccine is further tested in children and adolescents in this study. METHODS: This is a phase-2/3 prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating safety, reactogenicity, tolerability and immunogenicity of CORBEVAX™ vaccine in children and adolescents of either gender between <18 to ≥12 years of age in Phase-2 and <18 to ≥5 years of age in Phase-Phase-2/Phase-3 with placebo as a control. This study has two age sub-groups; subgroup-1 with subjects <18 to ≥12 years of age and subgroup-2 with subjects <12 to ≥5 years of age. In both sub groups, eligible subjects (SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative and seronegative at baseline) were randomized to receive either CORBEVAX™ vaccine or Placebo in 3:1 ratio. FINDINGS: The safety profile of CORBEVAX™ vaccine in both pediatric cohorts was comparable to the placebo-control group. Majority of reported adverse events (AEs) were mild in nature. No severe or serious-AEs, medically attended AEs (MAAEs) or AEs of special interest (AESI) were reported during the study period and all reported AEs resolved without any sequelae. In both pediatric age groups, CORBEVAX™ vaccinated subjects showed significant improvement in humoral immune-responses in terms of anti-RBD-IgG concentrations, anti-RBD-IgG1 titers, neutralizing-antibody (nAb)-titers against Ancestral-Wuhan and Delta-strains. Significantly high interferon-gamma immune- response (cellular) was elicited by CORBEVAX™ vaccinated subjects with minimal effect on IL-4 cytokine secretion. INTERPRETATIONS: The safety profile of CORBEVAX™ vaccine in <18 to ≥5 years' children and adolescents was found to be safe and tolerable. Significant increase in anti-RBD-IgG and nAb-titers and IFN-gamma immune-responses were observed post-vaccination in both pediatric age sub-groups. The nAb titers observed in both the pediatric age cohorts were non-inferior to the adult cohort (BECT069 study) in terms of ratio of the GMT's of both the cohorts. This study shows that CORBEVAX™ vaccine is highly immunogenic and can be safely administered to pediatric population as young as 5 years old. The study was prospectively registered with clinical trial registry of India- CTRI/2021/10/037066.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Immunoglobulin G , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17955, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087312

ABSTRACT

Progress has been made in COVID-19 vaccine development, with encouraging safety and efficacy data. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD). Patients with AIIRD (n = 101) were included in this study. All patients received 2 doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. Serum anti-S1/RBD protein IgG was detected 2-16 weeks after the second vaccination. Seropositivity was defined as IgG ≥ 1.00 bound antibody unit S/CO. Immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was assessed by seropositivity rate and the levels of serum IgG antibody against anti-S1/RBD protein, compared with the general population (n = 46). There was no difference by statistical significance in the seropositivity rate between patients with AIIRD (82.2%) and SLE (86.1%) and the control group (93.5%), p > 0.05. The level of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG antibodies in patients with AIIRD (median [IQR], 8.8 [2.2-17.3]) and SLE (median [IQR], 9.6 [2.4-20.4]) was comparable to that in the control group (median [IQR], 7.2 [3.1-14.2]), p > 0.05. Patients treated with glucocorticoids(GCs) (median dose, [IQR]: 2.5 mg/day [IQR 2.5-5.0]) or hydroxychloroquine(HCQ) or GCs + HCQ without other immunomodulatory medications, had an appropriate immunogenic response(88.1%) with high levels of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG(median [IQR], 12.1 [6.5-20.4]). Neither of patients treated with rituximab had positive serum antibodies, which was statistically significant, compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Compared with the control group, methotrexate(MTX) and iguratimod(IGU) was significantly reduced the level of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG antibodies. Inactivated COVID-19 vaccine had appropriate immunogenicity in patients with AIIRD. Immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was severely impaired by rituximab, and also suppressed by MTX and IGU, while low doses of GC and HCQ had negligible effect.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatic Fever , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
8.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 28(4): 890-911, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Data of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine immunogenicity among chronic liver disease (CLD) and liver transplant (LT) patients are conflicting. We performed meta-analysis to examine vaccine immunogenicity regarding etiology, cirrhosis status, vaccine platform and type of antibody. METHODS: We collected data via three databases from inception to February 16, 2022, and reported pooled seroconversion rate, T cell response and safety data after two vaccine doses. RESULTS: Twenty-eight (CLD only: 5; LT only: 18; both: 2; LT with third dose: 3) observational studies of 3,945 patients were included. For CLD patients, seroconversion rate ranged between 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76-90%) and 91% (95% CI, 83-95%), based predominantly on neutralizing antibody and anti-spike antibody, respectively. Seroconversion rate was 81% (95% CI, 76-86%) in chronic hepatitis B, 96% (95% CI, 93-97%) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, 85% (95% CI, 75-91%) in cirrhosis and 85% (95% CI, 78-90%) in non-cirrhosis, 86% (95% CI, 78-92%) for inactivated vaccine and 89% (95% CI, 71-96%) for mRNA vaccine. The pooled seroconversion rate of anti-spike antibody was 66% (95% CI, 55-75%) after two doses of mRNA vaccines and 88% (95% CI, 58-98%) after third dose among LT recipients. T cell response rate was 65% (95% CI, 30-89%). Prevalence of adverse events was 27% (95% CI, 18-38%) and 63% (95% CI, 39-82%) among CLD and LT groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: CLD patients had good humoral response to COVID-19 vaccine, while LT recipients had lower response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Vaccines, Inactivated , Antibodies, Viral
9.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0268419, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The administration of a third (booster) dose of COVID-19 vaccines in Peru initially employed the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) mRNA vaccine. The national vaccination program started with healthcare workers (HCW) who received BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm) vaccine as primary regimen and elderly people previously immunized with BNT162b2. This study evaluated the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the "booster" dose in these two groups in Lima, Peru. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study, recruiting participants from November to December of 2021 in Lima, Peru. We evaluated immunogenicity and reactogenicity in HCW and elderly patients previously vaccinated with either two doses of BBIBP-CorV (heterologous regimen) or BTN162b2 (homologous regimen). Immunogenicity was measured by anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels immediately before boosting dose and 14 days later. IgG geometric means (GM) and medians were obtained, and modeled using ANCOVA and quantile regressions. RESULTS: The GM of IgG levels increased significantly after boosting: from 28.5±5.0 AU/mL up to 486.6±1.2 AU/mL (p<0.001) which corresponds to a 17-fold increase. The heterologous vaccine regimen produced higher GM of post-booster anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels, eliciting a 13% increase in the geometric mean ratio (95%CI: 1.02-1.27) and a median difference of 92.3 AU/ml (95%CI: 24.9-159.7). Both vaccine regimens were safe and well tolerated. Previous COVID-19 infection was also associated with higher pre and post-booster IgG GM levels. CONCLUSION: Although both boosting regimens were highly immunogenic, two doses of BBIBP-CorV boosted with BTN162b2 produced a stronger IgG antibody response than the homologous BNT162b2 regimen in the Peruvian population. Additionally, both regimens were mildly reactogenic and well-tolerated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Peru , Prospective Studies , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
11.
N Engl J Med ; 387(18): 1673-1687, 2022 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The safety, reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the mRNA-1273 coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccine in young children are unknown. METHODS: Part 1 of this ongoing phase 2-3 trial was open label for dose selection; part 2 was an observer-blinded, placebo-controlled evaluation of the selected dose. In part 2, we randomly assigned young children (6 months to 5 years of age) in a 3:1 ratio to receive two 25-µg injections of mRNA-1273 or placebo, administered 28 days apart. The primary objectives were to evaluate the safety and reactogenicity of the vaccine and to determine whether the immune response in these children was noninferior to that in young adults (18 to 25 years of age) in a related phase 3 trial. Secondary objectives were to determine the incidences of Covid-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection after administration of mRNA-1273 or placebo. RESULTS: On the basis of safety and immunogenicity results in part 1 of the trial, the 25-µg dose was evaluated in part 2. In part 2, 3040 children 2 to 5 years of age and 1762 children 6 to 23 months of age were randomly assigned to receive two 25-µg injections of mRNA-1273; 1008 children 2 to 5 years of age and 593 children 6 to 23 months of age were randomly assigned to receive placebo. The median duration of follow-up after the second injection was 71 days in the 2-to-5-year-old cohort and 68 days in the 6-to-23-month-old cohort. Adverse events were mainly low-grade and transient, and no new safety concerns were identified. At day 57, neutralizing antibody geometric mean concentrations were 1410 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1272 to 1563) among 2-to-5-year-olds and 1781 (95% CI, 1616 to 1962) among 6-to-23-month-olds, as compared with 1391 (95% CI, 1263 to 1531) among young adults, who had received 100-µg injections of mRNA-1273, findings that met the noninferiority criteria for immune responses for both age cohorts. The estimated vaccine efficacy against Covid-19 was 36.8% (95% CI, 12.5 to 54.0) among 2-to-5-year-olds and 50.6% (95% CI, 21.4 to 68.6) among 6-to-23-month-olds, at a time when B.1.1.529 (omicron) was the predominant circulating variant. CONCLUSIONS: Two 25-µg doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine were found to be safe in children 6 months to 5 years of age and elicited immune responses that were noninferior to those in young adults. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; KidCOVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04796896.).


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Young Adult , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Vaccine Efficacy , Treatment Outcome , Adolescent , Adult
12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 112: 109224, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076214

ABSTRACT

In the worrisome scenarios of various waves of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a comprehensive bioinformatics pipeline is essential to analyse the virus genomes in order to understand its evolution, thereby identifying mutations as signature SNPs, conserved regions and subsequently to design epitope based synthetic vaccine. We have thus performed multiple sequence alignment of 4996 Indian SARS-CoV-2 genomes as a case study using MAFFT followed by phylogenetic analysis using Nextstrain to identify virus clades. Furthermore, based on the entropy of each genomic coordinate of the aligned sequences, conserved regions are identified. After refinement of the conserved regions, based on its length, one conserved region is identified for which the primers and probes are reported for virus detection. The refined conserved regions are also used to identify T-cell and B-cell epitopes along with their immunogenic and antigenic scores. Such scores are used for selecting the most immunogenic and antigenic epitopes. By executing this pipeline, 40 unique signature SNPs are identified resulting in 23 non-synonymous signature SNPs which provide 28 amino acid changes in protein. On the other hand, 12 conserved regions are selected based on refinement criteria out of which one is selected as the potential target for virus detection. Additionally, 22 MHC-I and 21 MHC-II restricted T-cell epitopes with 10 unique HLA alleles each and 17 B-cell epitopes are obtained for 12 conserved regions. All the results are validated both quantitatively and qualitatively which show that from genetic variability to synthetic vaccine design, the proposed pipeline can be used effectively to combat SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Computational Biology , Phylogeny , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Amino Acids
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 786, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064751

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and its resulting disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread to millions of people worldwide. Preliminary data from organ transplant recipients have shown reduced seroconversion rates after the administration of different SARS-CoV-2 vaccination platforms. However, it is unknown whether different vaccination platforms provide different levels of protection against SARS-CoV-2. To answer this question, we prospectively studied 431 kidney and liver transplant recipients (kidney: n = 230; liver: n = 201) who received either the ChAdOx1 vaccine (n = 148) or the BNT-162b2 vaccine (n = 283) and underwent an assessment of immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G spike antibody levels. The primary objective of the study is to directly compare the efficacy of two different vaccine platforms in solid organ transplant recipients by measuring of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the RBD of the spike protein (anti-RBD) two weeks after first and second doses. Our secondary endpoints were solicited specific local or systemic adverse events within 7 days after the receipt of each dose of the vaccine. There was no difference in the primary outcome between the two vaccine platforms in patients who received two vaccine doses. Unresponsiveness was mainly linked to diabetes. The rate of response after the first dose among younger older patients was significantly larger; however, after the second dose this difference did not persist (p = 0.079). Side effects were similar to those that were observed during the pivotal trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Transplant Recipients
14.
Hum Immunol ; 83(11): 755-767, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061224

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new single-stranded RNA coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, appeared in China and quickly spread around the world leading to a pandemic. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 generates symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to severe, occasionally requiring hospitalization in intensive care units, and, in more severe cases, leading to death. Scientists and researchers around the world have made a real race against time to develop various vaccines to slow down and stop the spread of the virus. In addition to conventional viral vector vaccines, new generation mRNA vaccines, BNT152b2 (Comirnaty) and mRNA-1273 (Spikevax), have been developed respectively by Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna. These vaccines act on immune cells to induce an immune response with the production of specific antibodies against Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, and to stimulate the differentiation of T and B memory cells. The objective of this review is to provide a detailed picture of the validity of these new vaccines and the safety of vaccination. Not only was the immunogenic effect of mRNA vaccines evaluated, but also the psychosocial impact they had on the population. The data collected show that this type of vaccine can also be an excellent candidate for future treatment and eradication of possible new pathologies with viral and non-viral etiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Vaccination , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination/psychology
15.
Nat Med ; 28(11): 2388-2397, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050431

ABSTRACT

Updated immunization strategies are needed to address multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants. Here we report interim results from an ongoing, open-label phase 2/3 trial evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of the bivalent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine candidate mRNA-1273.211, which contains equal mRNA amounts encoding the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Beta variant spike proteins, as 50-µg (n = 300) and 100-µg (n = 595) first booster doses administered approximately 8.7-9.7 months after the mRNA-1273 primary vaccine series ( NCT04927065 ). The primary objectives were to evaluate the safety and reactogenicity of mRNA-1273.211 and to demonstrate non-inferior antibody responses compared to the mRNA-1273 100-µg primary series. Additionally, a pre-specified immunogenicity objective was to demonstrate superior antibody responses compared to the previously authorized mRNA-1273 50-µg booster. The mRNA-1273.211 booster doses (50-µg or 100-µg) 28 days after immunization elicited higher neutralizing antibody responses against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Beta variant than those elicited 28 days after the second mRNA­1273 dose of the primary series ( NCT04470427 ). Antibody responses 28 days and 180 days after the 50-µg mRNA-1273.211 booster dose were also higher than those after a 50-µg mRNA-1273 booster dose ( NCT04405076 ) against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and Beta, Omicron BA.1 and Delta variants, and all pre-specified immunogenicity objectives were met. The safety and reactogenicity profile of the bivalent mRNA-1273.211 booster (50-µg) was similar to the booster dose of mRNA-1273 (50-µg). Immunization with the primary series does not set a ceiling to the neutralizing antibody response, and a booster dose of the bivalent vaccine elicits a robust response with titers that are likely to be protective against COVID-19. These results indicate that bivalent booster vaccines can induce potent, durable and broad antibody responses against multiple variants, providing a new tool in response to emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Combined , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
16.
Vaccine ; 40(45): 6455-6462, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050054

ABSTRACT

The severity of the COVID-19 pandemic and the development of multiple SARS-CoV-2 vaccines expedited vaccine 'mix and match' trials in humans and demonstrated the benefits of mixing vaccines that vary in formulation, strength, and immunogenicity. Heterologous sequential vaccination may be an effective approach for protecting against dengue, as this strategy would mimic the natural route to broad dengue protection and may overcome the imbalances in efficacy of the individual leading live attenuated dengue vaccines. Here we review 'mix and match' vaccination trials against SARS-CoV-2, HIV, and dengue virus and discuss the possible advantages and concerns of future heterologous immunization with the leading dengue vaccines. COVID-19 trials suggest that priming with a vaccine that induces strong cellular responses, such as an adenoviral vectored product, followed by heterologous boost may optimize T cell immunity. Moreover, heterologous vaccination may induce superior humoral immunity compared to homologous vaccination when the priming vaccine induces a narrower response than the boost. The HIV trials reported that heterologous vaccination was associated with broadened antigen responses and that the sequence of the vaccines significantly impacts the regimen's immunogenicity and efficacy. In heterologous dengue immunization trials, where at least one dose was with a live attenuated vaccine, all reported equivalent or increased immunogenicity compared to homologous boost, although one study reported increased reactogenicity. The three leading dengue vaccines have been evaluated for safety and efficacy in thousands of study participants but not in combination in heterologous dengue vaccine trials. Various heterologous regimens including different combinations and sequences should be trialed to optimize cellular and humoral immunity and the breadth of the response while limiting reactogenicity. A blossoming field dedicated to more accurate correlates of protection and enhancement will help confirm the safety and efficacy of these strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue Vaccines , Dengue , HIV Infections , Humans , Vaccines, Attenuated , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
17.
Comput Biol Chem ; 101: 107754, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049073

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic, an infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), poses a threat to global health because of its high rate of spread and death. Currently, vaccination is the most effective method to prevent the spread of this disease. In the present study, we developed a novel multiepitope vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 containing Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (BA.1) variants. To this end, we performed a robust immunoinformatics approach based on multiple epitopes of the four structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 (S, M, N, and E) from 475 SARS-CoV-2 genomes sequenced from the regions with the highest number of registered cases, namely the United States, India, Brazil, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. To investigate the best immunogenic epitopes for linear B cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), and helper T lymphocytes (HTL), we evaluated antigenicity, allergenicity, conservation, immunogenicity, toxicity, human population coverage, IFN-inducing, post-translational modifications, and physicochemical properties. The tertiary structure of a vaccine prototype was predicted, refined, and validated. Through docking experiments, we evaluated its molecular coupling to the key immune receptor Toll-Like Receptor 3 (TLR3). To improve the quality of docking calculations, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations (QM/MM) were used, with the QM part of the simulations performed using the density functional theory formalism (DFT). Cloning and codon optimization were performed for the successful expression of the vaccine in E. coli. Finally, we investigated the immunogenic properties and immune response of our SARS-CoV-2 multiepitope vaccine. The results of the simulations show that administering our prototype three times significantly increases the antibody response and decreases the amount of antigens. The proposed vaccine candidate should therefore be tested in clinical trials for its efficacy in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccinology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Escherichia coli , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Molecular Docking Simulation , Vaccines, Subunit/chemistry
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 983571, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043539

ABSTRACT

A national study was conducted in Brunei to assess and compare the immunogenicity of the various brands of COVID-19 vaccines administered to the population as part of the National COVID-19 Vaccination Programme. Most of the population have had received at least 2 doses of BBIBP-CorV, AZD1222 or MRNA-1273 vaccines. Neutralising antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 induced by these vaccines will be analysed to infer population-level immune protection against COVID-19. During the 5-week recruitment period, 24,260 eligible individuals were invited to the study via SMS, out of which 2,712 participants were enrolled into the study. This paper describes the novel adaptive strategy used to recruit the study participants. Digital technology was leveraged to perform targeted online recruitment to circumvent the limitations of traditional recruitment methods. Technology also enabled stratified random selection of these eligible individuals who were stratified based on age, gender and vaccine brand. Data was extracted from the electronic health records, the national mobile health application and a third-party survey platform and integrated into a dedicated research platform called EVYDResearch. The instant availability and access to up-to-date data on EVYDResearch enabled the study team to meet weekly and adopt an adaptive recruitment strategy informed by behavioural science, where interventions could be quickly implemented to improve response rates. Some examples of these include incorporating nudge messaging into SMS invitations, involving the Minister of Health to make press announcements on this study, media coverage, setting up an enquiries hotline and reaching out to foreign language speaking expatriates of a local multinational company to participate in this study. Data integration from various data sources, real time information sharing and a strong teamwork led to good outcomes adaptable to the progress of recruitment, compared to the more time-consuming and static traditional recruitment methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Brunei , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
20.
N Engl J Med ; 387(14): 1279-1291, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The safety and immunogenicity of the bivalent omicron-containing mRNA-1273.214 booster vaccine are not known. METHODS: In this ongoing, phase 2-3 study, we compared the 50-µg bivalent vaccine mRNA-1273.214 (25 µg each of ancestral Wuhan-Hu-1 and omicron B.1.1.529 [BA.1] spike messenger RNAs) with the previously authorized 50-µg mRNA-1273 booster. We administered mRNA-1273.214 or mRNA-1273 as a second booster in adults who had previously received a two-dose (100-µg) primary series and first booster (50-µg) dose of mRNA-1273 (≥3 months earlier). The primary objectives were to assess the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of mRNA-1273.214 at 28 days after the booster dose. RESULTS: Interim results are presented. Sequential groups of participants received 50 µg of mRNA-1273.214 (437 participants) or mRNA-1273 (377 participants) as a second booster dose. The median time between the first and second boosters was similar for mRNA-1273.214 (136 days) and mRNA-1273 (134 days). In participants with no previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against the omicron BA.1 variant were 2372.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2070.6 to 2718.2) after receipt of the mRNA-1273.214 booster and 1473.5 (95% CI, 1270.8 to 1708.4) after receipt of the mRNA-1273 booster. In addition, 50-µg mRNA-1273.214 and 50-µg mRNA-1273 elicited geometric mean titers of 727.4 (95% CI, 632.8 to 836.1) and 492.1 (95% CI, 431.1 to 561.9), respectively, against omicron BA.4 and BA.5 (BA.4/5), and the mRNA-1273.214 booster also elicited higher binding antibody responses against multiple other variants (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) than the mRNA-1273 booster. Safety and reactogenicity were similar with the two booster vaccines. Vaccine effectiveness was not assessed in this study; in an exploratory analysis, SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in 11 participants after the mRNA-1273.214 booster and in 9 participants after the mRNA-1273 booster. CONCLUSIONS: The bivalent omicron-containing vaccine mRNA-1273.214 elicited neutralizing antibody responses against omicron that were superior to those with mRNA-1273, without evident safety concerns. (Funded by Moderna; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04927065.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Vaccines, Combined , mRNA Vaccines , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Combined/immunology , Vaccines, Combined/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL