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3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142210, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611175

ABSTRACT

Importance: A surge of COVID-19 occurred from March to June 2021, in New Delhi, India, linked to the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines were rolled out for health care workers (HCWs) starting in January 2021. Objective: To assess the incidence density of reinfection among a cohort of HCWs and estimate the effectiveness of the inactivated whole virion vaccine BBV152 against reinfection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study among HCWs working at a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India. Exposures: Vaccination with 0, 1, or 2 doses of BBV152. Main Outcomes and Measures: The HCWs were categorized as fully vaccinated (with 2 doses and ≥15 days after the second dose), partially vaccinated (with 1 dose or 2 doses with <15 days after the second dose), or unvaccinated. The incidence density of COVID-19 reinfection per 100 person-years was computed, and events from March 3, 2020, to June 18, 2021, were included for analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Estimated vaccine effectiveness (1 - adjusted HR) was reported. Results: Among 15 244 HCWs who participated in the study, 4978 (32.7%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean (SD) age was 36.6 (10.3) years, and 55.0% were male. The reinfection incidence density was 7.26 (95% CI: 6.09-8.66) per 100 person-years (124 HCWs [2.5%], total person follow-up period of 1696 person-years as time at risk). Fully vaccinated HCWs had lower risk of reinfection (HR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.08-0.23]), symptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.13 [95% CI, 0.07-0.24]), and asymptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05-0.53]) compared with unvaccinated HCWs. Accordingly, among the 3 vaccine categories, reinfection was observed in 60 of 472 (12.7%) of unvaccinated (incidence density, 18.05 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 14.02-23.25), 39 of 356 (11.0%) of partially vaccinated (incidence density 15.62 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 11.42-21.38), and 17 of 1089 (1.6%) fully vaccinated (incidence density 2.18 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 1.35-3.51) HCWs. The estimated effectiveness of BBV152 against reinfection was 86% (95% CI, 77%-92%); symptomatic reinfection, 87% (95% CI, 76%-93%); and asymptomatic reinfection, 84% (95% CI, 47%-95%) among fully vaccinated HCWs. Partial vaccination was not associated with reduced risk of reinfection. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that BBV152 was associated with protection against both symptomatic and asymptomatic reinfection in HCWs after a complete vaccination schedule, when the predominant circulating variant was B.1.617.2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Virion/immunology , Young Adult
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 8019-8022, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605687

ABSTRACT

Recently a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 was reported from South Africa. World Health Organization (WHO) named this mutant as a variant of concern - Omicron (B.1.1.529) on 26th November 2021. This variant exhibited more than thirty amino acid mutations in the spike protein. This mutation rate is exceeding the other variants by approximately 5-11 times in the receptor-binding motif of the spike protein. Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant might have enhanced transmissibility and immune evasion. This new variant can reinfect individuals previously infected with other SARS-CoV-2 variants. Scientists expressed their concern about the efficacy of already existing COVID-19 vaccines against Omicron (B.1.1.529) infections. Some of the crucial mutations that are detected in the receptor-binding domain of the Omicron variant have been shared by previously evolved SARS-CoV-2 variants. Based on the Omicron mutation profile in the receptor-binding domain and motif, it might have collectively enhanced or intermediary infectivity relative to its previous variants. Due to extensive mutations in the spike protein, the Omicron variant might evade the immunity in the vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mutation , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/transmission , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccine Potency
5.
RMD Open ; 8(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scanty data on the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) on Tumor Necrosis Factor inhibitors (TNFi) have been published. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the humoral response to BNT162b2 vaccination patients with PsA on TNFi, comparing immunogenicity with healthy controls. METHODS: Forty patients with classified PsA on TNFi undergoing vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BioNTech/Pfizer) were enrolled. Fifteen days after the second shot, serum IgG levels against SARS-CoV-2 (Abbott ARCHITECT i2000SR, positivity cut-off 50 AU/mL) were assayed in all patients. Clinimetrics and treatment data were gathered. TNFi treatment was not discontinued throughout the whole period, whereas methotrexate (MTX) was discontinued for 1 week after each shot in those on combination therapy. Sera from healthcare professionals were considered as healthy controls for 1:1 propensity score matching; any of them was taking medication.Student's t-test and logistic regression were used for investigating differences in immunogenicity between groups and predictors of antibody response. RESULTS: Clinical Disease Activity Index did not change before and after vaccination (7.06±5.23 to 7.10±5.27, p=0.92).Patients with PsA achieved a positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level with a mean (±SD) of 13794.44±15 815.42 AU/mL. Although lower, the antibody level was not significantly different from matched controls (19227.4±11.8460.45 AU/mL, p=0.08). In the overall sample, those on MTX (12/80, 15%) had a trend toward lower immune response (p=0.07); glucocorticoid therapy (11/80, 13.8%) predicted lower antibody levels (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Continuing TNFi in patients with PsA throughout the vaccination did not hamper immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Psoriatic , COVID-19 , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
6.
RMD Open ; 8(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases (IMRDs) are commonly treated with immunosuppressors and prone to infections. Recently introduced mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have demonstrated extraordinary efficacy across all ages. Immunosuppressed patients were excluded from phase III trials with SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. AIMS: To fully characterise B-cell and T-cell immune responses elicited by mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with rheumatic diseases under immunotherapies, and to identify which drugs reduce vaccine's immunogenicity. METHODS: Humoral, CD4 and CD8 immune responses were investigated in 100 naïve patients with SARS-CoV-2 with selected rheumatic diseases under immunosuppression after a two-dose regimen of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Responses were compared with age, gender and disease-matched patients with IMRD not receiving immunosuppressors and with healthy controls. RESULTS: Patients with IMRD showed decreased seroconversion rates (80% vs 100%, p=0.03) and cellular immune responses (75% vs 100%, p=0.02). Patients on methotrexate achieved seroconversion in 62% of cases and cellular responses in 80% of cases. Abatacept decreased humoral and cellular responses. Rituximab (31% responders) and belimumab (50% responders) showed impaired humoral responses, but cellular responses were often preserved. Antibody titres were reduced with mycophenolate and azathioprine but preserved with leflunomide and anticytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IMRD exhibit impaired SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity, variably reduced with immunosuppressors. Among commonly used therapies, abatacept and B-cell depleting therapies show deleterious effects, while anticytokines preserved immunogenicity. The effects of cumulative methotrexate and glucocorticoid doses on immunogenicity should be considered. Humoral and cellular responses are weakly correlated, but CD4 and CD8 tightly correlate. Seroconversion alone might not reflect the vaccine's immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
8.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are limited data on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine reactogenicity in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and how reactogenicity is affected by disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). The objective of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to generate real-world multiple sclerosis-specific vaccine safety information, particularly in the context of specific DMTs, and provide information to mitigate specific concerns in vaccine hesitant PwMS. METHODS: Between 3/2021 and 6/2021, participants in iConquerMS, an online people-powered research network, reported SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, experiences of local (itch, pain, redness, swelling, or warmth at injection site) and systemic (fever, chills, fatigue, headache, joint pain, malaise, muscle ache, nausea, allergic, and other) reactions within 24 hours (none, mild, moderate, and severe), DMT use, and other attributes. Multivariable models characterized associations between clinical factors and reactogenicity. RESULTS: In 719 PwMS, 64% reported experiencing a reaction after their first vaccination shot, and 17% reported a severe reaction. The most common reactions were pain at injection site (54%), fatigue (34%), headache (28%), and malaise (21%). Younger age, being female, prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, and receiving the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vs BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine were associated with experiencing a reaction after the first vaccine dose. Similar relationships were observed for a severe reaction, including higher odds of reactions among PwMS with more physical impairment and lower odds of reactions for PwMS on an alpha4-integrin blocker or sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator. In 442 PwMS who received their second vaccination shot, 74% reported experiencing a reaction, whereas 22% reported a severe reaction. Reaction profiles after the second shot were similar to those reported after the first shot. Younger PwMS and those who received the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vs BNT162b2 vaccine reported higher reactogenicity after the second shot, whereas those on a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator or fumarate were significantly less likely to report a reaction. DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine reactogenicity profiles and the associated factors in this convenience sample of PwMS appear similar to those reported in the general population. PwMS on specific DMTs were less likely to report vaccine reactions. Overall, the short-term vaccine reactions experienced in the study population were mostly self-limiting, including pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, and fever.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
10.
JCI Insight ; 6(24)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598468

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have shown exceptional clinical efficacy, providing robust protection against severe disease. However, our understanding of transcriptional and repertoire changes following full vaccination remains incomplete. We used scRNA-Seq and functional assays to compare humoral and cellular responses to 2 doses of mRNA vaccine with responses observed in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic disease. Our analyses revealed enrichment of spike-specific B cells, activated CD4+ T cells, and robust antigen-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses following vaccination. On the other hand, although clonally expanded CD8+ T cells were observed following both vaccination and natural infection, CD8+ T cell responses were relatively weak and variable. In addition, TCR gene usage was variable, reflecting the diversity of repertoires and MHC polymorphism in the human population. Natural infection induced expansion of CD8+ T cell clones that occupy distinct clusters compared to those induced by vaccination and likely recognize a broader set of viral antigens of viral epitopes presented by the virus not seen in the mRNA vaccine. Our study highlights a coordinated adaptive immune response in which early CD4+ T cell responses facilitate the development of the B cell response and substantial expansion of effector CD8+ T cells, together capable of contributing to future recall responses.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , /therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, Viral , B-Lymphocytes , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Carrier State , Convalescence , Epitopes , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Memory , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells , Th17 Cells , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Young Adult , /therapeutic use
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 438, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585880

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine technology has shown its power in preventing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Two mRNA vaccines targeting the full-length S protein of SARS-CoV-2 have been authorized for emergency use. Recently, we have developed a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated mRNA (mRNA-LNP) encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 (termed ARCoV), which confers complete protection in mouse model. Herein, we further characterized the protection efficacy of ARCoV in nonhuman primates and the long-term stability under normal refrigerator temperature. Intramuscular immunization of two doses of ARCoV elicited robust neutralizing antibodies as well as cellular response against SARS-CoV-2 in cynomolgus macaques. More importantly, ARCoV vaccination in macaques significantly protected animals from acute lung lesions caused by SARS-CoV-2, and viral replication in lungs and secretion in nasal swabs were completely cleared in all animals immunized with low or high doses of ARCoV. No evidence of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection was observed throughout the study. Finally, extensive stability assays showed that ARCoV can be stored at 2-8 °C for at least 6 months without decrease of immunogenicity. All these promising results strongly support the ongoing clinical trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , /pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Vero Cells , /immunology
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 758294, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581342

ABSTRACT

Objective: This meta-analysis compared the efficacy and safety of five kinds of COVID-19 vaccines in different age groups (young adults and older adults), aiming to analyze the difference of adverse events (AEs) rate and virus geometric mean titer (GMT) values between young and older people, in order to find a specific trend, and explore the causes of this trend through meta-analysis. Method: Meta-analysis was used to analyze the five eligible articles. The modified Jadad scoring scale was used to evaluate the quality of eligible literature with a scoring system of 1 to 7. The primary endpoint of the effectiveness index was GMT. The primary endpoints of the safety index were the incidence of local AEs and systemic AEs. Stata 12.0 software was used for meta-analysis. Revman 5.0 software was used to map the risk of publication bias, and Egger's test was used to analyze publication bias. Results: The GMT values of young adults were higher than older adults (SMD = 1.40, 95% CI (0.79, 2.02), P<0.01). There was a higher incidence of local and systemic AEs in young people than in the elderly (OR = 1.10, 95% CI (1.08, 1.12), P<0.01; OR = 1.18, 95% CI (1.14, 1.22), P<0.01). Conclusion: The immune effect of young people after being vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines was better than that of the elderly, but the safety was worse than that of old people, the most common AEs were fever, rash, and local muscle pain, which were tolerable for young people. As the AEs of the elderly were lower, they can also be vaccinated safely; the reason for the low level of GMT in the elderly was related to Immunosenescence. The vaccine tolerance of people of different ages needs to be studied continuously.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 765211, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581337

ABSTRACT

Saturation suppressor mutagenesis was used to generate thermostable mutants of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). A triple mutant with an increase in thermal melting temperature of ~7°C with respect to the wild-type B.1 RBD and was expressed in high yield in both mammalian cells and the microbial host, Pichia pastoris, was downselected for immunogenicity studies. An additional derivative with three additional mutations from the B.1.351 (beta) isolate was also introduced into this background. Lyophilized proteins were resistant to high-temperature exposure and could be stored for over a month at 37°C. In mice and hamsters, squalene-in-water emulsion (SWE) adjuvanted formulations of the B.1-stabilized RBD were considerably more immunogenic than RBD lacking the stabilizing mutations and elicited antibodies that neutralized all four current variants of concern with similar neutralization titers. However, sera from mice immunized with the stabilized B.1.351 derivative showed significantly decreased neutralization titers exclusively against the B.1.617.2 (delta) VOC. A cocktail comprising stabilized B.1 and B.1.351 RBDs elicited antibodies with qualitatively improved neutralization titers and breadth relative to those immunized solely with either immunogen. Immunized hamsters were protected from high-dose viral challenge. Such vaccine formulations can be rapidly and cheaply produced, lack extraneous tags or additional components, and can be stored at room temperature. They are a useful modality to combat COVID-19, especially in remote and low-resource settings.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cricetinae , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 766112, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581336

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global health concern. The development of vaccines with high immunogenicity and safety is crucial for controlling the global COVID-19 pandemic and preventing further illness and fatalities. Here, we report the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, Nanocovax, based on recombinant protein production of the extracellular (soluble) portion of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2. The results showed that Nanocovax induced high levels of S protein-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies in three animal models: BALB/c mouse, Syrian hamster, and a non-human primate (Macaca leonina). In addition, a viral challenge study using the hamster model showed that Nanocovax protected the upper respiratory tract from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nanocovax did not induce any adverse effects in mice (Mus musculus var. albino) and rats (Rattus norvegicus). These preclinical results indicate that Nanocovax is safe and effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/toxicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cricetinae , Macaca , Mice , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/toxicity
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 780594, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581329

ABSTRACT

Background: Dialysis patients are at high risk for a severe clinical course after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Safety and early immune responses after mRNA-based vaccination have been reported mostly in patients on hemodialysis (HD), whereas reports of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients remain rare. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, 39 PD patients had received two doses of the mRNA-1273 Moderna® vaccine. We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) antibody titers 4 weeks after each dose of mRNA-1273 and report local and systemic side effects in PD patients that occurred within one week after each mRNA-1273 dose. Using a quantile regression model we examined factors that might influence SARS-CoV-2 S antibody levels in PD patients. Results: Four weeks after the first dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine 33 of 39 (84.6%) PD patients seroconverted and presented with 6.62 U/mL (median; IQR 1.57-22.5) anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody titers. After the second dose, 38 of 39 (97.4%) PD patients developed anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies and titers increased significantly (median 968 U/mL; IQR 422.5-2500). Pain at the injection site was the most common local adverse event (AE) (71%). Systemic AEs occurring after the first dose were mostly fatigue (33%) and headache (20%). No severe systemic AEs were reported after the first injection. After the second dose the incidence and the severity of the systemic AEs increased. The most common systemic AEs were: fatigue (40.5%), headache (22.5%), joint pain (20%), myalgia (17.5%) and fever (13%). Lower Davies Comorbidity Score (p=0.04) and shorter dialysis vintage (p=0.017) were associated with higher antibody titers after the first dose. Patients with higher antibody titers after the first dose tended to have higher antibody titers after the second dose (p=1.53x10-05). Conclusions: Peritoneal dialysis patients in this cohort had a high seroconversion rate of 97.4%, showed high antibody titers after full vaccination and tolerated the anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccine well without serious adverse events.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Peritoneal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 781843, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581326

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Vaccination against COVID-19 is highly recommended to patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the impact of MS disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) on the immune response following vaccination has been only partially investigated. Here, we aimed to elucidate the effect of DMTs on the humoral immune response to mRNA-based anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in MS patients. Methods: We obtained sera from 912 Sardinian MS patients and 63 healthy controls 30 days after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine and tested them for SARS-CoV-2 response using anti-Spike (S) protein-based serology. Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed by anti-Nucleocapsid (N) serology. Patients were either untreated or undergoing treatment with a total of 13 different DMTs. Differences between treatment groups comprised of at least 10 patients were assessed by generalized linear mixed-effects model. Demographic and clinical data and smoking status were analyzed as additional factors potentially influencing humoral immunity from COVID-19 vaccine. Results: MS patients treated with natalizumab, teriflunomide, azathioprine, fingolimod, ocrelizumab, and rituximab showed significantly lower humoral responses compared to untreated patients. We did not observe a statistically significant difference in response between patients treated with the other drugs (dimethyl fumarate, interferon, alemtuzumab and glatiramer acetate) and untreated patients. In addition, older age, male sex and active smoking were significantly associated with lower antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2. MS patients previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 had significantly higher humoral responses to vaccine than uninfected patients. Conclusion: Humoral response to BNT162b2 is significantly influenced by the specific DMTs followed by patients, as well as by other factors such as previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, age, sex, and smoking status. These results are important to inform targeted strategies to prevent clinically relevant COVID-19 in MS patients.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion/drug effects
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 794642, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581317

ABSTRACT

Background: The relationships of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination with reactogenicity and the humoral immune response are important to study. The current study aimed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the Pfizer and AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines among adults in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study, including 365 randomly selected adult Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccine recipients who received a homologous prime-boost vaccination between February 1st and June 30th, 2021. Data of height and weight were collected to assess the weight status of percipients. An evaluation of seropositivity for anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Among the participants, 69% (n = 250) reported at least one vaccine-related symptom. Pain at the injection site was the most frequently reported vaccine-related symptom. The mean total score for vaccine-related symptoms was significantly higher among participants who received the AstraZeneca vaccine, women, and participants with no previous COVID-19 infection (p < 0.05). Spike-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 98.9% of participants after the receipt of two vaccine doses, including 99.5% of Pfizer vaccine recipients and 98.3% of AstraZeneca vaccine recipients. Significantly, higher proportions of participants in the <35-year age group developed a humoral immune response after the first vaccine dose compared with the participants in other age groups. Conclusion: Participants who received the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine reported fewer vaccine-related complications compared with those who received the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, but no serious side effects were reported in response to either vaccine. Health status and age were factors that may influence COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness for the generation of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Online Systems , Public Health Surveillance , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 803742, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581314

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients are considered high-risk and prioritized for vaccination against COVID-19. We aimed to analyze B-cell subsets in these patients to identify potential predictors of humoral vaccination response. Patients (n=120) suffering from hematologic malignancies or other causes of immunodeficiency and healthy controls (n=79) received a full vaccination series with an mRNA vaccine. B-cell subsets were analyzed prior to vaccination. Two independent anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or trimeric S protein (TSP) were performed three to four weeks after the second vaccination. Seroconversion occurred in 100% of healthy controls, in contrast to 67% (RBD) and 82% (TSP) of immunocompromised patients, while only 32% (RBD) and 22% (TSP) achieved antibody levels comparable to those of healthy controls. The number of circulating CD19+IgD+CD27- naïve B cells was strongly associated with antibody levels (ρ=0.761, P<0.001) and the only independent predictor for achieving antibody levels comparable to healthy controls (OR 1.07 per 10-µL increase, 95%CI 1.02-1.12, P=0.009). Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified a cut-off at ≥61 naïve B cells per µl to discriminate between patients with and without an optimal antibody response. Consequently, measuring of naïve B cells in immunocompromised hematologic patients could be useful in predicting their humoral vaccination response.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
20.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 441-449, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573973

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with cancer are presumed a frail group at high risk of contracting coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and vaccination represents a cornerstone in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic. However, data on COVID-19 vaccination in cancer patients are fragmentary and poor. METHODS: An observational study was conducted to evaluate the seropositivity rate and safety of a two-dose regimen of the BNT162b2 or messenger RNA-1273 vaccine in adult patients with solid cancer undergoing active anticancer treatment or whose treatment had been terminated within 6 months of the start of the study. The control group was composed of healthy volunteers. Serum samples were evaluated for SARS-COV-2 antibodies before vaccinations and 2-6 weeks after the administration of the second vaccine dose. Primary end-point: seropositivity rate. Secondary end-points: safety, factors influencing seroconversion, IgG titers of patients versus healthy volunteers, COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Between 20th March 2021 and 12th June 2021, 293 consecutive patients with cancer-solid tumours underwent a program of COVID-19 vaccinations; of these, 2 patients refused vaccination, 13 patients did not receive the second dose of the vaccine because of cancer progression, and 21 patients had COVID-19 antibodies at baseline and were excluded. The 257 evaluable patients had a median age of 65 years (range 28-86), 66.15% with metastatic disease. Primary end-point: seropositivity rate in patients was 75.88% versus 100% in the control group. Secondary end-points: no Grade 3-4 side-effects, no COVID-19 infections were reported. Patients median IgG titer was significantly lower than in the control group; male sex and active anticancer therapy influenced negative seroconversion. BNT162b2 or messenger RNA-1273 vaccines were immunogenic in cancer patients, showing good safety profile.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods
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