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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267102, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883688

ABSTRACT

Understanding antibody responses after natural severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can guide the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine schedule, especially in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to assess the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, including anti-spike protein 1 (S1) immunoglobulin (Ig)G, anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) total Ig, anti-S1 IgA, and neutralizing antibody against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 over time in a cohort of patients who were previously infected with the wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Between March and May 2020, 531 individuals with virologically confirmed cases of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled in our immunological study. Blood samples were collected at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-months post symptom onset or detection of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR (in asymptomatic individuals). The neutralizing titers against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 95.2%, 86.7%, 85.0%, and 85.4% of recovered COVID-19 patients at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after symptom onset, respectively. The seropositivity rate of anti-S1 IgG, anti-RBD total Ig, anti-S1 IgA, and neutralizing titers remained at 68.6%, 89.6%, 77.1%, and 85.4%, respectively, at 12 months after symptom onset. We observed a high level of correlation between neutralizing and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-specific antibody titers. The half-life of neutralizing titers was estimated at 100.7 days (95% confidence interval = 44.5-327.4 days, R2 = 0.106). These results support that the decline in serum antibody levels over time in both participants with severe disease and mild disease were depended on the symptom severity, and the individuals with high IgG antibody titers experienced a significantly longer persistence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses than those with lower titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875807

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are no evidence-based treatment options for long COVID-19, and it is known that SARS-CoV-2 can persist in part of the infected patients, especially those with immunosuppression. Since there is a robust secretion of SARS-CoV-2-specific highly-neutralizing IgA antibodies in breast milk, and because this immunoglobulin plays an essential role against respiratory virus infection in mucosa cells, being, in addition, more potent in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 than IgG, here we report the clinical course of an NFκB-deficient patient chronically infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant, who, after a non-full effective treatment with plasma infusion, received breast milk from a vaccinated mother by oral route as treatment for COVID-19. After such treatment, the symptoms improved, and the patient was systematically tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we hypothesize that IgA and IgG secreted antibodies present in breast milk could be useful to treat persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunodeficient patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Eating , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Milk, Human , NF-kappa B , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(2): 206-213, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of seropositive status for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-IgA, -IgM, and -IgG; its dynamics in connection with restrictive measures during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic; and the quantitative dynamics of antibody levels in the population of St. Petersburg, Russia. METHODS: From May to November 2020, a retrospective analysis of Saint Petersburg State University Hospital laboratory database was performed. The database included 158,283 test results of 87,067 patients for SARS-CoV-2 detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody detection of SARS-CoV-2-IgA, -IgM, and -IgG. The dynamics of antibody level was assessed using R v.3.6.3. RESULTS: The introduction of a universal lockdown was effective in containing the spread of COVID-19. The proportion of seropositive patients gradually decreased; approximately 50% of these patients remained seropositive for IgM after 3-4 weeks; for IgG, by follow-up week 22; and for IgA, by week 12. The maximum decrease in IgG and IgA was observed 3-4 months and 2 months after the detection of the seropositive status, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological study of post-infection immunity to COVID-19 demonstrates significant differences in the dynamics of IgA, IgM, and IgG seropositivity and in PCR test results over time, which is linked to the introduction of restrictive measures. Both the proportion of seropositive patients and the level of all antibodies decreased in terms of the dynamics, and only approximately half of these patients remained IgG-positive 6 months post-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Clin Virol ; 152: 105193, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mRNA Covid-19 vaccine (BNT162b2) is administered in two doses with 21 days interval. On 4th October 2021 European Medicines Agency approved administration of a booster dose in at least 6 months after the second dose for people aged 18 years and older. OBJECTIVES: In the present study we compare the anti-SARS-COV-2 IgG and IgA antibody responses post complete vaccination, 7 months later and after the 3rd (booster) dose of the BNT162B2 vaccine in healthy adults. STUDY DESIGN: The levels of vaccine IgG and IgA antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were assessed in serum samples obtained from individuals vaccinated with two doses and a booster of BNT162b2 vaccine. Samples were tested using the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RCB) IgG and IgA semi-quantitative commercial ELISA assay. RESULTS: The geometric mean of the anti-SARS-COV-2 IgG and IgA antibody level 7 months after vaccination of 90 healthy adults with BNT162B2 vaccine decreased significantly from 12.0 to 5.4 and 5.6 to 2.3, respectively. After the third dose of the same vaccine, the antibody level increased again, to values higher than at the beginning after the second dose. CONCLUSIONS: Significant decrease of antibody levels within a few months after full vaccination could result in the higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially when new variants of the virus emerge. The booster could be crucial for protection against new SARS-CoV-2 variants. The antibody level seems to decrease slower in vaccinated individuals with history of COVID-19 and in younger individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin A , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8890, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864769

ABSTRACT

We assessed the feasibility of a highly sensitive immunoassay method based on single molecule array (Simoa) technology to detect IgG and IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) in saliva from individuals with natural or vaccine-induced COVID-19 immunity. The performance of the method was compared to a laboratory-developed SARS-CoV-2 RBD total antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Paired serum and saliva specimens were collected from individuals (n = 40) prior to and 2 weeks after receiving an initial prime COVID-19 vaccine dose (Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 or Moderna mRNA-1273). Saliva was collected using a commercially available collection device (OraSure Inc.) and SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibodies were measured by an indirect ELISA using concentrated saliva samples and a Simoa immunoassay using unconcentrated saliva samples. The IgG results were compared with paired serum specimens that were analyzed for total RBD antibodies using the ELISA method. The analytical sensitivity of the saliva-based Simoa immunoassay was five orders of magnitude higher than the ELISA assay: 0.24 pg/mL compared to 15 ng/mL. The diagnostic sensitivity of the saliva ELISA method was 90% (95% CI 76.3-97.2%) compared to 91.7% (95% CI 77.5-98.2%) for the Simoa immunoassay without total IgG-normalization and 100% (95% CI 90.3-100%) for the Simoa immunoassay after total IgG-normalization when compared to the serum ELISA assay. When analyzed using the SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibody ELISA, the average relative increase in antibody index (AI) between the saliva of the post- and pre-vaccinated individuals was 8.7 (AIpost/pre). An average relative increase of 431 pg/mL was observed when the unconcentrated saliva specimens were analyzed using the Simoa immunoassay (SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgGpost/pre). These findings support the suitability of concentrated saliva specimens for the measurement of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibodies via ELISA, and unconcentrated saliva specimens for the measurement of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG and IgA using an ultrasensitive Simoa immunoassay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/chemistry , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862859

ABSTRACT

Breastfeeding is key for infant development and growth. Breast milk contains different bioactive compounds including antibodies. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of breast milk SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after maternal infection and vaccination. However, the potential impact on the infant has not been explored yet. As a first step, we aimed at assessing the potential persistence of SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG antibodies from infected and vaccinated women in the gastrointestinal tract of the infants by means of an in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal digestion approach. Breast milk samples from 10 lactating women receiving mRNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 (n = 5 with BNT162b2 mRNA and n = 5 with mRNA-1273) and also, COVID-19 infected (n = 5) were included. A control group with women with no exposure to the virus (n = 10 pre-pandemic) were also studied. The presence of IgA and IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels was determined by ELISA after the gastric and intestinal stages. The impact of digested antibodies on infant gut microbiota was tested by simulating colonic fermentation with two different fecal inoculums: infants from vaccinated and non-vaccinated mothers. Specific gut microbial groups were tested by targeted qPCR. In vitro infant gastrointestinal digestion significantly decreased the levels of both anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG. However, both remained resistant in all the study groups except in that evaluating breast milk samples from infected women, in which IgG was degraded below the cut-off values in the intestinal phase. No effect of the antibodies on microbiota were identified after digestion. In conclusion, antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2 are reduced after in vitro-simulated gastrointestinal tract but remain present, so a positive biological effect could be expected from this infant immunization pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Milk, Human , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Digestion , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Lactation , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
7.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103805, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two doses of mRNA vaccination have shown >94% efficacy at preventing COVID-19 mostly in naïve adults, but it is not clear if the second dose is needed to maximize effectiveness in those previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and what other factors affect responsiveness. METHODS: We measured IgA, IgG and IgM levels against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens from the wild-type and S from the Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants of concern, after BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccination in a cohort of health care workers (N=578). Neutralizing capacity and antibody avidity were evaluated. Data were analyzed in relation to COVID-19 history, comorbidities, vaccine doses, brand and adverse events. FINDINGS: Vaccination induced robust IgA and IgG levels against all S antigens. Neutralization capacity and S IgA and IgG levels were higher in mRNA-1273 vaccinees, previously SARS-CoV-2 exposed, particularly if symptomatic, and in those experiencing systemic adverse effects (p<0·05). A second dose in pre-exposed did not increase antibody levels. Smoking and comorbidities were associated with 43% (95% CI, 19-59) and 45% (95% CI, 63-18) lower neutralization, respectively, and 35% (95% CI, 3-57%) and 55% (95% CI, 33-70%) lower antibody levels, respectively. Among fully vaccinated, 6·3% breakthroughs were detected up to 189 days post-vaccination. Among pre-exposed non-vaccinated, 90% were IgG seropositive more than 300 days post-infection. INTERPRETATION: Our data support administering a single-dose in pre-exposed healthy individuals as primary vaccination. However, heterogeneity of responses suggests that personalized recommendations may be necessary depending on COVID-19 history and life-style. Higher mRNA-1273 immunogenicity would be beneficial for those expected to respond worse to vaccination and in face of variants that escape immunity such as Omicron. Persistence of antibody levels in pre-exposed unvaccinated indicates maintenance of immunity up to one year. FUNDING: This work was supported by Institut de Salut Global de Barcelona (ISGlobal) internal funds, in-kind contributions from Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, the Fundació Privada Daniel Bravo Andreu, and European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) Health (grant number 20877), supported by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, a body of the European Union receiving support from the H2020 Research and Innovation Programme. We acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and State Research Agency through the "Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa 2019-2023" Program (CEX2018-000806-S), and support from the Generalitat de Catalunya through the CERCA Program. L. I. work was supported by PID2019-110810RB-I00 grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science & Innovation. Development of SARS-CoV-2 reagents was partially supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (contract number HHSN272201400008C). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, the decision to publish, or the preparation of the manuscript.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Antibody Formation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 876037, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847175

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody decay and SARS-CoV-2 variants, vaccine booster doses are a constant concern. It was focused on whether the third dose can quickly evoke and activate immunity and produce a sufficient and durable immune protection. Objectives: To evaluate the responses and durations of five subsets of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and their predictive values for protection after the administration of a three-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines regimens. Methods: A prospective cohort study of five subsets of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (neutralizing antibody, anti-RBD total antibody, anti-Spike IgG, anti-Spike IgM, and anti-Spike IgA) was carried out to evaluate the efficacies and immune characteristics of a three-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines regimen in 32 volunteers. The dynamic response and immune decay were longitudinally profiled at 18 serial time points over 368 days. Results: The neutralizing antibody, anti-RBD total antibody, anti-Spike IgG and anti-Spike IgA levels rapidly increased to 773.60 (380.90-1273.00) IU/mL, 639.30 (399.60-878.60) AU/mL, 34.48 (16.83-44.68) S/CO and 0.91 (0.35-1.14) S/CO, respectively, after the administration of the third dose. Compared to the peak value after the second dose, these values were increased by 4.22-fold, 3.71-fold, 1.01-fold and 0.92-fold. On the other hand, the half-lives of the neutralizing antibody, anti-RBD total antibody, and anti-Spike IgG were 56.26 (95% CI, 46.81 to 70.49) days, 66.37 (95% CI, 54.90 to 83.88) days, and 82.91 (95% CI, 63.65 to 118.89) days, respectively. Compared to the half-lives after the second dose, these values were increased by 1.71-fold, 2.00-fold, and 2.93-fold, respectively. Nevertheless, the positive conversion rate of anti-Spike IgM was decreased to 9.38% (3/32), which was much lower than that after the second dose (65.63% (21/32)). Conclusions: Compared to the second dose, the third dose dramatically increased the antibody levels and decay times. However, the half-life of neutralizing antibody remained unsatisfactory. Due to decay, a fourth dose, and even annual revaccination, might be considered in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination management strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Prospective Studies , Vaccines, Inactivated
9.
Mult Scler ; 28(7): 1041-1050, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Optimal management of anti-CD20-treated patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is an important clinical task during the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To characterize humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations/infections in a longitudinal cohort of anti-CD20 treated (n = 175) and anti-CD20 therapy-naïve (n = 41) pwMS. METHODS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA, virus neutralizing capacity, IgG avidity and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were determined. RESULTS: Following two SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations, not only SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG and IgA, but also neutralizing capacity and avidity of SARS-CoV-2 IgG were lower in anti-CD20-treated (n = 51) than in anti-CD20 therapy-naïve pwMS (n = 14) and in healthy controls (HC, n = 19). However, in all anti-CD20-treated pwMS vaccinated twice (n = 26) or infected with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 2), in whom SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were measured, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were detectable, at levels similar to those of twice-vaccinated anti-CD20 therapy-naïve pwMS (n = 7) and HC (n = 19). SARS-CoV-2-S1 IgG levels (r = 0.42, p = 0.002), antibody avidity (r = 0.7, p < 0.001), and neutralizing capacity (r = 0.44, p = 0.03) increased with time between anti-CD20 infusion and second vaccination. Based on detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred in 4 out of 175 (2.3%) anti-CD20-treated pwMS, all of whom recovered fully. CONCLUSIONS: These findings should inform treatment decisions and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination management in pwMS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination
10.
Intern Med ; 61(7): 1033-1037, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834090

ABSTRACT

A 28-year-old woman experienced gross hematuria after the administration of the second dose of an messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccine (BNT162b2). She was diagnosed with Immunogloblin A nephropathy (IgAN) by a renal biopsy two weeks after vaccination, which revealed a mild increase in mesangial cells and a matrix with co-depositions of galactose-deficient IgA1 and C3 in the mesangial region. The gross hematuria and proteinuria gradually improved without any medication, suggesting that immune activation by the mRNA vaccine may not elicit continuous disease progression of IgAN. Thus, further studies investigating the relationship between mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 and the progression of IgAN should be conducted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/diagnosis , Hematuria/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 867716, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817944

ABSTRACT

Background: Almost 2 years from the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is still a lot unknown how the humoral response affects disease progression. In this study, we investigated humoral antibody responses against specific SARS-CoV2 proteins, their strength of binding, and their relationship with COVID severity and clinical information. Furthermore, we studied the interactions of the specific receptor-binding domain (RBD) in more depth by characterizing specific antibody response to a peptide library. Materials and Methods: We measured specific antibodies of isotypes IgM, IgG, and IgA, as well as their binding strength against the SARS-CoV2 antigens RBD, NCP, S1, and S1S2 in sera of 76 COVID-19 patients using surface plasmon resonance imaging. In addition, these samples were analyzed using a peptide epitope mapping assay, which consists of a library of peptides originating from the RBD. Results: A positive association was observed between disease severity and IgG antibody titers against all SARS-CoV2 proteins and additionally for IgM and IgA antibodies directed against RBD. Interestingly, in contrast to the titer of antibodies, the binding strength went down with increasing disease severity. Within the critically ill patient group, a positive association with pulmonary embolism, d-dimer, and antibody titers was observed. Conclusion: In critically ill patients, antibody production is high, but affinity is low, and maturation is impaired. This may play a role in disease exacerbation and could be valuable as a prognostic marker for predicting severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin M , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Immunol Rev ; 303(1): 83-102, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816563

ABSTRACT

Most antibodies produced in the body are of the IgA class. The dominant cell population producing them are plasma cells within the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract, but many IgA-producing cells are also found in the airways, within mammary tissues, the urogenital tract and inside the bone marrow. Most IgA antibodies are transported into the lumen by epithelial cells as part of the mucosal secretions, but they are also present in serum and other body fluids. A large part of the commensal microbiota in the gut is covered with IgA antibodies, and it has been demonstrated that this plays a role in maintaining a healthy balance between the host and the bacteria. However, IgA antibodies also play important roles in neutralizing pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract and the upper airways. The distinction between the two roles of IgA - protective and balance-maintaining - not only has implications on function but also on how the production is regulated. Here, we discuss these issues with a special focus on gut and airways.


Subject(s)
Friends , Immunoglobulin A , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Intestinal Mucosa , Mucous Membrane , Plasma Cells
13.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 71(1): 3-8, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1812775

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To map the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the staff of the Thomayer University Hospital in Prague following the first wave of COVID-19. The main reason was the large number of COVID-19 patients admitted to the Thomayer University Hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A volunteer study based on a questionnaire survey and determination of total antibodies (ECLIA, Roche) and individual classes of immunoglobulins (ELISA IgG and IgA, Euroimmun). RESULTS: The study involved 808 employees, 2/3 of whom were from clinical departments. Fifteen participants, predominantly nurses (n = 12), tested ECLIA positive for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and ELISA positive or borderline positive for IgG antibodies. Positive or borderline IgA antibodies were recorded in 12 subjects. Most of the positive study participants (n = 13) contracted the SARS-CoV-2 virus at the workplace after repeated contact with positive patients. Most subjects infected (n = 12) had a more severe course but did not require hospitalization. We detected only one asymptomatic antibody-positive person. CONCLUSIONS: After the first wave of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were only demonstrated in 1.9% of the Thomayer University Hospital employees tested. In clinical departments, the positivity rate was 2.3%, and in non-clinical departments, it was only 0.5%. The low prevalence of antibodies points to the low number of infected hospital staff and a very good level of compliance with all public health and epidemiological measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Personnel, Hospital , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 42, 2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast milk is a vehicle to transfer protective antibodies from the lactating mother to the neonate. After SARS-CoV-2 infection, virus-specific IgA and IgG have been identified in breast milk, however, there are limited data on the impact of different COVID-19 vaccine types in lactating women. This study is aimed to evaluate the time course of induction of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG in breast milk after vaccination. METHODS: In this prospective observational study in Spain, 86 lactating women from priority groups receiving the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 were included. Breast milk samples were collected longitudinally at seven or eight-time points (depending on vaccine type). A group with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (n=19) and a group of women from pre-pandemic time (n=20) were included for comparison. RESULTS: Eighty-six vaccinated lactating women [mean age, 34.6 ± 3.7 years] of whom 96% were Caucasian and 92% were healthcare workers. A total number of 582 milk samples were included, and vaccine distribution was BioNTech/Pfizer (BNT162b2, n=34), Moderna (mRNA-1273, n=20), and AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, n=32). For each vaccine, 7 and 8 longitudinal time points were collected from baseline up to 30 days after the second dose for mRNA vaccines and adenovirus-vectored vaccines, respectively. A strong reactivity was observed for IgG and IgA after vaccination mainly after the 2nd dose. The presence and persistence of specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in breast milk were dependent on the vaccine type, with higher IgG and IgA levels in mRNA-based vaccines when compared to AstraZeneca, and on previous virus exposure. High intra- and inter-variability were observed, being relevant for IgA antibodies. In milk from vaccinated women, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was significantly higher while IgA levels were lower than in milk from COVID-19-infected women. Women with previous COVID-19 increased their IgG antibodies levels after the first dose to a similar level observed in vaccinated women after the second dose. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG in breast milk with higher levels after the 2nd dose. Levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG are dependent on the vaccine type. Further studies are warranted to demonstrate the protective antibody effect against COVID-19 in infants from vaccinated and infected mothers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04751734 (date of registration is on February 12, 2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lactation , Longitudinal Studies , Milk, Human , Vaccination
15.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 176, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 is a valuable biomarker for the assessment of the spread of the virus in a population and evaluation of the vaccine candidates. Recent data suggest that antibody levels also may have a prognostic significance in COVID-19. Most of the serological studies so far rely on testing antibodies against spike (S) or nucleocapsid (N) protein, however antibodies can be directed against other structural and nonstructural proteins of the virus, whereas their frequency, biological and clinical significance is unknown. METHODS: A novel antigen array comprising 30 SARS-CoV-2 antigens or their fragments was developed and used to examine IgG, IgA, IgE and IgM responses to SARS-CoV-2 in sera from 103 patients with COVID-19 including 34 patients for whom sequential samples were available, and 20 pre-pandemic healthy controls. RESULTS: Antibody responses to various antigens are highly correlated and the frequencies and peak levels of antibodies are higher in patients with severe/moderate disease than in those with mild disease. This finding supports the idea that antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 may exacerbate the severity of the disease via antibody-dependent enhancement. Moreover, early IgG and IgA responses to full length S protein may be used as an additional biomarker for the identification of patients who are at risk of developing severe disease. Importantly, this is the first study reporting that SARS-CoV-2 elicits IgE responses and their serum levels positively correlate with the severity of the disease thus suggesting a link between high levels of antibodies and mast cell activation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study assessing the prevalence and dynamics IgG, IgA, IgE and IgM responses to multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens simultaneously. Results provide important insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and have implications in planning and interpreting antibody-based epidemiological studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Biomarkers , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 801797, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793017

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited data are available regarding the balance of risks and benefits from human milk and/or breastfeeding during and following maternal infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Objective: To investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in milk and on the breast after maternal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis; and characterize concentrations of milk immunoglobulin (Ig) A specific to the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein receptor binding domain (RBD) during the 2 months after onset of symptoms or positive diagnostic test. Methods: Using a longitudinal study design, we collected milk and breast skin swabs one to seven times from 64 lactating women with COVID-19 over a 2-month period, beginning as early as the week of diagnosis. Milk and breast swabs were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and milk was tested for anti-RBD IgA. Results: SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any milk sample or on 71% of breast swabs. Twenty-seven out of 29 (93%) breast swabs collected after breast washing tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 on the breast was associated with maternal coughing and other household COVID-19. Most (75%; 95% CI, 70-79%; n=316) milk samples contained anti-RBD IgA, and concentrations increased (P=.02) during the first two weeks following onset of COVID-19 symptoms or positive test. Milk-borne anti-RBD IgA persisted for at least two months in 77% of women. Conclusion: Milk produced by women with COVID-19 does not contain SARS-CoV-2 and is likely a lasting source of passive immunity via anti-RBD IgA. These results support recommendations encouraging lactating women to continue breastfeeding during and after COVID-19 illness.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Lactation , Longitudinal Studies , Milk, Human/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics
17.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(7): 1024.e1-1024.e6, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the state of B-cell immunity 6 months after the second vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to the state observed 2 weeks after vaccination. METHODS: Sera of 439 participants, whose immune responses to two doses of an mRNA-based vaccine (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) were previously characterized, was examined for anti-S1 IgG and IgA, anti-NCP IgG and neutralizing antibodies (nAb), and antinuclear antibodies (ANA). RESULTS: Levels of all examined markers decreased significantly from 2 weeks to 6 months after second vaccination (anti-S1 IgG: 3744 ± 2571.4 vs. 253 ± 144 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL; anti-S1 IgA: 12 ± 0 vs. 1.98 ± 1.75 optical density (OD) ratio; nAb: 100% ± 0% vs. 82% ± 19.3%), the vast majority of participants retaining reactive levels of anti-S1 IgG (436/439) and anti-S1 IgA (334/439) at 6 months. Immune responses were stronger for mRNA-1273 compared with BNT162b2 (anti-S1 IgG: 429 ± 289 vs. 243 ± 143 BAU/mL; anti-S1 IgA: 5.38 ± 3.91 vs. 1.89 ± 1.53 OD ratio; nAb: 90.5% ± 12.6% vs. 81% ± 19.3%). There was no meaningful influence of sex and age on the examined markers. There was a strong correlation between anti-S1 IgG and the surrogate neutralization assay (rho = 0.91, p <0.0001), but not for for IgA and the surrogate neutralization assay (rho = 0.52, p <0.0001). There was a ceiling effect for the association between anti-S1 IgG titres and the inhibition of binding between S1 and ACE2. ANA prevalence was unchanged from 2 weeks to 6 months after the second vaccination (87/498 vs. 77/435), as were the median ANA titres (1:160 vs. 1:160). DISCUSSION: Although the clinical consequences of decreasing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titres cannot be estimated with certainty, a lowered degree of clinical protection against SARS-CoV-2 is possible. Persistently stronger responses to mRNA-1273 suggest that it might confer greater protection than BNT162b2, even 6 months after the second vaccination. Neither examined vaccinations induced ANA within the examined time frame.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
EMBO Mol Med ; 14(5): e15326, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786385

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against an airborne pathogen is very effective if it induces also the development of mucosal antibodies that can protect against infection. The mRNA-based vaccine-encoding SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein (BNT162b2, Pfizer/BioNTech) protects also against infection despite being administered systemically. Here, we show that upon vaccination, cognate IgG molecules are also found in the saliva and are more abundant in SARS-CoV-2 previously exposed subjects, paralleling the development of plasma IgG. The antibodies titer declines at 3 months from vaccination. We identified a concentration of specific IgG in the plasma above which the relevant IgG can be detected in the saliva. Regarding IgA antibodies, we found only protease-susceptible IgA1 antibodies in plasma while they were present at very low levels in the saliva over the course of vaccination of SARS-CoV-2-naïve subjects. Thus, in response to BNT162b2 vaccine, plasma IgG can permeate into mucosal sites and participate in viral protection. It is not clear why IgA1 are detected in low amount, they may be proteolytically cleaved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Saliva , Vaccination
19.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 11(4): 126, 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human milk (HM) permits transfer of immunity against infections to infants via bioactive factors. The role of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in HM is poorly understood [1, 2]. This study evaluated SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the HM of vaccinated healthcare workers (HCW). METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective study of 122 HCWs was performed from February to April 2021 at the Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de Candelaria. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) against nucleocapsid protein and IgG, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against spike 1 protein receptor-binding domain against SARS-CoV-2 (anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD-S1) were analyzed. Unvaccinated breastfeeding mothers without COVID-19 were the control group.The 98 vaccinated participants underwent serum and HM evaluation 14 days after receiving 2 doses of either BNT162b2 mRNA (94%) or mRNA-1273 (6%) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. The mean SARS-CoV-2 RBD-S1 IgG serum concentration was 3379.64 binding antibody units (BAUs)/mL with neutralizing antibody titers >560.9 BAUs/mL. Serum SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the 24 unvaccinated participants were negative. The HM from vaccinated participants had anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD-S1 IgG with a mean of 12.19 BAUs/mL compared to 0.02 BAUs/mL (P < .001) in HM from unvaccinated participants. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgA was noted in 89% of HM from vaccinated women; no anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgM was detected.A positive correlation was reported between anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD-S1 IgG in serum and HM (r = 0.36; P < .001). This association was stronger if breastfeeding had been <24 months (r = 0.67; P < .001) vs ≥24 months (r = 0.32; P = 0.19). In subgroup analysis, breastfeeding for >24 months and high serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD-S1 IgG levels predicted high HM IgG levels. This was an independent association in both linear and multiple regression models. Compared with breastfeeding <24 months, lactation >24 months was associated with increased HM anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD-S1 levels. COMMENTS: This study in breastfeeding HCWs showed that the HM antibody levels were higher in women who had been breastfeeding for >24 months prior to receiving 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccine compared to participants who had been breastfeeding <24 months. Limitations include lack of in vitro plaque reduction neutralization tests which is the gold standard for evaluating SARS-CoV-2 antibody deactivation effectiveness. The study was conducted at a single site and did not assess infant serology or clinical outcome.According to the authors, breastfeeding by vaccinated women during a pandemic when young children are ineligible for vaccination may be encouraged. These results support findings from other studies of vaccines, such as influenza, in which the HM of vaccinated women may confer protection to their infants [3]. The benefits of maternal immunization, including the duration of protection afforded by HM from maternal recipients of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, are research areas deserving of additional exploration. Additionally, further understanding of the association of the duration of receipt of HM from vaccinated women on infant immune responses would be beneficial in understanding the potential for passive protection through nutrition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Infant , Milk, Human , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(2): 181-191, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774425

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA-based vaccines present in breast milk and transfer of the immune responses to breastfeeding infants. METHODS: We enrolled 30 lactating women who received mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines from January through April 2021 in this cohort study. Women provided serial milk samples, including milk expressed before vaccination, across 2-3 weeks after the first dose, and across 3 weeks after the second dose. Women provided their blood, spotted on cards (dried blood spots), 19 days after the first dose and 21 days after the second dose. Stool samples from the breastfed infants were collected 21 days after mothers' second vaccination. Prepandemic samples of milk, dried blood spots, and infant stool were used as controls. Milk, dried blood spots, and infant stool were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG. Milk samples were tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies against the spike and four variants of concern: D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Gamma (P.1). Levels of 10 cytokines were measured in milk samples. RESULTS: Milk from COVID-19-immunized women neutralized the spike and four variants of concern, primarily driven by anti-RBD IgG. The immune response in milk also included significant elevation of interferon-γ. The immune response to maternal vaccination was reflected in breastfed infants: anti-RBD IgG and anti-RBD IgA were detected in 33% and 30% of infant stool samples, respectively. Levels of anti-RBD antibodies in infant stool correlated with maternal vaccine side effects. Median antibody levels against RBD were below the positive cutoffs in prepandemic milk and infant stool samples. CONCLUSION: Humoral and cellular immune responses to mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination are present in most women's breast milk. The milk anti-RBD antibodies can neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike and variants of concern. Anti-RBD antibodies are transferred to breastfed infants, with the potential to confer passive immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokines/analysis , Milk, Human/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Vaccination
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