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1.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(5): 419-430, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022489

ABSTRACT

Background: Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) plays an important role in antiviral protective immunity. Although salivary testing has been used for many viral infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), its use has not yet been well established with the SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Quantification of salivary IgA and IgG antibodies can elucidate mucosal and systemic immune responses after natural infection or vaccination. Here, we report the development and validation of a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 salivary IgA and serum IgG antibodies, and present quantitative results for immunized subjects both prior to or following COVID-19 infections. Objective: Total and serum SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG responses were compared with salivary spike-specific IgA and IgG responses in samples obtained from patients recently infected with SARS-CoV-2 and from subjects recently immunized with COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: A total of 52 paired saliva and serum samples were collected from 26 study participants: 7 subjects after COVID-19 infection and 19 subjects who were uninfected. The ELISA results from these samples were compared with five prepandemic control serum samples. Total IgG and SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG in the serum samples from the subjects who were infected and vaccinated were also measured in a commercial laboratory with an enzyme immunoassay. Results: A wide variation in antibody responses was seen in salivary and serum samples measured by both methods. Three groups of serum total and IgG spike-specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were observed: (1) low, (2) intermediate, and (3) high antibody responders. A correlational analysis of salivary IgA (sIgA) responses with serum IgG concentrations showed a statistical correlation in the low and intermediate antibody responder groups but not in the high group (which we believe was a result of saturation). Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest measuring salivary and serum IgG and IgA merit further investigation as markers of current or recent SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0253638, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910476

ABSTRACT

Population immunity (herd immunity) to SARS-CoV-2 derives from two sources: vaccinations or cases of infection with the virus. Infections can be diagnosed as COVID-19 and registered, or they can be asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, or even full-blown but undiagnosed and unregistered when patients recovered at home. Estimation of population immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is difficult and remains a subject of speculations. Here we present a population screening for SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and IgA antibodies in Polish citizens (N = 501) who had never been positively diagnosed with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Serum samples were collected in Wroclaw (Lower Silesia) on 15th and 22nd May 2021. Sera from hospitalized COVID-19 patients (N = 22) or from vaccinated citizens (N = 14) served as positive controls. Sera were tested with Microblot-Array COVID-19 IgG and IgA (quantitative) that contain specific SARS-CoV-2 antigens: NCP, RBD, Spike S2, E, ACE2, PLPro protein, and antigens for exclusion cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses: MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, HCoV 229E Np, HCoV NL63 Np. Within the investigated population of healthy individuals who had never been positively diagnosed with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, we found that 35.5% (178 out of 501) were positive for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and 52.3% (262 out of 501) were positive for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA; 21.2% of the investigated population developed virus-specific IgG or IgA while being asymptomatic. Anti-RBD IgG, which represents virus-neutralizing potential, was found in 25.6% of individuals (128 out of 501). These patients, though positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, cannot be identified in the public health system as convalescents due to undiagnosed infections, and they are considered unaffected by SARS-CoV-2. Their contribution to population immunity against COVID-19 should however be considered in predictions and modeling of the COVID-19 pandemic. Of note, the majority of the investigated population still lacked anti-RBD IgG protection (74.4%); thus vaccination against COVID-19 is still of the most importance for controlling the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Herd , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2204607119, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908385

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are highly effective at inducing protective immunity. However, weak antibody responses are seen in some individuals, and cellular correlates of immunity remain poorly defined, especially for B cells. Here we used unbiased approaches to longitudinally dissect primary antibody, plasmablast, and memory B cell (MBC) responses to the two-dose mRNA-1273 vaccine in SARS-CoV-2-naive adults. Coordinated immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses were preceded by bursts of spike-specific plasmablasts after both doses but earlier and more intensely after dose 2. While antibody and B cell cellular responses were generally robust, they also varied within the cohort and decreased over time after a dose-2 peak. Both antigen-nonspecific postvaccination plasmablast frequency after dose 1 and their spike-specific counterparts early after dose 2 correlated with subsequent antibody levels. This correlation between early plasmablasts and antibodies remained for titers measured at 6 months after vaccination. Several distinct antigen-specific MBC populations emerged postvaccination with varying kinetics, including two MBC populations that correlated with 2- and 6-month antibody titers. Both were IgG-expressing MBCs: one less mature, appearing as a correlate after the first dose, while the other MBC correlate showed a more mature and resting phenotype, emerging as a correlate later after dose 2. This latter MBC was also a major contributor to the sustained spike-specific MBC response observed at month 6. Thus, these plasmablasts and MBCs that emerged after both the first and second doses with distinct kinetics are potential determinants of the magnitude and durability of antibodies in response to mRNA-based vaccination.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(24): e2202069119, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890415

ABSTRACT

Current vaccines have greatly diminished the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, even though they do not entirely prevent infection and transmission, likely due to insufficient immunity in the upper respiratory tract. Here, we compare intramuscular and intranasal administration of a live, replication-deficient modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) vaccine to raise protective immune responses in the K18-hACE2 mouse model. Using a recombinant MVA expressing firefly luciferase for tracking, live imaging revealed luminescence of the respiratory tract of mice within 6 h and persisting for 3 d following intranasal inoculation, whereas luminescence remained at the site of intramuscular vaccination. Intramuscular vaccination induced S-binding-Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing antibodies in the lungs, whereas intranasal vaccination also induced Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and higher levels of antigen-specific CD3+CD8+IFN-γ+ T cells. Similarly, IgG and neutralizing antibodies were present in the blood of mice immunized intranasally and intramuscularly, but IgA was detected only after intranasal inoculation. Intranasal boosting increased IgA after intranasal or intramuscular priming. While intramuscular vaccination prevented morbidity and cleared SARS-CoV-2 from the respiratory tract within several days after challenge, intranasal vaccination was more effective as neither infectious virus nor viral messenger (m)RNAs were detected in the nasal turbinates or lungs as early as 2 d after challenge, indicating prevention or rapid elimination of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, we determined that neutralizing antibody persisted for more than 6 mo and that serum induced to the Wuhan S protein neutralized pseudoviruses expressing the S proteins of variants, although with less potency, particularly for Beta and Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin A , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccinia virus , Administration, Intranasal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Respiratory System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Vaccinia virus/immunology
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0257930, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731590

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 has resulted in the death of nearly 4 million people within the last 18 months. While preventive vaccination, and monoclonal antibody therapies have been rapidly developed and deployed, early in the pandemic the use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) was a common means of passive immunization with a theoretical risk of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of viral infection. Though vaccines elicit a strong and protective immune response and transfusion of CCP with high titers of neutralization activity are correlated with better clinical outcomes, the question of whether antibodies in CCP can enhance infection of SARS-CoV-2 has not been directly addressed. In this study, we analyzed for and observed passive transfer of neutralization activity with CCP transfusion. Furthermore, to specifically understand if antibodies against the spike protein (S) enhance infection, we measured the anti-S IgG, IgA, and IgM responses and adapted retroviral-pseudotypes to measure virus neutralization with target cells expressing the ACE2 virus receptor and the Fc alpha receptor (FcαR) or Fc gamma receptor IIA (FcγRIIA). Whereas neutralizing activity of CCP correlated best with higher titers of anti-S IgG antibodies, the neutralizing titer was not affected when Fc receptors were present on target cells. These observations support the absence of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) by IgG and IgA isotypes found in CCP. The results presented, therefore, not only supports the therapeutic use of currently available antibody-based treatment, including the continuation of CCP transfusion strategies, but also the use of various vaccine platforms in a prophylactic approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Receptors, IgG/genetics , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Young Adult
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1711-1716, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718398

ABSTRACT

The persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies is a matter of importance regarding the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. To observe antibody dynamics, 105 blood donors, positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by a lateral flow test within a seroprevalence study, were included in this study. Thirty-nine (37%) of 105 the donors were confirmed positive by a total Ig Wantai enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Three (8%) in this group of 39 reported severe and 26/39 (67%) mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms. By further ELISA-testing, 33/39 (85%) donors were initially positive for IgG antibodies, 31/39 (79%) for IgA, and 32/39 (82%) for IgM, while 27/39 (69%) were positive for all three isotypes. Persistence of IgG, IgA, and IgM was observed in 73%, 79%, and 32% of donors, respectively, after 6-9 months of observation. For IgM antibodies, the decline in the proportion of positive donors was statistically significant (p = 0.002) during 12 months observation, for IgG only the decline at 3 months was statistically significant (p = 0.042). Four donors exhibited notable increases in antibody levels. In conclusion, persistent SARS-CoV-2 IgA antibodies and IgG antibodies at 6-9 months are present in approximately three of four individuals with previous mild to moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kinetics , Male , Reinfection/blood , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 915, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703249

ABSTRACT

Quantitative or qualitative differences in immunity may drive clinical severity in COVID-19. Although longitudinal studies to record the course of immunological changes are ample, they do not necessarily predict clinical progression at the time of hospital admission. Here we show, by a machine learning approach using serum pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral cytokine and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurements as input data, that COVID-19 patients cluster into three distinct immune phenotype groups. These immune-types, determined by unsupervised hierarchical clustering that is agnostic to severity, predict clinical course. The identified immune-types do not associate with disease duration at hospital admittance, but rather reflect variations in the nature and kinetics of individual patient's immune response. Thus, our work provides an immune-type based scheme to stratify COVID-19 patients at hospital admittance into high and low risk clinical categories with distinct cytokine and antibody profiles that may guide personalized therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunophenotyping/methods , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 821218, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690442

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the serum from COVID-19 patients and vaccinated subjects, and found that the specific IgA titer level could be used to assist COVID-19 diagnosis, especially in China.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin A/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , China , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood
10.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 74(6): 863-872, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685383

ABSTRACT

Flow cytometry has emerged as a promising technique for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. In this study, we developed an innovative strategy for simultaneous detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM and IgA. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein was covalently bound to functional beads surface applying sulpho-SMCC chemistry. BUV395 anti-IgG, BB515 anti-IgM, biotinylated anti-IgA1/IgA2 and BV421 streptavidin were used as fluorophore conjugated secondary antibodies. Serum and antibodies reaction conditions were optimized for each antibody isotype detection and a multiplexed detection assay was developed. This new cell-free assay efficiently discriminate COVID-19 negative and positive samples. The simultaneous detection of IgG, IgM and IgA showed a sensitivity of 88·5-96·2% and specificity of 100%. This novel strategy opens a new avenue for flow cytometry-based diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
J Immunol ; 208(5): 1001-1005, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674946

ABSTRACT

Advanced age is a main risk factor for severe COVID-19. However, low vaccination efficacy and accelerated waning immunity have been reported in this age group. To elucidate age-related differences in immunogenicity, we analyzed human cellular, serological, and salivary SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein-specific immune responses to the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine in old (69-92 y) and middle-aged (24-57 y) vaccinees compared with natural infection (COVID-19 convalescents, 21-55 y of age). Serological humoral responses to vaccination excee-ded those of convalescents, but salivary anti-spike subunit 1 (S1) IgA and neutralizing capacity were less durable in vaccinees. In old vaccinees, we observed that pre-existing spike-specific CD4+ T cells are associated with efficient induction of anti-S1 IgG and neutralizing capacity in serum but not saliva. Our results suggest pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive CD4+ T cells as a predictor of an efficient COVID-19 vaccine-induced humoral immune response in old individuals.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 811952, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674342

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have suggested that the titers of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are associated with the COVID-19 severity, however, the types of antibodies associated with the disease maximum severity and the timing at which the associations are best observed, especially within one week after symptom onset, remain controversial. We attempted to elucidate the antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 that are associated with the maximum severity of COVID-19 in the early phase of the disease, and to investigate whether antibody testing might contribute to prediction of the disease maximum severity in COVID-19 patients. We classified the patients into four groups according to the disease maximum severity (severity group 1 (did not require oxygen supplementation), severity group 2a (required oxygen supplementation at low flow rates), severity group 2b (required oxygen supplementation at relatively high flow rates), and severity group 3 (required mechanical ventilatory support)), and serially measured the titers of IgM, IgG, and IgA against the nucleocapsid protein, spike protein, and receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 until day 12 after symptom onset. The titers of all the measured antibody responses were higher in severity group 2b and 3, especially severity group 2b, as early as at one week after symptom onset. Addition of data obtained from antibody testing improved the ability of analysis models constructed using a machine learning technique to distinguish severity group 2b and 3 from severity group 1 and 2a. These models constructed with non-vaccinated COVID-19 patients could not be applied to the cases of breakthrough infections. These results suggest that antibody testing might help physicians identify non-vaccinated COVID-19 patients who are likely to require admission to an intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/blood , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Machine Learning , Protein Domains/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Vaccination
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 811020, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and a second dose of an mRNA-based vaccine have been shown to be more immunogenic than homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. In the current study, we examined the kinetics of the antibody response to the second dose of three different vaccination regimens (homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vs. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 + BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) against SARS-CoV-2 in a longitudinal manner; whether there are differences in latency or amplitude of the early response and which markers are most suitable to detect these responses. METHODS: We performed assays for anti-S1 IgG and IgA, anti-NCP IgG and a surrogate neutralization assay on serum samples collected from 57 participants on the day of the second vaccination as well as the following seven days. RESULTS: All examined vaccination regimens induced detectable antibody responses within the examined time frame. Both heterologous regimens induced responses earlier and with a higher amplitude than homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Between the heterologous regimens, amplitudes were somewhat higher for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 + mRNA-1273. There was no difference in latency between the IgG and IgA responses. Increases in the surrogate neutralization assay were the first changes to be detectable for all regimens and the only significant change seen for homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. DISCUSSION: Both examined heterologous vaccination regimens are superior in immunogenicity, including the latency of the response, to homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. While the IgA response has a shorter latency than the IgG response after the first dose, no such difference was found after the second dose, implying that both responses are driven by separate plasma cell populations. Early and steep increases in surrogate neutralization levels suggest that this might be a more sensitive marker for antibody responses after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 than absolute levels of anti-S1 IgG.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , /immunology , Immunization, Secondary/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
14.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0118121, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632412

ABSTRACT

To fight severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), mass vaccination has begun in many countries. To investigate the usefulness of a serological assay to predict vaccine efficacy, we analyzed the levels of IgG, IgM, and IgA against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in the sera from BNT162b2 vaccinated individuals in Japan. This study included 219 individuals who received two doses of BNT162b2. The levels of IgG, IgM, and IgA against RBD were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after the first and second vaccination, respectively. The relationship between antibody levels and several factors, including age, gender, and hypertension were analyzed. Virus-neutralizing activity in sera was measured to determine the correlation with the levels of antibodies. A chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) method to measure IgG against RBD was developed and validated for the clinical setting. The levels of all antibody isotypes were increased after vaccination. Among them, RBD-IgG was dramatically increased after the second vaccination. The IgG levels in females were significantly higher than in males. There was a negative correlation between age and IgG levels in males. The IgG levels significantly correlated with the neutralizing activity. The CLEIA assay measuring IgG against RBD showed a reliable performance and a high correlation with neutralizing activity. Monitoring of IgG against RBD is a powerful tool to predict the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and provides useful information in considering a personalized vaccination strategy for COVID-19. IMPORTANCE Mass vaccination campaigns using mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have begun in many countries. Serological assays to detect antibody production may be a useful tool to monitor the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in individuals. Here, we reported the induction of antibody isotype responses after the first and second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine in a well-defined cohort of employees in Japan. We also reported that age, gender, and hypertension are associated with differences in antibody response after vaccination. This study not only provides valuable information with respect to antibody responses after BNT162b2 vaccination in the Japanese population but also the usefulness of serological assays for monitoring vaccine efficacy in clinical laboratories to determine a personalized vaccination strategy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult , /immunology
15.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(4): 1293-1305, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626165

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are highly efficient against severe forms of the disease, hospitalization and death. Nevertheless, insufficient protection against several circulating viral variants might suggest waning immunity and the need for an additional vaccine dose. We conducted a longitudinal study on the kinetics and persistence of immune responses in healthcare workers vaccinated with two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine with or without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. No new infections were diagnosed during follow-up. At 6 months, post-vaccination or post-infection, despite a downward trend in the level of anti-S IgG antibodies, the neutralizing activity does not decrease significantly, remaining higher than 75% (85.14% for subjects with natural infection, 88.82% for vaccinated after prior infection and 78.37% for vaccinated only). In a live-virus neutralization assay, the highest neutralization titres were present at baseline and at 6 months follow-up in persons vaccinated after prior infection. Anti-S IgA levels showed a significant descending trend in vaccinated subjects (p < 0.05) after 14 weeks. Cellular immune responses are present even in vaccinated participants with declining antibody levels (index ratio 1.1-3) or low neutralizing activity (30%-40%) at 6 months, although with lower T-cell stimulation index (p = 0.046) and IFN-γ secretion (p = 0.0007) compared to those with preserved humoral responses.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 793191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608200

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific antibody production and plasma neutralizing capacity against B.1 wild-type-like strain, and Gamma/P.1 and Delta/B.1.617.2 variants-of-concern, in subjects with different Covid-19 disease and vaccination histories. Methods: Adult subjects were: 1) Unvaccinated/hospitalized for Covid-19; 2) Covid-19-recovered followed by one BNT162b2 vaccine dose; and 3) Covid-19-naïve/2-dose BNT162b2 vaccinated. Multiplex Luminex® immunoassays measured IgG, IgA, and IgM plasma levels against SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), spike-1 (S), and nucleocapsid proteins. Neutralizing activity was determined in Vero E6 cytopathic assays. Results: Maximum anti-RBD IgG levels were similar in Covid-19­recovered individuals 8‒10 days after single-dose vaccination and in Covid-19-naïve subjects 7 days after 2nd vaccine dosing; both groups had ≈2­fold higher anti-RBD IgG levels than Unvaccinated/Covid-19 subjects tracked through 2 weeks post-symptom onset. Anti-S IgG expression patterns were similar to RBD within each group, but with lower signal strengths. Viral antigen-specific IgA and IgM levels were more variable than IgG patterns. Anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulins were not detected in Covid-19-naïve subjects. Neutralizing activity against the B.1 strain, and Gamma/P.1 and Delta/B.1.617.2 variants, was highest in Covid­19-recovered/single-dose vaccinated subjects; although neutralization against the Delta variant in this group was only 26% compared to B.1 neutralization, absolute anti-Delta titers suggested maintained protection. Neutralizing titers against the Gamma and Delta variants were 33‒77% and 26‒67%, respectively, versus neutralization against the B.1 strain (100%) in the three groups. Conclusion: These findings support SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine usefulness regardless of Covid-19 history, and confirm remarkable protection provided by a single vaccine dose in people who have recovered from Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells
17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 103: 108491, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587489

ABSTRACT

To better understand the immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in individuals with COVID-19, it is important to investigate the kinetics of the antibody responses and their associations with the clinical course in different populations, since there seem to be considerable differences between Western and Asian populations in the clinical features and spread of COVID-19. In this study, we serially measured the serum titers of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies generated against the nucleocapsid protein (NCP), S1 subunit of the spike protein (S1), and receptor-binding domain in the S1 subunit (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in Japanese individuals with COVID-19. Among the IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies, IgA antibodies against all of the aforementioned viral proteins were the first to appear after the infection, and IgG and/or IgA seroconversion often preceded IgM seroconversion. In regard to the timeline of the antibody responses to the different viral proteins (NCP, S1 and RBD), IgA against NCP appeared than IgA against S1 or RBD, while IgM and IgG against S1 appeared earlier than IgM/IgG against NCP or RBD. The IgG responses to all three viral proteins and responses of all three antibody classes to S1 and RBD were sustained for longer durations than the IgA/IgM responses to all three viral proteins and responses of all three antibody classes to NCP, respectively. The seroconversion of IgA against NCP occurred later and less frequently in patients with mild COVID-19. These results suggest possible differences in the antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens between the Japanese and Western populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibody Formation , Asians , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Japan/epidemiology , Japan/ethnology , Seroconversion , Viral Proteins/immunology
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 772240, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551510

ABSTRACT

Antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells (Trms) and neutralizing IgA antibodies provide the most effective protection of the lungs from viral infections. To induce those essential components of lung immunity against SARS-CoV-2, we tested various immunization protocols involving intranasal delivery of a novel Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-SARS-2-spike vaccine candidate. We show that a single intranasal MVA-SARS-CoV-2-S application in mice strongly induced pulmonary spike-specific CD8+ T cells, albeit restricted production of neutralizing antibodies. In prime-boost protocols, intranasal booster vaccine delivery proved to be crucial for a massive expansion of systemic and lung tissue-resident spike-specific CD8+ T cells and the development of Th1 - but not Th2 - CD4+ T cells. Likewise, very high titers of IgG and IgA anti-spike antibodies were present in serum and broncho-alveolar lavages that possessed high virus neutralization capacities to all current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Importantly, the MVA-SARS-2-spike vaccine applied in intramuscular priming and intranasal boosting treatment regimen completely protected hamsters from developing SARS-CoV-2 lung infection and pathology. Together, these results identify intramuscular priming followed by respiratory tract boosting with MVA-SARS-2-S as a promising approach for the induction of local, respiratory as well as systemic immune responses suited to protect from SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Genetic Vectors , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lung/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Th1 Cells/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccinia virus/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load/immunology
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 771609, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551509

ABSTRACT

An excessive inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 is thought to be a major cause of disease severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Longitudinal analysis of cytokine release can expand our understanding of the initial stages of disease development and help to identify early markers serving as predictors of disease severity. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of 46 cytokines (including chemokines and growth factors) in the peripheral blood of a large cohort of COVID-19 patients (n=444). The patients were classified into five severity groups. Longitudinal analysis of all patients revealed two groups of cytokines, characterizing the "early" and "late" stages of the disease course and the switch between type 1 and type 2 immunity. We found significantly increased levels of cytokines associated with different severities of COVID-19, and levels of some cytokines were significantly higher during the first three days from symptom onset (DfSO) in patients who eventually required intensive care unit (ICU) therapy. Additionally, we identified nine cytokines, TNF-α, IL-10, MIG, IL-6, IP-10, M-CSF, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and IFN-α2, that can be used as good predictors of ICU requirement at 4-6 DfSO.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Acute-Phase Reaction/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , RNA, Viral/analysis
20.
Nat Immunol ; 23(1): 33-39, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545629

ABSTRACT

The first ever US Food and Drug Administration-approved messenger RNA vaccines are highly protective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1-3. However, the contribution of each dose to the generation of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and the degree of protection against novel variants warrant further study. Here, we investigated the B cell response to the BNT162b2 vaccine by integrating B cell repertoire analysis with single-cell transcriptomics pre- and post-vaccination. The first vaccine dose elicits a recall response of IgA+ plasmablasts targeting the S subunit S2. Three weeks after the first dose, we observed an influx of minimally mutated IgG+ memory B cells that targeted the receptor binding domain on the S subunit S1 and likely developed from the naive B cell pool. This response was strongly boosted by the second dose and delivers potently neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and several of its variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Memory T Cells/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , Vaccine Efficacy
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