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2.
BMC Nephrol ; 24(1): 151, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant decrease in antibody titres several months after COVID-19 primary vaccination in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis has recently been reported. The waning in antibody titres has led to the recommendations for a booster dose to increase the antibody titres after vaccination. Consequently, it is crucial to analyse the long-term humoral immune responses after COVID-19 primary vaccination and assess the immunogenicity and safety of booster doses in haemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: Patients on maintenance haemodialysis who received the primary vaccine of CoronaVac (Sinovac) vaccine were administered with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) as the booster dose. The immunogenicity was assessed before (V1), one month (V2) and eight months (V3) after the primary vaccination, as well as one month after the booster dose (V4). Patients were followed up one month after the booster dose to assess the adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: The geometric mean titre (GMT) of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG antibody at 8 months after the primary vaccination increased significantly to 5,296.63 (95%CI: 2,930.89-9,571.94) U/mL (p = < 0.0001) compared to before the primary vaccination. The GMT also increased significantly to 19,142.56 (95% CI: 13,489.63-27,227.01) U/mL (p < 0.0001) 1 month after the booster vaccine. Meanwhile, the median inhibition rate of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) at 8 months after the primary vaccine and 1 month after the booster dose were not significantly different (p > 0.9999). The most common AEs after the booster dose included mild pain at the injection site (55.26%), mild fatigue (10.53%), and swelling at the injection site (10.53%). No serious AEs were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of ESKD patients on haemodialysis mounted a good antibody response to the BNT162b2 booster vaccination with tolerable adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , Prospective Studies , Indonesia , COVID-19/prevention & control , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
3.
J Intern Med ; 293(1): 63-81, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The durability of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and the resulting immunity to COVID-19 is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate long-term humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In this nationwide, longitudinal study, we determined antibody response in 411 patients aged 0-93 years from two waves of infections (March to December 2020) contributing 1063 blood samples. Each individual had blood drawn on 4-5 occasions 1-15 months after disease onset. We measured total anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody using a qualitative RBD sandwich ELISA, IgM, IgG and IgA levels using an quantitative in-house ELISA-based assay  and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) using an in-house ELISA-based pseudoneutralizing assay. IgG subclasses were analyzed in a subset of samples by ELISA-based assay. We used nonlinear models to study the durability of SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses and its influence over time. RESULTS: After 15 months, 94% still had detectable circulating antibodies, mainly the IgG isotype, and 92% had detectable NAbs. The distribution of IgG antibodies varied significantly over time, characterized by a biphasic pattern with an initial decline followed by a plateau after approximately 7 months. However, the NAbs remained relatively stable throughout the period. The strength of the antibody response was influenced by smoking and hospitalization, with lower IgG levels in smokers and higher levels in hospitalized individuals. Antibody stability over time was mainly associated with male sex and older age with higher initial levels but more marked decrease. CONCLUSIONS: The humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection varies depending on behavioral factors and disease severity, and antibody stability over 15 months was associated with sex and age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G , Denmark , Immunity
4.
Rheumatol Int ; 43(9): 1621-1627, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241087

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the antibody response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and identify predictors of poor response. METHODS: SLE patients who are followed at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Lupus Cohort (BID-LC) were enrolled. SARS-CoV-2 IgG Spike antibody was measured in patients who received two doses of either the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine (n = 62). We defined non-responders as patients with an IgG Spike antibody titer less than two-fold (< 2) the index value of the test and responders as patients with antibody levels greater or equal to two-fold (≥ 2). A web-based survey was used to collect information regarding immunosuppressive medication use and SLE flares after vaccination. RESULTS: In our cohort of lupus patients, 76% were vaccine responders. The use of two or more immunosuppressive drugs was associated with being a non-responder (Odds Ratio 5.26; 95% CI 1.23-22.34, p = 0.02). Both Belimumab use and higher Prednisone dose were associated with vaccine non-response (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04). The non-responder group had higher mean levels of serum IL-18 than the responder group (p = 0.04) as well as lower C3 levels (p = 0.01). Lupus flares and breakthrough infections were uncommon post-vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Immunosuppressive medications have a negative impact on vaccine humoral response in SLE individuals. We observed a trend towards vaccine no-response in BNT162b2 recipients and a relationship between IL-18 and impaired antibody response that merits further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , Interleukin-18 , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccination
6.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240840

ABSTRACT

The humoral response after vaccination was evaluated in 1248 individuals who received different COVID-19 vaccine schedules. The study compared subjects primed with adenoviral ChAdOx1-S (ChAd) and boosted with BNT162b2 (BNT) mRNA vaccines (ChAd/BNT) to homologous dosing with BNT/BNT or ChAd/ChAd vaccines. Serum samples were collected at two, four and six months after vaccination, and anti-Spike IgG responses were determined. The heterologous vaccination induced a more robust immune response than the two homologous vaccinations. ChAd/BNT induced a stronger immune response than ChAd/ChAd at all time points, whereas the differences between ChAd/BNT and BNT/BNT decreased over time and were not significant at six months. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters associated with IgG decay were estimated by applying a first-order kinetics equation. ChAd/BNT vaccination was associated with the longest time of anti-S IgG negativization and with a slow decay of the titer over time. Finally, analyzing factors influencing the immune response by ANCOVA analysis, it was found that the vaccine schedule had a significant impact on both the IgG titer and kinetic parameters, and having a Body Mass Index (BMI) above the overweight threshold was associated with an impaired immune response. Overall, the heterologous ChAd/BNT vaccination may offer longer-lasting protection against SARS-CoV-2 than homologous vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
7.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1095162, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239385

ABSTRACT

The historical and social vulnerability of quilombola communities in Brazil can make them especially fragile in the face of COVID-19, considering that several individuals have precarious health systems and inadequate access to water. This work aimed to characterize the frequency of SARS-COV-2 infections and the presence of IgM and IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in quilombola populations and their relationship with the presence of risk factors or preexisting chronic diseases in the quilombola communities. We analyzed the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, serological status, comorbidities, and symptoms of 1,994 individuals (478 males and 1,536 females) from 18 Brazilian municipalities in the State of Sergipe of quilombola communities, which were evaluated at different epidemiological weeks, starting at the 32nd (August 6th) and ending at the 40th (October 3rd) epidemiological week. More than 70% of studied families live in rural areas and they have an extreme poverty social status. Although we found a higher number of SARS-COV-2 infections in quilombola communities than in the local population, their SARS-CoV-2 reactivity and IgM and IgG positivity varied across the communities investigated. Arterial hypertension was the most risk factor, being found in 27.8% of the individuals (9.5% in stage 1, 10.8% in stage 2, and 7.5% in stage 3). The most common COVID-19 symptoms and comorbidities were headache, runny nose, flu, and dyslipidemia. However, most individuals were asymptomatic (79.9%). Our data indicate that mass testing must be incorporated into public policy to improve the health care system available to quilombola populations during a future pandemic or epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 70(8): e30473, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with cancer infected with COVID-19 may be at higher risk of severe disease and may be unable to mount an adequate response to the virus due to compromised immunity secondary to their cancer therapy. PROCEDURE: This study presents immunologic analyses of 20 pediatric patients with cancer, on active chemotherapy or having previously received chemotherapy, and measures their immunoglobulin titers and activation of cellular immunity response to acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination compared with healthy pediatric controls. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were enrolled, of which 10 were actively receiving chemotherapy, 10 had previously received chemotherapy, and 23 were healthy controls. Pediatric patients with cancer had similar immunoglobulin titers, antibody binding capacity, and effector function assay activity after vaccination against COVID-19 compared with healthy controls, though more variability in response was noted in the cohort actively receiving chemotherapy. Compared with acute infection, vaccination against COVID-19 produced superior immunoglobulin responses, particularly IgA1, IgG1, and IgG3, and elicited superior binding capacity and effector function in children with cancer and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy and those who had previously received chemotherapy had adequate immune activation after both vaccination and acute infection compared to healthy pediatric controls, although there was a demonstrated variability in response for the patients on active chemotherapy. Vaccination against COVID-19 produced superior immune responses compared to acute SARS-CoV-2 infection in pediatric patients with cancer and healthy children, underscoring the importance of vaccination even in previously infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Child , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasms/therapy , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , Immunity, Humoral
9.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 69(3): 103-112, 2023 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239144

ABSTRACT

In this study, early adverse impacts that emerged after vaccination with each dose of these vaccines were compared from previously infected participants. Ant-SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG and IgA antibodies produced by these three vaccines have been assessed using ELISA method at different time periodsꓼ including pre-vaccination, 25 days after the first shot of vaccination and 30 days after the second shot of vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech, AstraZeneca, and Sinopharm vaccine. Overall, 150 previously infected cases were studied, 50 cases received Pfizer vaccine, 50 cases received AstraZeneca vaccine, and 50 cases received Sinopharm vaccine. The findings showed that a higher number of vaccinated participants with AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccine had tired/fatigue/lethargy, headache, fever, and sore in arm at the first shot, but milder adverse effects, such as headaches, fever, and sore in arm, were detected in the data on the Sinopharm vaccine's adverse impacts. At the second dose, a lower number of vaccinated cases with AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccine reported higher frequencies of the side effects. However, the results showed that the level of anti-spike-specific IgG and IgA antibodies produced by vaccinated patients with Pfizer vaccine increased compared to those who vaccinated with AstraZeneca and Sinopharm vaccine from 25 days after the first dose. From 30 days after the second dose, the IgG and IgA antibodies were significantly boosted in 97% of vaccinated patients with Pfizer vaccine compared to 92% of those who vaccinated with AstraZeneca vaccines and 60% of those who vaccinated with Sinopharm. In conclusion, these results confirmed that two doses of the Pfizer, and AstraZeneca vaccine induce a higher response of IgG and IgA antibodies than that induced by Sinopharm vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Iraq , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Fatigue , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G
10.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238951

ABSTRACT

Predominantly antibody deficiencies (PADs) are inborn disorders characterized by immune dysregulation and increased susceptibility to infections. Response to vaccination, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may be impaired in these patients, and studies on responsiveness correlates, including cytokine signatures to antigen stimulation, are sparse. In this study, we aimed to describe the spike-specific cytokine response following whole-blood stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides in patients with PAD (n = 16 with common variable immunodeficiency and n = 15 with selective IgA deficiency) and its relationship with the occurrence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during up to 10-month follow-up period. Spike-induced antibody and cytokine production was measured using ELISA (anti-spike IgG, IFN-γ) and xMAP technology (interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-21, TNF-α, TGF-ß1). No difference was found in the production of cytokines between patients with PAD and controls. Anti-spike IgG and cytokine levels did not predict contraction of COVID-19. The only cytokine that distinguished between vaccinated and naturally infected unvaccinated PAD patients was IFN-γ (median 0.64 (IQR = 1.08) in vaccinated vs. 0.10 (IQR = 0.28) in unvaccinated). This study describes the spike-specific cytokine response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, which is not predictive of contracting COVID-19 during the follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Humans , Cytokines , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 94(8): 605-613, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238777

ABSTRACT

To explore the autoimmune response and outcome in the central nervous system (CNS) at the onset of viral infection and correlation between autoantibodies and viruses. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in 121 patients (2016-2021) with a CNS viral infection confirmed via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) next-generation sequencing (cohort A). Their clinical information was analysed and CSF samples were screened for autoantibodies against monkey cerebellum by tissue-based assay. In situ hybridisation was used to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in brain tissue of 8 patients with glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP)-IgG and nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue of 2 patients with GFAP-IgG as control (cohort B). RESULTS: Among cohort A (male:female=79:42; median age: 42 (14-78) years old), 61 (50.4%) participants had detectable autoantibodies in CSF. Compared with other viruses, EBV increased the odds of having GFAP-IgG (OR 18.22, 95% CI 6.54 to 50.77, p<0.001). In cohort B, EBV was found in the brain tissue from two of eight (25.0%) patients with GFAP-IgG. Autoantibody-positive patients had a higher CSF protein level (median: 1126.00 (281.00-5352.00) vs 700.00 (76.70-2899.00), p<0.001), lower CSF chloride level (mean: 119.80±6.24 vs 122.84±5.26, p=0.005), lower ratios of CSF-glucose/serum-glucose (median: 0.50[0.13-0.94] vs 0.60[0.26-1.23], p=0.003), more meningitis (26/61 (42.6%) vs 12/60 (20.0%), p=0.007) and higher follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores (1 (0-6) vs 0 (0-3), p=0.037) compared with antibody-negative patients. A Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that autoantibody-positive patients experienced significantly worse outcomes (p=0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmune responses are found at the onset of viral encephalitis. EBV in the CNS increases the risk for autoimmunity to GFAP.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Male , Humans , Female , Autoimmunity , Retrospective Studies , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Autoantibodies , Immunoglobulin G
12.
Virol J ; 20(1): 112, 2023 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is one of the best policies to control COVID-19 pandemic. The serological response to COVID-19 vaccination in Taiwanese patients with different comorbidities is elusive. METHODS: Uninfected subjects who received 3 doses of mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech, BNT] and mRNA-1273 [Moderna]), viral vector-based vaccines (ChAdOx1-S (AZD1222, AZ) or protein subunit vaccines (Medigen COVID-19 vaccine) were prospectively enrolled. The SARS-CoV-2-IgG spike antibody level was determined within three months after the 3rd dose of vaccination. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was applied to determine the association between vaccine titers and underlying comorbidities. RESULTS: A total of 824 subjects were enrolled in the current study. The proportions of CCI scores of 0-1, 2-3 and > 4 were 52.8% (n = 435), 31.3% (n = 258) and 15.9% (n = 131), respectively. The most commonly used vaccination combination was AZ-AZ-Moderna (39.2%), followed by Moderna-Moderna-Moderna (27.8%). The mean vaccination titer was 3.11 log BAU/mL after a median of 48 days after the 3rd dose. Factors associated with potentially effective neutralization capacity (IgG level ≥ 4160 AU/mL) included age ≥ 60 years (odds ratio [OR]/95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50/0.34-0.72, P < 0.001), female sex (OR/CI: 1.85/1.30-2.63, P = 0.001), Moderna-Moderna-based vaccination (compared to AZ-AZ-based vaccination, OR/CI: 6.49/3.90-10.83, P < 0.001), BNT-BNT-based vaccination (compared to AZ-AZ-based vaccination, OR/CI: 7.91/1.82-34.3, P = 0.006) and a CCI score ≥ 4 (OR/CI: 0.53/0.34-0.82, P = 0.004). There was a decreasing trend in antibody titers with increasing CCI scores (trend P < 0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed that higher CCI scores (ß: - 0.083; 95% CI: - 0.094-0.011, P = 0.014) independently correlated with low IgG spike antibody levels. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with more comorbidities had a poor serological response to 3 doses of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , Comorbidity , Immunoglobulin G
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(2): 2215677, 2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236782

ABSTRACT

Certain aspects of the immunogenicity and effectiveness of the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines (mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2) developed in response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic are still uncharacterized. Serum or plasma samples from healthy donor recipients of either vaccine (BNT162b2 n = 53, mRNA-1273 n = 49; age 23-67), and individuals naturally infected with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 106; age 18-82) were collected 0-2 months post-infection or 1- and 4 months after second dose of vaccination. Anti-Spike antibody levels and avidity were measured via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, vaccination induced higher circulating anti-Spike protein immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels and avidity compared to infection at similar time intervals. Both vaccines produced similar anti-Spike IgG concentrations at 1 month, while mRNA-1273 demonstrated significantly higher circulating antibody concentrations after 4 months. mRNA-1273 induced significantly higher avidity at month 1 compared to BNT162b2 across all age groups. However, the 23-34 age group was the only group to maintain statistical significance by 4 months. Male BNT162b2 recipients were approaching statistically significant lower anti-Spike IgG avidity compared to females by month 4. These findings demonstrate enhanced anti-Spike IgG levels and avidity following vaccination compared to natural infection. In addition, the mRNA-1273 vaccine induced higher antibody levels by 4 months compared to BNT162b2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Female , Male , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Adolescent , Aged, 80 and over , Infant , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , RNA, Messenger , Immunoglobulin G , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0287128, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236104

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the relationship between anthropometric and body composition parameters and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers in a group of females who were vaccinated against COVID-19 with two doses of ChAdOx1 vaccine and then boosted with the BNT162b2 vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 63 women. Basic demographic and clinical data were collected. To assess the anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G titers following the vaccination, five blood draws were performed: 1) before the first dose, 2) before the second dose, 3) 14-21 days after the primary vaccination, 4) before the booster, and 5) 21 days after the booster. Blood samples were analyzed using a two-step enzymatic chemiluminescent assay. Body mass index and body composition were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. To select the most distinguishing parameters and correlations between anthropometric and body composition parameters and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers, factor analysis using the Principal Component Analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Sixty-three females (mean age: 46.52 years) who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. 40 of them (63.50%) participated in the post-booster follow-up. After receiving two doses of the ChAdOx1 vaccine, the study group's anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers were 67.19 ± 77.44 AU/mL (mean ± SD), whereas after receiving a heterologous mRNA booster, the level of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers was about three-times higher and amounted to 212.64 ± 146.40 AU/mL (mean ± SD). Our data shows that seropositivity, obesity, non-fat-related, and fat-related body composition parameters all had a significant effect on the level of IgG titer after a two-dose vaccination of ChAdOx1. However, only non-fat-related and fat-related body composition parameters had a significant effect on the IgG titer after booster vaccination. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection before the first dose of vaccination is not related to IgG titer after booster administration. Body composition has a significant effect on the production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG after booster vaccination in females.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Cohort Studies , Body Composition , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G
15.
EBioMedicine ; 93: 104640, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Short- and long-term implications of SARS-CoV-2 on the quality of the sperm and the results of this on fertility remain largely unknown due to lack of longitudinal studies. In this longitudinal observational cohort study, we aimed to analyse the differential effect and the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on different semen quality parameters. METHODS: Sperm quality was assessed using the World Health Organization criteria, DNA damage to sperm cells by quantifying the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and the high-density stainability (HDS), IgA- and IgG-anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) were assessed with light microscopy. FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with sperm parameters that were independent of spermatogenic cycle like progressive motility, morphology, DFI and HDS, as well as spermatogenic cycle dependent parameters such as sperm concentration. Detection of IgA- and IgG-ASA allowed classification of patients in three different groups according to its sequence of appearance in sperm during post-COVID-19 follow-up. The maximum progressive motility was lowest during follow-up in patients without ASA (41.9%), intermediate in patients with only IgA-ASA (46.2%) and highest inpatients who had both IgA- and IgG-ASA (54.9%). INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with changes of all analysed sperm parameters to a different degree which is also observed in their return to normality and is suggestive of individual variations in the patient's immune system performance. Firstly, sperm production is decreased through temporal immune mediated arrest of active meiosis, and secondly immune induced sperm DNA damage prevents fertilization if transferred to the oocyte. Both mechanisms are temporal, and most sperm parameters return to baseline after infection. FUNDING: AML (R20-014), Femicare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Semen Analysis , Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Semen Analysis/methods , Prospective Studies , Chromatin , SARS-CoV-2 , Longitudinal Studies , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , DNA Fragmentation , Semen
16.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28763, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234552

ABSTRACT

People are expected to have been previously vaccinated with a Vaccinia-based vaccine, as until 1980 smallpox vaccination was a standard protocol in China. It is unclear whether people with smallpox vaccine still have antibody against vaccinia virus (VACV) and cross-antibody against monkeypox virus (MPXV). Herein, we assessed the binding antibodies with antigen of VACV-A33 and MPXV-A35 in the general population and HIV-1 infected patients. Firstly, we detected VACV antibody with A33 protein to evaluate the efficiency of smallpox vaccination. The result show that 29% (23 of 79) of hospital staff (age ≥ 42 years) and 63% (60 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age ≥ 42 years) from Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital were able to bind A33. However, among the subjects below 42 years of age, 1.5% (3/198) of the hospital volunteer samples and 1% (1/104) of the samples from HIV patients were positive for antibodies against A33 antigen. Then, we assessed the specific cross-reactive antibodies against MPXV A35 protein. 24% (19 of 79) hospital staff (age〉 = 42 years) and 44% (42 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age〉 = 42 years) were positive. 98% (194/198) of the hospital staff and 99% (103/104) of the HIV patients had no A35-binding antibodies. Further, we found significant sex differences for the reactivity to A35 antigen were observed in HIV population, but no significant sex differences in hospital staff. Further, we analyzed the positivity rate of anti-A35 antibody of men who have sex with men (MSM) and non-MSM in HIV patients (age〉 = 42years). We found that 47% of no-MSM population and 40% of MSM population were positive for A35 antigen, with no significant difference. Lastly, we found only 59 samples were positive for anti-A33 IgG and anti-A35 IgG in all participants. Together, we demonstrated A33 and A35 antigens binding antibodies were detected in HIV patients and general population who were older than 42 years, and cohort studies only provided data of serological detection to support early response to monkeypox outbreak.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Smallpox Vaccine , Smallpox , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Antigens, Viral , Homosexuality, Male , Immunoglobulin G , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Vaccinia virus , Viral Proteins
17.
Nat Immunol ; 24(6): 966-978, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245297

ABSTRACT

High-risk groups, including Indigenous people, are at risk of severe COVID-19. Here we found that Australian First Nations peoples elicit effective immune responses to COVID-19 BNT162b2 vaccination, including neutralizing antibodies, receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific B cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In First Nations participants, RBD IgG antibody titers were correlated with body mass index and negatively correlated with age. Reduced RBD antibodies, spike-specific B cells and follicular helper T cells were found in vaccinated participants with chronic conditions (diabetes, renal disease) and were strongly associated with altered glycosylation of IgG and increased interleukin-18 levels in the plasma. These immune perturbations were also found in non-Indigenous people with comorbidities, indicating that they were related to comorbidities rather than ethnicity. However, our study is of a great importance to First Nations peoples who have disproportionate rates of chronic comorbidities and provides evidence of robust immune responses after COVID-19 vaccination in Indigenous people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Australia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunity , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
18.
PeerJ ; 11: e15443, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245272

ABSTRACT

Background: Omicron is the recently emerged highly transmissible severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variant that has caused a dramatic increase in coronavirus disease-2019 infection cases worldwide. This study was to investigate the association between demographic and laboratory findings, and the duration of Omicron viral clearance. Methods: Approximately 278 Omicron cases at the Ruijin Hospital Luwan Branch, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine were retrospectively analyzed between August 11 and August 31, 2022. Demographic and laboratory data were also collected. The association between demographics, laboratory findings, and duration of Omicron viral clearance was analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis and univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that a prolonged viral clearance time was significantly associated with older age and lower immunoglobulin (Ig) G and platelet (PLT) levels. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, direct bilirubin, IgG, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and PLT were independent factors for longer viral shedding duration. The model combining direct bilirubin, IgG, APTT, and PLT identifies patients infected with Omicron whose viral clearance time was ≥7 days with 62.7% sensitivity and 83.4% specificity. Conclusion: These findings suggest that direct bilirubin, IgG, PLT, and APTT are significant risk factors for a longer viral shedding duration in patients infected with Omicron. Measuring levels of direct bilirubin, IgG, PLT, and APTT is advantageous to identify patients infected with Omicron with longer viral shedding duration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Retrospective Studies , China , Bilirubin
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(2): 2225640, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244449

ABSTRACT

Although humoral responses elicited by infection or vaccine lost the ability to prevent transmission against Omicron, vaccine-induced antibodies may still contribute to disease attenuation through Fc-mediated effector functions. However, Fc effector function elicited by CoronaVac, as the most widely supplied inactivated vaccine globally, has not been characterized. For the first time, our study depicted Fc-mediated phagocytosis activity induced by CoronaVac, including antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and antibody-dependent neutrophil phagocytosis (ADNP) activities, and further compared with that from convalescent individuals and CoronaVac recipients with subsequent breakthrough infections. We showed that 2-dose of CoronaVac effectively induced both ADCP and ADNP, but was substantially lower compared to infection, whereas the booster dose further augmented ADCP and ADNP responses, and remained detectable for 52 weeks. Among CoronaVac recipients, ADCP and ADNP responses also demonstrated cross-reactivity against Omicron subvariants, and breakthrough infection could enhance the phagocytic response. Meanwhile, serum samples from vaccinees, convalescent individuals with wildtype infection, BA.2 and BA.5 breakthrough infection demonstrated differential cross-reactive ADCP and ADNP responses against Omicron subvariants, suggesting the different subvariants of spike antigen exposure might alter the cross-reactivity of Fc effector function. Further, ADCP and ADNP responses were strongly correlated with Spike-specific IgG responses and neutralizing activities, indicating coordinated neutralization activity, ADCP and ADNP responses triggered by CoronaVac. Of note, the ADCP and ADNP responses were more durable and cross-reactive than corresponding Spike-specific IgG titers and neutralizing activities. Our study has important implications for optimal boosting vaccine strategies that may induce potent and broad Fc-mediated phagocytic activities.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Phagocytosis , Humans , Breakthrough Infections , Vaccines, Inactivated , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Neutralizing
20.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243887

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the occurrence of maternal primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in Japan. We performed a nested case-control study using data from maternal CMV antibody screening under the Cytomegalovirus in Mother and infant-engaged Virus serology (CMieV) program in Mie, Japan. Pregnant women with negative IgG antibodies at ≤20 weeks of gestation who were retested at ≥28 weeks were enrolled. The study period was divided into 2015-2019 as the pre-pandemic and 2020-2022 as the pandemic period, and the study site included 26 institutions conducting the CMieV program. The incidence rate of maternal IgG seroconversion was compared between the pre-pandemic (7008 women enrolled) and pandemic (2020, 1283 women enrolled; 2021, 1100 women; and 2022, 398 women) periods. Sixty-one women in the pre-pandemic period and five, four, and five women during 2020, 2021, and 2022, respectively, showed IgG seroconversion. The incidence rates in 2020 and 2021 were lower (p < 0.05) than that in the pre-pandemic period. Our data suggest a transient decrease in the incidence of maternal primary CMV infection in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic, which could be due to prevention and hygiene measures taken at the population level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Cytomegalovirus , Incidence , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Japan/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral
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