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1.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 65(11): 688-692, 2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780383

ABSTRACT

The study presents the results of the creation and evaluation of the diagnostic characteristics of the rapid immunochromatographic test for the qualitative detection and differentiation of IgM/IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human serum, plasma, and whole blood "ИХА-COVID-19-IgM / IgG". Have been tested some samples without antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and a samples with two and one type of specific antibodies. The coincidence of the results of immunochromatographic analysis with the results of the immunochemiluminescent method was 87.2%. Test kit can be use as the rapid diagnostic test in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and to assess the immune status of convalescents.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Humans
2.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 65(11): 683-687, 2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780382

ABSTRACT

A new original Russian test kit for the detection of IgG-antibodies to the causative agent of COVID-19 - coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 by the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on a solid-phase «ELISA-SARS-CoV-2-AT-G¼ has been developed. In comparative tests with similar test systems «Vitrotest® SARS-CoV-2 IgG¼ (Vitrotest, Ukraine) and «Anti-SARS-Cov-2 ELISA (IgG)¼ (EUROIMMUN AG, Germany) high diagnostic efficiency of the new test system was shown.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Plasma , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
3.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(2): 181-191, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774425

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA-based vaccines present in breast milk and transfer of the immune responses to breastfeeding infants. METHODS: We enrolled 30 lactating women who received mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines from January through April 2021 in this cohort study. Women provided serial milk samples, including milk expressed before vaccination, across 2-3 weeks after the first dose, and across 3 weeks after the second dose. Women provided their blood, spotted on cards (dried blood spots), 19 days after the first dose and 21 days after the second dose. Stool samples from the breastfed infants were collected 21 days after mothers' second vaccination. Prepandemic samples of milk, dried blood spots, and infant stool were used as controls. Milk, dried blood spots, and infant stool were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG. Milk samples were tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies against the spike and four variants of concern: D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Gamma (P.1). Levels of 10 cytokines were measured in milk samples. RESULTS: Milk from COVID-19-immunized women neutralized the spike and four variants of concern, primarily driven by anti-RBD IgG. The immune response in milk also included significant elevation of interferon-γ. The immune response to maternal vaccination was reflected in breastfed infants: anti-RBD IgG and anti-RBD IgA were detected in 33% and 30% of infant stool samples, respectively. Levels of anti-RBD antibodies in infant stool correlated with maternal vaccine side effects. Median antibody levels against RBD were below the positive cutoffs in prepandemic milk and infant stool samples. CONCLUSION: Humoral and cellular immune responses to mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination are present in most women's breast milk. The milk anti-RBD antibodies can neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike and variants of concern. Anti-RBD antibodies are transferred to breastfed infants, with the potential to confer passive immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokines/analysis , Milk, Human/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Vaccination
4.
Virol J ; 19(1): 24, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770554

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In this work, six SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody assays were evaluated, namely, two pan-immunoglobulin (pan-Ig) assays [Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (named "Elecsys" in this study) and the PerkinElmer SuperFlex™ Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab Assay (SuperFlex_Ab)], two IgM assays [SuperFlex™ Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM Assay (SuperFlex_IgM) and YHLO iFlash-SARS-CoV-2 IgM (iFlash_IgM)], and two IgG assays [SuperFlex™ Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Assay (SuperFlex_IgG) and iFlash-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (iFlash_IgG)]. Combination assays of SuperFlex™ (SuperFlex_any) and iFlash (iFlash_any) were also evaluated. METHODS: A total of 438 residual serum samples from 54 COVID-19 patients in the COVID-19 group and 100 samples from individuals without evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the negative control group were evaluated. RESULTS: In the early stage of COVID-19 infection, within 14 days of symptom onset, the seropositive rate was lower than that of the late stage 15 days after onset (65.4% vs 99.6%). In the total period, the pan-Ig and IgG assays had higher sensitivity (90.8-95.3%) than the IgM assays (36.5-40.7%). SuperFlex_Ab and SuperFlex_any had higher sensitivity than Elecsys and SuperFlex_IgG (p < 0.05). The specificity of all the assays was 100%, except for SuperFlex_IgM (99.0%). The concordance rate between each assay was higher (96.4-100%) in the late stage than in the early stage (77.4-98.1%). CONCLUSION: For the purpose of COVID-19 diagnosis, antibody testing should be performed 15 days after onset. For the purpose of epidemiological surveillance, highly sensitive assays should be used as much as possible, such as SuperFlex_Ab, iFlash_IgG and their combination. IgM assays were not suitable for these purposes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(2)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745397

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Information about humoral and cellular responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and antibody persistence in convalescent (COVID-19) patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is scarce. The objectives of this study were to investigate factors influencing humoral and cellular responses to SARS-CoV-2 and its persistence in convalescent COVID-19 PwMS. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of confirmed COVID-19 convalescent PwMS identified between February 2020 and May 2021 by SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. We examined relationships between demographics, MS characteristics, disease-modifying therapy (DMT), and humoral (immunoglobulin G against spike and nucleocapsid proteins) and cellular (interferon-gamma [IFN-γ]) responses to SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 121 (83.45%) of 145 PwMS were seropositive, and 25/42 (59.5%) presented a cellular response up to 13.1 months after COVID-19. Anti-CD20-treated patients had lower antibody titers than those under other DMTs (p < 0.001), but severe COVID-19 and a longer time from last infusion increased the likelihood of producing a humoral response. IFN-γ levels did not differ among DMT. Five of 7 (71.4%) anti--CD20-treated seronegative patients had a cellular response. The humoral response persisted for more than 6 months in 41/56(81.13%) PwMS. In multivariate analysis, seropositivity decreased due to anti-CD20 therapy (OR 0.08 [95% CI 0.01-0.55]) and increased in males (OR 3.59 [1.02-12.68]), whereas the cellular response decreased in those with progressive disease (OR 0.04 [0.001-0.88]). No factors were associated with antibody persistence. DISCUSSION: Humoral and cellular responses to SARS-CoV-2 are present in COVID-19 convalescent PwMS up to 13.10 months after COVID-19. The humoral response decreases under anti-CD20 treatment, although the cellular response can be detected in anti-CD20-treated patients, even in the absence of antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antigens, CD20/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Nucleocapsid/chemistry , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Retrospective Studies
6.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263468, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mass vaccination is the key element in controlling current COVID-19 pandemic. Studies comparing immunogenicity of different COVID-19 vaccines are largely lacking. We aimed at measuring anti-S antibody (Ab) levels in individuals fully vaccinated with BNT162b2, BBIBP-CorV and Gam-COVID-Vac, as well as in COVID-19 convalescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, serum was collected from 400 age- and sex-matched participants, 100 fully vaccinated with BNT162b2, 100 with BBIBP-CorV and 100 with Gam-COVID-Vac on the 28th day after the second vaccine dose, and 100 recovered from COVID-19 at least 28 days after symptom(s) resolution. Sera were analyzed using the LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay (DiaSorin, Saluggia, Italy). Wilcoxon rank-sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests was used for comparison of Ab levels. RESULTS: Highest mean value (210.11, SD = 100.42) was measured in the BNT162b2 group, followed by Gam-COVID-Vac (171.11, SD = 120.69) and BBIBP-CorV (68.50, SD = 72.78) AU/mL (p<0.001). Significant differences in antibody levels were found between BNT162b2 and BBIBP-CorV (p<0.001), BNT162b2 and Gam-COVID-Vac (p = 0.001), as well as BBIBP-CorV and Gam-COVID-Vac groups (p<0.001). Percentage of seropositive was 81% in the convalescent group, 83% in BBIBP-CorV vaccinated and 100% in BNT162b2 and Gam-COVID-Vac. When comparing measured antibody levels in vaccinated to those in COVID-19 recovered, significantly higher antibody levels were found for vaccinated with BNT162b2 (p<0.001), and with Gam-COVID-Vac (p<0.001), while for BBIBP-CorV there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.641). CONCLUSIONS: All three investigated vaccines, BNT162b2, BBIBP-CorV and Gam-COVID-Vac, provide robust immune response 28 days after the second dose of vaccine, in the majority of participants. All individuals vaccinated with BNT162b2 and Gam-COVID-Vac seroconverted, while in vaccinated with BBIBP-CorV and COVID-19 recovered seroconversion rates were lower. Although less potent compared to other two vaccines, immune response after BBIBP-CorV was similar to response measured in convalescents. Challenge still remains to examine dynamics and durability of immunoprotection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Adult , Antibodies/analysis , Antibodies/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Convalescence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serbia , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 751705, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686480

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 affects children to a lesser extent than adults but they can still get infected and transmit SARS-CoV-2 to their contacts. Field deployable non-invasive sensitive diagnostic techniques are needed to evaluate the infectivity dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric populations and guide public health interventions, particularly if this population is not fully vaccinated. We evaluated the utility of high-throughput Luminex assays to quantify saliva IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies against five SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens in a contacts and infectivity longitudinal study in 122 individuals (52 children and 70 adults). We compared saliva versus serum/plasma samples in infected children and adults diagnosed by weekly RT-PCR over 35 days (n=62), and those who consistently tested negative over the same follow up period (n=60), in the Summer of 2020 in Barcelona, Spain. Saliva antibody levels in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive individuals were significantly higher than in negative individuals and correlated with those measured in sera/plasmas. Asymptomatic infected individuals had higher levels of anti-S IgG than symptomatic individuals, suggesting a protective anti-disease role for antibodies. Higher anti-S IgG and IgM levels in serum/plasma and saliva, respectively, in infected children compared to infected adults could also be related to stronger clinical immunity in them. Among infected children, males had higher levels of saliva IgG to N and RBD than females. Despite overall correlation, individual clustering analysis suggested that responses that may not be detected in blood could be patent in saliva, and vice versa. In conclusion, measurement of SARS-CoV-2-specific saliva antibodies should be considered as a complementary non-invasive assay to serum/plasma to determine COVID-19 prevalence and transmission in pediatric populations before and after vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Saliva , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
8.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263419, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674014

ABSTRACT

Mucosal immunity plays a crucial role in controlling upper respiratory infections, including influenza. We established a quantitative ELISA to measure the amount of influenza virus-specific salivery IgA (sIgA) and salivary IgG (sIgG) antibodies using a standard antibody broadly reactive to the influenza A virus. We then analyzed saliva and serum samples from seven individuals infected with the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus during the 2019-2020 flu seasons. We detected an early (6-10 days post-infection) increase of sIgA in five of the seven samples and a later (3-5 weeks) increase of sIgG in six of the seven saliva samples. Although the conventional parenteral influenza vaccine did not induce IgA production in saliva, vaccinated individuals with a history of influenza infection had higher basal levels of sIgA than those without a history. Interestingly, we observed sIgA and sIgG in an asymptomatic individual who had close contact with two influenza cases. Both early mucosal sIgA secretion and late systemically induced sIgG in the mucosal surface may protect against virus infection. Despite the small sample size, our results indicate that the saliva test system can be useful for analyzing upper mucosal immunity in influenza.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Mucosal/physiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Formation , Cohort Studies , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Japan , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/metabolism , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263327, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662444

ABSTRACT

Rapid screening and diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 in the emergency department is important for controlling infections. When polymerase chain reaction tests cannot be rapidly performed, rapid antigen testing is often used, albeit with insufficient sensitivity. Therefore, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of combining rapid antigen and antibody test results. This was a retrospective review of patients who visited our emergency department between February and May 2021 and underwent rapid antigen, immunoglobulin G antibody, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests. The study included 1,070 patients, of whom 56 (5.2%) tested positive on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of rapid antigen testing were 73.7%, 100.0%, and 0.87, respectively. The combined rapid antigen and antibody test result had improved diagnostic accuracy, with 91.2% sensitivity, 97.9% specificity, and an area under the curve of 0.95. The results of the rapid antigen and antibody tests could be combined as a reliable alternative to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Pediatrics ; 149(2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibodies have been detected in human milk up to 6 weeks post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, neutralization activity, effect of pasteurization, and persistence through 6 months after vaccination. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study enrolled 30 pregnant or lactating women. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and neutralization capacity were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared at prevaccination and 1, 3, and 6 months postvaccination, and through Holder pasteurization. RESULTS: Human milk SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG levels peaked at 1 month postvaccination and persisted above prevaccination levels for at least 6 months (P = .005). SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA was detected at 1 and 3 months (both P < .001) but waned by 6 months compared with baseline (P = .07). Milk SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA correlated with serum IgG at the same time point (R2 = 0.37, P < .001 and R2 = 0.19, P < .001). Neutralization activity was seen in 83.3%, 70.4%, and 25.0% of milk samples at 1, 3, and 6 months postvaccination. Neutralization most strongly correlated with SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG (R2 = 0.57, P < .001). Pre- and postpasteurization samples showed similar IgG (0.84 vs 1.07, P = .36) and neutralizing activity (57.7% vs 58.7% inhibition, P = .27), but lower IgM and IgA levels postpasteurization (0.09 vs 0.06, P = .004 and 0.21 vs 0.18, P = .043). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that human milk SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies may be available to milk-fed infants for up to 6 months. In addition, donor milk from vaccinated mothers retain IgG and neutralizing activity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Milk, Human/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lactation , Longitudinal Studies , Pasteurization , Prospective Studies
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0078621, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605388

ABSTRACT

Seroepidemiological studies to monitor antibody kinetics are important for assessing the extent and spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a population. Noninvasive sampling methods are advantageous for reducing the need for venipuncture, which may be a barrier to investigations, particularly in pediatric populations. Oral fluids are obtained by gingiva-crevicular sampling from children and adults and are very well accepted. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) based on these samples have acceptable sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional serum-based antibody EIAs and are suitable for population-based surveillance. We describe the development and evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 IgG EIAs using SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleoprotein (NP) and spike (S) proteins in IgG isotype capture format and an indirect receptor-binding-domain (RBD) IgG EIA, intended for use in children as a primary endpoint. All three assays were assessed using a panel of 1,999 paired serum and oral fluids from children and adults participating in school SARS-CoV-2 surveillance studies during and after the first and second pandemic wave in the United Kingdom. The anti-NP IgG capture assay was the best candidate, with an overall sensitivity of 75% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 71 to 79%) and specificity of 99% (95% CI: 78 to 99%) compared with paired serum antibodies. Sensitivity observed in children (80%, 95% CI: 71 to 88%) was higher than that in adults (67%, CI: 60% to 74%). Oral fluid assays (OF) using spike protein and RBD antigens were also 99% specific and achieved reasonable but lower sensitivity in the target population (78%, 95% CI [68% to 86%] and 53%, 95% CI [43% to 64%], respectively). IMPORTANCE We report on the first large-scale assessment of the suitability of oral fluids for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibody obtained from healthy children attending school. The sample type (gingiva-crevicular fluid, which is a transudate of blood but is not saliva) can be self collected. Although detection of antibodies in oral fluids is less sensitive than that in blood, our study suggests an optimal format for operational use. The laboratory methods we have developed can reliably measure antibodies in children, who are able to take their own samples. Our findings are of immediate practical relevance for use in large-scale seroprevalence studies designed to measure exposure to infection, as they typically require venipuncture. Overall, our data indicate that OF assays based on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are a tool suitable for population-based seroepidemiology studies in children and highly acceptable in children and adults, as venipuncture is no longer necessary.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gingival Crevicular Fluid/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Infant , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
12.
Viral Immunol ; 34(10): 708-713, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595620

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is initiated by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has imposed critical challenges to global health. Understanding the kinetic of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG responses in different subsets of COVID-19 patients is crucial to get insight into the humoral immune response elicited against the virus. We investigated IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike protein in two groups of recovered and deceased COVID-19 patients. The levels of IgM and IgG specific to N and RBD proteins were detected by ELISA. N- and RBD-specific IgM was higher in deceased patients in comparison with recovered patients, while there was no significant difference in N- and RBD-specific IgG between the two groups. A significant correlation was observed between IgG and IgM titers against RBD and N, in both groups of patients. These results argue against impaired antibody response in deceased COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid/chemistry , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(1)2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581024

ABSTRACT

Sensitive serological assays are needed to provide valuable information about acute and past viral infections. For example, detection of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibodies could serve as the basis for an "immunity passport" that would enable individuals to travel internationally. Here, utilizing a novel Magnetic Modulation Biosensing (MMB) system and the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, we demonstrate a highly sensitive and specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG serological assay. Using anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2-positive and healthy patients' samples, and vaccinees' samples, we compare the MMB-based SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay's analytical and clinical sensitivities to those of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with ELISA, the MMB-based assay has an ~6-fold lower limit of detection (129 ng/L vs. 817 ng/L), and it detects an increase in the IgG concentration much earlier after vaccination. Using 85 RT-qPCR SARS-CoV-2-positive samples and 79 -negative samples, the MMB-based assay demonstrated similar clinical specificity (98% vs. 99%) and sensitivity (93% vs. 92%) to the ELISA test, but with a much faster turnaround time (45 min vs. 245 min). The high analytical and clinical sensitivity, short turnaround time, and simplicity of the MMB-based assay makes it a preferred method for antibody detection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Serologic Tests , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Magnetic Phenomena , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24448, 2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585777

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are highly effective at preventing COVID-19. Prior studies have found detectable SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in oral mucosal specimens of participants with history of COVID-19. To assess the development of oral SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies among people who received either the Moderna or Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination series, we developed a novel SARS-CoV-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify the concentrations of oral and nasal mucosal SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels. We enrolled 52 participants who received the Moderna vaccine and 80 participants who received the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. Oral mucosal specimens were self-collected by participants prior to or on the day of vaccination, and on days 5, 10, 15, and 20 following each vaccination dose and 30, 60, and 90 days following the second vaccination dose. A subset of the cohort provided additional nasal mucosal specimens at every time point. All participants developed detectable oral mucosal SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies by 15 days after the first vaccination dose. There were no significant differences in oral mucosal antibody concentrations once participants were fully vaccinated in the Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines. Oral or nasal mucosal antibody testing could be an inexpensive and less invasive alternative to serum antibody testing. Further research is needed to understand the duration of detectable oral or nasal mucosal antibodies and how antibody concentrations change with time.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory System/metabolism , /immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Vaccination , Young Adult , /administration & dosage
16.
Neurology ; 97(23): e2262-e2268, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) cases after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported, but the frequency is unknown. We aimed to determine the frequency and diagnostic features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related AE. METHODS: Residual sera from 556 consecutive Mayo Clinic Rochester patients (laboratory cohort) who underwent autoimmune encephalopathy neural immunoglobulin G (IgG) evaluation were tested for total antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein using a Food and Drug Administration-authorized chemiluminescence assay (October 2019-December 2020). Clinical records from patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody result and available research consent were reviewed. This laboratory cohort was cross-referenced with the Department of Neurology's COVID-19-related consultative experience (encephalopathy cohort, n = 31). RESULTS: Eighteen of the laboratory cohort (3%) were SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive (April-December 2020). Diagnoses were as follows: AE, 2; postacute sequelae of SARS CoV-2 infection (PASC), 3; toxic-metabolic encephalopathy during COVID-19 pneumonia, 2; diverse non-COVID-19 relatable neurologic diagnoses, 9; unavailable, 2. Five of the encephalopathy cohort had AE (16%, including the 2 laboratory cohort cases that overlapped), representing 0.05% of 10,384 patients diagnosed and cared for with any COVID-19 illness at Mayo Clinic Rochester in 2020. The 5 patients met definite (n = 1), probable (n = 1), or possible (n = 3) AE diagnostic criteria; median symptom onset age was 61 years (range, 46-63); 3 were women. All 5 were neural IgG negative and 4 tested were SARS-CoV-2 PCR/IgG index negative in CSF. Phenotypes (and accompanying MRI and EEG findings) were diverse (delirium [n = 5], seizures [n = 2], rhombencephalitis [n = 1], aphasia [n = 1], and ataxia [n = 1]). No acute disseminated encephalomyelitis cases were encountered. The 3 patients with possible AE had spontaneously resolving syndromes. One with definite limbic encephalitis was immune therapy responsive but had residual mood and memory problems. One patient with probable autoimmune rhombencephalitis died despite immune therapy. The remaining 26 encephalopathy cohort patients had toxic-metabolic diagnoses. DISCUSSION: We encountered occasional cases of AE in our 2020 COVID-19 experience. Consistent with sporadic reports and small case series during the COVID-19 pandemic, and prior experience of postinfectious AE, our cases had diverse clinical presentations and were neural IgG and CSF viral particle negative. Application of diagnostic criteria assists in differentiation of AE from toxic-metabolic causes arising in the setting of systemic infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis/complications , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Hashimoto Disease/complications , Hashimoto Disease/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259731, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Plasma-derived intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) products contain a dynamic spectrum of immunoglobulin (Ig) G reactivities reflective of the donor population from which they are derived. We sought to model the concentration of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG which could be expected in future plasma pool and final-product batches of CSL Behring's immunoglobulin product Privigen. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data was extracted from accessible databases, including the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status, antibody titre in convalescent and vaccinated groups and antibody half-life. Together, these parameters were used to create an integrated mathematical model that could be used to predict anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in future IVIg preparations. RESULTS: We predict that anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentration will peak in batches produced in mid-October 2021, containing levels in the vicinity of 190-fold that of the mean convalescent (unvaccinated) plasma concentration. An elevated concentration (approximately 35-fold convalescent plasma) is anticipated to be retained in batches produced well into 2022. Measurement of several Privigen batches using the Phadia™ EliA™ SARS-CoV-2-Sp1 IgG binding assay confirmed the early phase of this model. CONCLUSION: The work presented in this paper may have important implications for physicians and patients who use Privigen for indicated diseases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/analysis , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Middle Aged , Tissue Donors , Young Adult
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 744887, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497079

ABSTRACT

Background: Although the serological antibody responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are well characterized, little is known about their ability to elicit mucosal immunity. Objectives: This study aims to examine and compare the mucosal and systemic responses of recipients of two different vaccination platforms: mRNA (Comirnaty) and inactivated virus (CoronaVac). Methods: Serial blood and nasal epithelial lining fluid (NELF) samples were collected from the recipients of either Comirnaty or CoronaVac. The plasma and NELF immunoglobulins A and G (IgA and IgG) specific to SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein (S1) and their neutralization effects were quantified. Results: Comirnaty induced nasal S1-specific immunoglobulin responses, which were evident as early as 14 ± 2 days after the first dose. In 64% of the subjects, the neutralizing effects of NELF persisted for at least 50 days. Moreover, 85% of Comirnaty recipients exhibited S1-specific IgA and IgG responses in plasma by 14 ± 2 days after the first dose. By 7 ± 2 days after the booster, all plasma samples possessed S1-specific IgA and IgG responses and were neutralizing. The induction of S1-specific plasma antibodies by CoronaVac was IgG dominant, and 83% of the subjects possessed S1-specific IgG by 7 ± 2 days after the booster, with neutralizing effects. Conclusion: Comirnaty induces S1-specific IgA and IgG responses with neutralizing activity in the nasal mucosa; a similar response is not seen with CoronaVac. Clinical Implication: The presence of a nasal response with mRNA vaccine may provide additional protection compared with inactivated virus vaccine. However, whether such widespread immunological response may produce inadvertent adverse effects in other tissues warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5942-5946, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The pandemic disease by SARS-CoV-2 infection does not have an effective treatment. To prevent the disease, scientists developed vaccines that the clinicians use as an emergency licensed vaccine. The objective of this study was to determine the side effects in personnel vaccinated at the Military Central Hospital of Mexico with the BNT162b2 vaccine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included the subjects who had received both doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine between December 2020 and February 2021. We asked about the side effects after the first and the second vaccine doses. One group had no history of COVID-19, and the second had a history of COVID-19. ANTI-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were measured by the immunodetection technique in the second group only. RESULTS: We included 946 participants, 62% were women, and 80% were without comorbidities; 680 were included in the first group, and only 266 were in the second group. After the first dose, 77% of the first group and 86% of the second group presented some side effects. After the second dose, 84% of the first group and 89% of the second group showed some side effects. The main side effect was mild pain. All participants (126) were IgG positive, and only 26.9% were IgM positive at 17.5 days (12.8 days, 20.3 days) after the second dose. CONCLUSIONS: There is a positive correlation between side effects after the first dose in patients with a history of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to those who did not. Nevertheless, this correlation is not present after the second dose. The low percentage of IgM could be related to the time interval between vaccination and sample measure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hospitals, Military/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Military Personnel , Young Adult
20.
J Infect Dis ; 225(4): 578-586, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an important component of the early immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Prior serosurveys in high-risk groups employing IgG testing alone have provided discordant estimates. The potential added benefit of IgA in serosurveys has not been established. METHODS: Longitudinal serosurvey of first responders (police, emergency medical service providers, fire fighters, and other staff) employing 3 serologic tests (anti-spike IgA, anti-spike IgG, and anti-nucleocapsid IgG) correlated with surveys assessing occupational and nonoccupational risk, exposure to COVID-19, and illnesses consistent with COVID-19. RESULTS: Twelve percent of first responders in Colorado at baseline and 22% at follow-up were assessed as having SARS-CoV-2 infection. Five percent at baseline and 6% at follow-up were seropositive only for IgA. Among those IgA positive only at baseline, the majority (69%) had a positive antibody at follow-up; 45% of those infected at baseline and 33% at follow-up were asymptomatic. At all time points, the estimated cumulative incidence in our study was higher than that in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: First responders are at high risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2. IgA testing identified a significant portion of cases missed by IgG testing and its use as part of serologic surveys may improve retrospective identification of asymptomatic infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , Emergency Responders , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Retrospective Studies
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