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1.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 535-544, 2020 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spain is one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Serological surveys are a valuable tool to assess the extent of the epidemic, given the existence of asymptomatic cases and little access to diagnostic tests. This nationwide population-based study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Spain at national and regional level. METHODS: 35 883 households were selected from municipal rolls using two-stage random sampling stratified by province and municipality size, with all residents invited to participate. From April 27 to May 11, 2020, 61 075 participants (75·1% of all contacted individuals within selected households) answered a questionnaire on history of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and risk factors, received a point-of-care antibody test, and, if agreed, donated a blood sample for additional testing with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Prevalences of IgG antibodies were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification to allow for differences in non-response rates based on age group, sex, and census-tract income. Using results for both tests, we calculated a seroprevalence range maximising either specificity (positive for both tests) or sensitivity (positive for either test). FINDINGS: Seroprevalence was 5·0% (95% CI 4·7-5·4) by the point-of-care test and 4·6% (4·3-5·0) by immunoassay, with a specificity-sensitivity range of 3·7% (3·3-4·0; both tests positive) to 6·2% (5·8-6·6; either test positive), with no differences by sex and lower seroprevalence in children younger than 10 years (<3·1% by the point-of-care test). There was substantial geographical variability, with higher prevalence around Madrid (>10%) and lower in coastal areas (<3%). Seroprevalence among 195 participants with positive PCR more than 14 days before the study visit ranged from 87·6% (81·1-92·1; both tests positive) to 91·8% (86·3-95·3; either test positive). In 7273 individuals with anosmia or at least three symptoms, seroprevalence ranged from 15·3% (13·8-16·8) to 19·3% (17·7-21·0). Around a third of seropositive participants were asymptomatic, ranging from 21·9% (19·1-24·9) to 35·8% (33·1-38·5). Only 19·5% (16·3-23·2) of symptomatic participants who were seropositive by both the point-of-care test and immunoassay reported a previous PCR test. INTERPRETATION: The majority of the Spanish population is seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in hotspot areas. Most PCR-confirmed cases have detectable antibodies, but a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 did not have a PCR test and at least a third of infections determined by serology were asymptomatic. These results emphasise the need for maintaining public health measures to avoid a new epidemic wave. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Health, Institute of Health Carlos III, and Spanish National Health System.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 47-53, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incidence and severity of SARS-CoV2 infection are significantly lower in children and teenagers proposing that certain vaccines, routinely administered to neonates and children may provide cross-protection against this emerging infection. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cross-protection induced by prior measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccinations against COVID-19. METHODS: The antibody responses to MMR and tetanus vaccines were determined in 53 patients affected with SARS-CoV2 infection and 52 age-matched healthy subjects. Serum levels of antibodies specific for NP and RBD of SARS-CoV2 were also determined in both groups of subjects with ELISA. RESULTS: Our results revealed significant differences in anti-NP (P<0.0001) and anti-RBD (P<0.0001) IgG levels between patients and healthy controls. While the levels of rubella- and mumps specific IgG were not different in the two groups of subjects, measles-specific IgG was significantly higher in patients (P<0.01). The serum titer of anti-tetanus antibody, however, was significantly lower in patients compared to healthy individuals (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that measles vaccination triggers those B cells cross-reactive with SARS-CoV2 antigens leading to the production of increased levels of measles-specific antibody.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Middle Aged , Tetanus Toxoid/immunology , Tetanus Toxoid/therapeutic use
4.
Intern Med ; 61(20): 3053-3062, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079926

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the continuation of antibody prevalence status after 12 months and background factors in antibody-positive subjects following asymptomatic infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods We initially determined the SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid protein immunoglobulin G (anti-N IgG) antibody prevalence in 1,603 patients, doctors, and nurses at 65 medical institutions in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. We then obtained consent from 33 of the 39 subjects who tested positive and performed follow-up for 12 months. Results Follow-up for up to 12 months showed that a long-term response of the anti-N IgG antibody could be detected in 6 of the 33 participants (18.2%). The proportions with hypertension, using an angiotensin-receptor blocker, and without a drinking habit were higher among the participants with a long-term anti-N IgG antibody response for up to 12 months than among those without a long-term antibody response. Conclusions The proportion of individuals with subclinical COVID-19 who continuously had a positive result for the anti-N IgG antibody at 12 months was low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16294, 2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050543

ABSTRACT

Several factors related to anti-spike(S) IgG antibody titers after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination have been elucidated, but the magnitude of the effects of each factor has not been fully understood. This cross-sectional study assessed anti-S and anti-nucleocapsid (N) antibody titers on 3744 healthy volunteers (median age, 36 years; IQR, 24-49 years; females, 59.0%) who received two doses of mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2 vaccine and completed a survey questionnaire. Multiple regression was conducted to identify factors associated with antibody titers. All but one participant tested positive for anti-S antibodies (99.97%). The following factors were independently and significantly associated with high antibody titer: < 3 months from vaccination (ratio of means 4.41); mRNA-1273 vaccine (1.90, vs BNT162b2); anti-N antibody positivity (1.62); age (10's: 1.50, 20's: 1.37, 30's: 1.26, 40's: 1.16, 50's: 1.15, vs ≧60's); female (1.07); immunosuppressive therapy (0.54); current smoking (0.85); and current drinking (0.96). The largest impact on anti-S IgG antibody titers was found in elapsed time after vaccination, followed by vaccine brand, immunosuppressants, previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (anti-N antibody positive), and age. Although the influence of adverse reactions after the vaccine, gender, smoking, and drinking was relatively small, they were independently related factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunosuppressive Agents , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination , Young Adult
6.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(5): 419-430, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022489

ABSTRACT

Background: Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) plays an important role in antiviral protective immunity. Although salivary testing has been used for many viral infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), its use has not yet been well established with the SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Quantification of salivary IgA and IgG antibodies can elucidate mucosal and systemic immune responses after natural infection or vaccination. Here, we report the development and validation of a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 salivary IgA and serum IgG antibodies, and present quantitative results for immunized subjects both prior to or following COVID-19 infections. Objective: Total and serum SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG responses were compared with salivary spike-specific IgA and IgG responses in samples obtained from patients recently infected with SARS-CoV-2 and from subjects recently immunized with COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: A total of 52 paired saliva and serum samples were collected from 26 study participants: 7 subjects after COVID-19 infection and 19 subjects who were uninfected. The ELISA results from these samples were compared with five prepandemic control serum samples. Total IgG and SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG in the serum samples from the subjects who were infected and vaccinated were also measured in a commercial laboratory with an enzyme immunoassay. Results: A wide variation in antibody responses was seen in salivary and serum samples measured by both methods. Three groups of serum total and IgG spike-specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were observed: (1) low, (2) intermediate, and (3) high antibody responders. A correlational analysis of salivary IgA (sIgA) responses with serum IgG concentrations showed a statistical correlation in the low and intermediate antibody responder groups but not in the high group (which we believe was a result of saturation). Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest measuring salivary and serum IgG and IgA merit further investigation as markers of current or recent SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
7.
Viruses ; 12(1)2020 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969491

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an acute, high-mortality-rate, severe infectious disease caused by an emerging MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that causes severe respiratory diseases. The continuous spread and great pandemic potential of MERS-CoV make it necessarily important to develop effective vaccines. We previously demonstrated that the application of Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles as a bacterial vector displaying the MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD) is a very promising MERS vaccine candidate that is capable of producing potential neutralization antibodies. We have also used the rabies virus (RV) as a viral vector to design a recombinant vaccine by expressing the MERS-CoV S1 (spike) protein on the surface of the RV. In this study, we compared the immunological efficacy of the vaccine candidates in BALB/c mice in terms of the levels of humoral and cellular immune responses. The results show that the rabies virus vector-based vaccine can induce remarkably earlier antibody response and higher levels of cellular immunity than the GEM particles vector. However, the GEM particles vector-based vaccine candidate can induce remarkably higher antibody response, even at a very low dose of 1 µg. These results indicate that vaccines constructed using different vaccine vector platforms for the same pathogen have different rates and trends in humoral and cellular immune responses in the same animal model. This discovery not only provides more alternative vaccine development platforms for MERS-CoV vaccine development, but also provides a theoretical basis for our future selection of vaccine vector platforms for other specific pathogens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lactococcus lactis/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Rabies virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
8.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262591, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968842

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid (N) is the most abundant viral protein expressed in host samples and is an important antigen for diagnosis. N is a 45 kDa protein that does not present disulfide bonds. Intending to avoid non-specific binding of SARS-CoV-2 N to antibodies from patients who previously had different coronaviruses, a 35 kDa fragment of N was expressed without a conserved motif in E. coli as inclusion bodies (N122-419-IB). Culture media and IB washing conditions were chosen to obtain N122-419-IB with high yield (370 mg/L bacterial culture) and protein purity (90%). High pressure solubilizes protein aggregates by weakening hydrophobic and ionic interactions and alkaline pH promotes solubilization by electrostatic repulsion. The association of pH 9.0 and 2.4 kbar promoted efficient solubilization of N122-419-IB without loss of native-like tertiary structure that N presents in IB. N122-419 was refolded with a yield of 85% (326 mg/L culture) and 95% purity. The refolding process takes only 2 hours and the protein is ready for use after pH adjustment, avoiding the necessity of dialysis or purification. Antibody binding of COVID-19-positive patients sera to N122-419 was confirmed by Western blotting. ELISA using N122-419 is effective in distinguishing between sera presenting antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 from those who do not. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed condition for IB solubilization is one of the mildest described. It is possible that the refolding process can be extended to a wide range of proteins with high yields and purity, even those that are sensible to very alkaline pH.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Inclusion Bodies/chemistry , Protein Refolding , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrostatic Pressure , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Solubility
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 894700, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963468

ABSTRACT

The Korean government decided to schedule heterologous vaccinations on dialysis patients for early achievement of immunization against Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19). However, the effects of heterologous immunizations in hemodialysis (HD) patients are unclear. One hundred (HD) patients from Gangdong Kyung Hee University Hospital and Kyung Hee Medical Center and 100 hospital workers from Gangdong Kyung Hee University Hospital were enrolled in this study. The HD patients received the mixing schedule of ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 vaccinations at 10-week intervals, while hospital workers received two doses of ChAdOx1 vaccines at 12-week intervals. Serum IgG to a receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was measured 1 month after the first dose, 2 months and 4 months after the second dose. The median [interquartile range] anti-RBD IgG was 82.1[34.5, 176.6] AU/ml in HD patients and 197.1[124.0, 346.0] AU/ml in hospital workers (P < 0.001) after the first dose. The percentage of positive responses (IgG > 50 AU/ml) was 65.0% and 96.0% among the both group, respectively (P < 0.001). The anti-RBD IgG levels increased significantly by 2528.8 [1327.6, 5795.1] AU/ml with a 100.0% positive response rate in HD patients 2 months after the second dose, which was higher than those in hospital workers 981.4[581.5, 1891.4] AU/ml (P < 0.001). Moreover, anti-RBD IgG remains constantly high, and positive response remains 100% in HD patients 4 months after the second dose. This study suggests that heterologous vaccinations with ChAdOx1/BNT162b2 can be an alternative solution on HD patients for early and strong induction of humoral response.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Cytokine ; 154: 155874, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944749

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected and killed millions of people, but little is known about the risk factors that lead to the development of severe, mild or asymptomatic conditions after infection. The individual immune response and the balance of cytokines and chemokines have been shown to be important for the prognosis of patients. Additionally, it is essential to understand how the production of specific antibodies with viral neutralizing capacity is established. In this context, this study aimed to identify positive individuals for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 in a large population of blood donors (n = 7837) to establish their immune response profile and to evaluate its viral neutralization capacity. The prevalence found for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 was 5.6% (n = 441), with male blood donors (61.9%) being more prevalent among the positive ones. The results showed that positive individuals for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 have high serum concentrations of chemokines, TNF, IFN-γ and IL-10. The analyses showed that the positivity index for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the neutralizing capacity of the antibodies, which, in turn, is significantly related to lower serum concentrations of CCL5 and CXCL10. The results allow us to hypothesize that the development and maintenance of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in infected individuals occurs in a pro-inflammatory microenvironment well regulated by IL-10 with great capacity for recruiting cells from the innate and adaptive immune systems.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
11.
Allergol Int ; 71(4): 512-519, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of allergic reactions to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines has not been clarified. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a potential antigen in the components of vaccines. However, there is little evidence that allergy after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination is related to PEG. Furthermore, the role of polysorbate (PS) as an antigen has also not been clarified. The objective of this study was to investigate whether PEG and PS allergies are reasonable causes of allergic symptoms after vaccination by detecting PEG-specific and PS-specific antibodies. METHODS: Fourteen patients who developed immediate allergic reactions to BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines and nineteen healthy controls who did not present allergic symptoms were recruited. Serum PEG-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and PS-specific IgE and IgG were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Skin tests using PEG-2000 and PS-80 were applied to five patients and three controls. RESULTS: Serum levels of PEG-specific IgE and IgG in patients with immediate allergic reactions to the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine were higher than those in the control group. Serum levels of PS-specific IgE in patients with allergy to the vaccine were higher than those in patients of the control group. Intradermal tests using PEG verified the results for PEG-specific IgE and IgG. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PEG is one of the antigens in the allergy to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Cross-reactivity between PEG and PS might be crucial for allergy to the vaccines. PEG-specific IgE and IgG may be useful in diagnosing allergy to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Polyethylene Glycols , Polysorbates , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2204336119, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947765

ABSTRACT

The durability of vaccine-mediated immunity to SARS-CoV-2, the durations to breakthrough infection, and the optimal timings of booster vaccination are crucial knowledge for pandemic response. Here, we applied comparative evolutionary analyses to estimate the durability of immunity and the likelihood of breakthrough infections over time following vaccination by BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca), and Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson/Janssen). We evaluated anti-Spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels elicited by each vaccine relative to natural infection. We estimated typical trajectories of waning and corresponding infection probabilities, providing the distribution of times to breakthrough infection for each vaccine under endemic conditions. Peak antibody levels elicited by messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines mRNA-1273 and BNT1262b2 exceeded that of natural infection and are expected to typically yield more durable protection against breakthrough infections (median 29.6 mo; 5 to 95% quantiles 10.9 mo to 7.9 y) than natural infection (median 21.5 mo; 5 to 95% quantiles 3.5 mo to 7.1 y). Relative to mRNA-1273 and BNT1262b2, viral vector vaccines ChAdOx1 and Ad26.COV2.S exhibit similar peak anti-S IgG antibody responses to that from natural infection and are projected to yield lower, shorter-term protection against breakthrough infection (median 22.4 mo and 5 to 95% quantiles 4.3 mo to 7.2 y; and median 20.5 mo and 5 to 95% quantiles 2.6 mo to 7.0 y; respectively). These results leverage the tools from evolutionary biology to provide a quantitative basis for otherwise unknown parameters that are fundamental to public health policy decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors
13.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(9): 1310-1316, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945651

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors affecting seropositivity and antibody levels after SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with cancer because they were excluded from clinical studies of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. METHODS: This prospective, observational, single-center study included 290 patients with solid tumors followed up in our medical oncology clinic between March 2021 and August 2021. SARS-CoV-2 antibody status was determined before the first dose of vaccine. Fifty-one patients with positive prevaccine baseline antibody tests were excluded from the study, regardless of whether they had previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity. To determine the quantitative IgG antibody response of the vaccines, blood samples were collected at least 28 days after each dose of vaccine. Quantitative IgG levels against virus spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) were measured using chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLIA). Demographic and clinical features affecting seropositivity were analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-one (69.3%) patients were vaccinated with two doses of CoronaVac followed by one dose of BNT162b2 (Biontech) (group 1). Sixty-seven (30.7%) patients were vaccinated with three doses of BNT162b2 (group 2). The proportion of patients who developed seropositivity was significantly higher in group 2 (78.6% vs. 54.9%, p < 0.012). Antibody response increased significantly after the second dose of vaccine in both groups. Female sex, being younger than 65 years, and chemotherapy status were significantly related to higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody levels (p = 0.033, p = 0.036, and p = 0.047, respectively). Antibody levels were significantly higher in patients who had previously received chemotherapy than in patients receiving active chemotherapy (p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to evaluate basal SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels before the first dose of vaccine and after three doses in patients with solid tumors. The rate of development of seropositivity with two doses of mRNA vaccine was found to be higher than with two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. More attention should be paid to preventive measures in addition to vaccination in patients aged over 65 years and men with cancer diagnoses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0253638, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910476

ABSTRACT

Population immunity (herd immunity) to SARS-CoV-2 derives from two sources: vaccinations or cases of infection with the virus. Infections can be diagnosed as COVID-19 and registered, or they can be asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, or even full-blown but undiagnosed and unregistered when patients recovered at home. Estimation of population immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is difficult and remains a subject of speculations. Here we present a population screening for SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and IgA antibodies in Polish citizens (N = 501) who had never been positively diagnosed with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. Serum samples were collected in Wroclaw (Lower Silesia) on 15th and 22nd May 2021. Sera from hospitalized COVID-19 patients (N = 22) or from vaccinated citizens (N = 14) served as positive controls. Sera were tested with Microblot-Array COVID-19 IgG and IgA (quantitative) that contain specific SARS-CoV-2 antigens: NCP, RBD, Spike S2, E, ACE2, PLPro protein, and antigens for exclusion cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses: MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, HCoV 229E Np, HCoV NL63 Np. Within the investigated population of healthy individuals who had never been positively diagnosed with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, we found that 35.5% (178 out of 501) were positive for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and 52.3% (262 out of 501) were positive for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA; 21.2% of the investigated population developed virus-specific IgG or IgA while being asymptomatic. Anti-RBD IgG, which represents virus-neutralizing potential, was found in 25.6% of individuals (128 out of 501). These patients, though positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, cannot be identified in the public health system as convalescents due to undiagnosed infections, and they are considered unaffected by SARS-CoV-2. Their contribution to population immunity against COVID-19 should however be considered in predictions and modeling of the COVID-19 pandemic. Of note, the majority of the investigated population still lacked anti-RBD IgG protection (74.4%); thus vaccination against COVID-19 is still of the most importance for controlling the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Herd , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2204607119, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908385

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are highly effective at inducing protective immunity. However, weak antibody responses are seen in some individuals, and cellular correlates of immunity remain poorly defined, especially for B cells. Here we used unbiased approaches to longitudinally dissect primary antibody, plasmablast, and memory B cell (MBC) responses to the two-dose mRNA-1273 vaccine in SARS-CoV-2-naive adults. Coordinated immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses were preceded by bursts of spike-specific plasmablasts after both doses but earlier and more intensely after dose 2. While antibody and B cell cellular responses were generally robust, they also varied within the cohort and decreased over time after a dose-2 peak. Both antigen-nonspecific postvaccination plasmablast frequency after dose 1 and their spike-specific counterparts early after dose 2 correlated with subsequent antibody levels. This correlation between early plasmablasts and antibodies remained for titers measured at 6 months after vaccination. Several distinct antigen-specific MBC populations emerged postvaccination with varying kinetics, including two MBC populations that correlated with 2- and 6-month antibody titers. Both were IgG-expressing MBCs: one less mature, appearing as a correlate after the first dose, while the other MBC correlate showed a more mature and resting phenotype, emerging as a correlate later after dose 2. This latter MBC was also a major contributor to the sustained spike-specific MBC response observed at month 6. Thus, these plasmablasts and MBCs that emerged after both the first and second doses with distinct kinetics are potential determinants of the magnitude and durability of antibodies in response to mRNA-based vaccination.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 821721, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902983

ABSTRACT

Many studies already reported on the association between patient characteristics on the severity of COVID-19 disease outcome, but the relation with SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels is less clear. To investigate this in more detail, we performed a retrospective observational study in which we used the IgG antibody response from 11,118 longitudinal antibody measurements of 2,082 unique COVID convalescent plasma donors. COVID-19 symptoms and donor characteristics were obtained by a questionnaire. Antibody responses were modelled using a linear mixed-effects model. Our study confirms that the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response is associated with patient characteristics like body mass index and age. Antibody decay was faster in male than in female donors (average half-life of 62 versus 72 days). Most interestingly, we also found that three symptoms (headache, anosmia, nasal cold) were associated with lower peak IgG, while six other symptoms (dry cough, fatigue, diarrhoea, fever, dyspnoea, muscle weakness) were associated with higher IgG concentrations.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Blood Donors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
18.
Future Oncol ; 18(23): 2537-2550, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892544

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in cancer patients is crucial to prevent severe COVID-19 disease course. Methods: This study assessed immunogenicity of cancer patients on active treatment receiving mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine by detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG antibodies in serum, before, after the first and second doses and 3 months after a complete primary course of vaccination. Results were compared with healthy controls. Results: Of 112 patients, the seroconversion rate was 96%. A significant reduction in antibody levels was observed 3 months after vaccination in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors versus control participants (p < 0.001). Adverse events were mostly mild. Conclusion: Immunogenicity after mRNA-based vaccine in cancer patients is adequate but influenced by the type of anticancer therapy. Antibody levels decline after 3 months, and thus a third vaccination is warranted.


Because cancer patients are especially endangered by SARS-CoV-2 infection and have worse disease course and outcomes, it is crucial to protect them from this infection. This study was aimed at assessing protective antibodies after patients received mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Protective antibodies (e.g., anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG antibodies) were assessed in patients' blood before vaccination, after the first and second doses and 3 months after a complete primary course vaccination. Patients' oncological treatment was unaffected by the vaccination received. The results of protective antibodies were also compared with healthy control subjects who were vaccinated in the same manner. More than 110 cancer patients participated and agreed to have their blood samples analyzed. The rate of antibody production was 96% after a complete primary course of vaccination and was similar with that of healthy control subjects. However, there were some differences noted regarding the oncological treatment that the patients were receiving, with patients who were treated with targeted therapy achieving the highest levels of protective antibodies. Adverse events after vaccination were mostly mild and did not interfere with patients' general performance. The rate of antibody production for cancer patients after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is high and similar to that in healthy control subjects but varies with regard to the oncological treatment that patients are receiving. However, antibodies decline substantially after 3 months, and thus a third vaccination is desirable. There were no new safety concerns after vaccination, and most adverse events were mild and short-lived.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Neoplasms , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(24): e2202069119, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890415

ABSTRACT

Current vaccines have greatly diminished the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, even though they do not entirely prevent infection and transmission, likely due to insufficient immunity in the upper respiratory tract. Here, we compare intramuscular and intranasal administration of a live, replication-deficient modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) vaccine to raise protective immune responses in the K18-hACE2 mouse model. Using a recombinant MVA expressing firefly luciferase for tracking, live imaging revealed luminescence of the respiratory tract of mice within 6 h and persisting for 3 d following intranasal inoculation, whereas luminescence remained at the site of intramuscular vaccination. Intramuscular vaccination induced S-binding-Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing antibodies in the lungs, whereas intranasal vaccination also induced Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and higher levels of antigen-specific CD3+CD8+IFN-γ+ T cells. Similarly, IgG and neutralizing antibodies were present in the blood of mice immunized intranasally and intramuscularly, but IgA was detected only after intranasal inoculation. Intranasal boosting increased IgA after intranasal or intramuscular priming. While intramuscular vaccination prevented morbidity and cleared SARS-CoV-2 from the respiratory tract within several days after challenge, intranasal vaccination was more effective as neither infectious virus nor viral messenger (m)RNAs were detected in the nasal turbinates or lungs as early as 2 d after challenge, indicating prevention or rapid elimination of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, we determined that neutralizing antibody persisted for more than 6 mo and that serum induced to the Wuhan S protein neutralized pseudoviruses expressing the S proteins of variants, although with less potency, particularly for Beta and Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin A , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccinia virus , Administration, Intranasal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Respiratory System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Vaccinia virus/immunology
20.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263328, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883630

ABSTRACT

Patients on dialysis are at risk of severe course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Understanding the neutralizing activity and coverage of SARS-CoV-2 variants of vaccine-elicited antibodies is required to guide prophylactic and therapeutic COVID-19 interventions in this frail population. By analyzing plasma samples from 130 hemodialysis and 13 peritoneal dialysis patients after two doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccines, we found that 35% of the patients had low-level or undetectable IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S). Neutralizing antibodies against the vaccine-matched SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variant were low or undetectable in 49% and 77% of patients, respectively, and were further reduced against other emerging variants. The fraction of non-responding patients was higher in SARS-CoV-2-naïve hemodialysis patients immunized with BNT162b2 (66%) than those immunized with mRNA-1273 (23%). The reduced neutralizing activity correlated with low antibody avidity. Patients followed up to 7 months after vaccination showed a rapid decay of the antibody response with an average 21- and 10-fold reduction of neutralizing antibodies to vaccine-matched SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variant, which increased the fraction of non-responders to 84% and 90%, respectively. These data indicate that dialysis patients should be prioritized for additional vaccination boosts. Nevertheless, their antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 must be continuously monitored to adopt the best prophylactic and therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibody Affinity , CHO Cells , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cricetulus , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Follow-Up Studies , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Risk Factors , /immunology
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