Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Filter
1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2132563, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499193

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although several studies have provided information on short-term clinical outcomes in children with perinatal exposure to SARS-CoV-2, data on the immune response in the first months of life among newborns exposed to the virus in utero are lacking. Objective: To characterize systemic and mucosal antibody production during the first 2 months of life among infants who were born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled 28 pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and who gave birth at Policlinico Umberto I in Rome, Italy, from November 2020 to May 2021, and their newborns. Maternal and neonatal systemic immune responses were investigated by detecting spike-specific antibodies in serum, and the mucosal immune response was assessed by measuring specific antibodies in maternal breastmilk and infant saliva 48 hours after delivery and 2 months later. Exposures: Maternal infection with SARS-CoV-2 in late pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The systemic immune response was evaluated by the detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA antibodies and receptor binding domain-specific IgM antibodies in maternal and neonatal serum. The mucosal immune response was assessed by measuring spike-specific antibodies in breastmilk and in infant saliva, and the presence of antigen-antibody spike IgA immune complexes was investigated in breastmilk samples. All antibodies were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In total, 28 mother-infant dyads (mean [SD] maternal age, 31.8 [6.4] years; mean [SD] gestational age, 38.1 [2.3] weeks; 18 [60%] male infants) were enrolled at delivery, and 21 dyads completed the study at 2 months' follow-up. Because maternal infection was recent in all cases, transplacental transfer of virus spike-specific IgG antibodies occurred in only 1 infant. One case of potential vertical transmission and 1 case of horizontal infection were observed. Virus spike protein-specific salivary IgA antibodies were significantly increased (P = .01) in infants fed breastmilk (0.99 arbitrary units [AU]; IQR, 0.39-1.68 AU) vs infants fed an exclusive formula diet (0.16 AU; IQR, 0.02-0.83 AU). Maternal milk contained IgA spike immune complexes at 48 hours (0.53 AU; IQR, 0.25-0.39 AU) and at 2 months (0.09 AU; IQR, 0.03-0.17 AU) and may have functioned as specific stimuli for the infant mucosal immune response. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgA antibodies were detected in infant saliva, which may partly explain why newborns are resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mothers infected in the peripartum period appear to not only passively protect the newborn via breastmilk secretory IgA but also actively stimulate and train the neonatal immune system via breastmilk immune complexes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 197: 113762, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487618

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a worldwide health crisis. Rapid diagnosis, new therapeutics and effective vaccines will all be required to stop the spread of COVID-19. Quantitative evaluation of serum antibody levels against the SARS-CoV-2 virus provides a means of monitoring a patient's immune response to a natural viral infection or vaccination, as well as evidence of a prior infection. In this paper, a portable and low-cost electrochemical immunosensor is developed for the rapid and accurate quantification of SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies. The immunosensor is capable of quantifying the concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in human serum. For IgG and IgM, it provides measurements in the range of 10.1 ng/mL - 60 µg/mL and 1.64 ng/mL - 50 µg/mL, respectively, both with an assay time of 13 min. We also developed device stabilization and storage strategies to achieve stable performance of the immunosensor over 24-week storage at room temperature. We evaluated the performance of the immunosensor using COVID-19 patient serum samples collected at different time points after symptom onset. The rapid and sensitive detection of IgG and IgM provided by our immunosensor fulfills the need of rapid COVID-19 serological testing for both point-of-care diagnosis and population immunity screening.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
MAbs ; 13(1): 1978130, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442969

ABSTRACT

Recent years have seen unparalleled development of microfluidic applications for antibody discovery in both academic and pharmaceutical research. Microfluidics can support native chain-paired library generation as well as direct screening of antibody secreting cells obtained by rodent immunization or from the human peripheral blood. While broad diversities of neutralizing antibodies against infectious diseases such as HIV, Ebola, or COVID-19 have been identified from convalescent individuals, microfluidics can expedite therapeutic antibody discovery for cancer or immunological disease indications. In this study, a commercially available microfluidic device, Cyto-Mine, was used for the rapid identification of natively paired antibodies from rodents or human donors screened for specific binding to recombinant antigens, for direct screening with cells expressing the target of interest, and, to our knowledge for the first time, for direct broad functional IgG antibody screening in droplets. The process time from cell preparation to confirmed recombinant antibodies was four weeks. Application of this or similar microfluidic devices and methodologies can accelerate and enhance pharmaceutical antibody hit discovery.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Microfluidics/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Antibodies, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Antibody Specificity , Antigens/immunology , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Blood Preservation , COVID-19/immunology , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Humans , Hybridomas/immunology , Immunomagnetic Separation , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Mice , Microfluidics/instrumentation , Muromonab-CD3/immunology , Plasma Cells , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tetanus Toxoid/immunology , Vaccination
4.
J Immunol Methods ; 496: 113096, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349521

ABSTRACT

Serology or antibody tests for COVID-19 are designed to detect antibodies (mainly Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) produced in response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) infection. In this study, 30 lateral flow immunoassays were tested using serum or plasma from patients with confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection. Negative serological controls were accessed from a well-characterised bank of sera which were stored prior to February 2020. Operational characteristics and ease of use of the assays are reported. 4/30 (13%) of kits (Zheihang Orient Gene COVID-19 IgG/IgM, Genrui Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) IgG/IgM, Biosynex COVID-19 BSS IgG/IgM, Boson Biotech 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM) were recommended for SAHPRA approval based on kit sensitivity. Of these, only the Orientgene was recommended by SAHPRA in August 2020 for use within the approved national testing algorithm while the remaining three received limited authorization for evaluation. All kits evaluated work on the same basic principle of immunochromatography with minor differences noted in the shape and colour of cartridges, the amount of specimen volume required and the test duration. Performance of the lateral flow tests were similar to sensitivities and specificities reported in other studies. The cassettes of the majority of kits evaluated (90%) detected both IgG and IgM. Only 23% of kits evaluated contained all consumables required for point-of-care testing. The study highlights the need for thorough investigation of kits prior to implementation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/statistics & numerical data , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoassay/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , Point-of-Care Testing/statistics & numerical data , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 683902, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282386

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a public health concern that causes acute lower respiratory tract infection. So far, no vaccine candidate under development has reached the market and the only licensed product to prevent RSV infection in at-risk infants and young children is a monoclonal antibody (Synagis®). Polyclonal human anti-RSV hyper-immune immunoglobulins (Igs) have also been used but were superseded by Synagis® owing to their low titer and large infused volume. Here we report a new drug class of immunoglobulins, derived from human non hyper-immune plasma that was generated by an innovative bioprocess, called Ig cracking, combining expertises in plasma-derived products and affinity chromatography. By using the RSV fusion protein (F protein) as ligand, the Ig cracking process provided a purified and concentrated product, designated hyper-enriched anti-RSV IgG, composed of at least 15-20% target-specific-antibodies from normal plasma. These anti-RSV Ig displayed a strong in vitro neutralization effect on RSV replication. Moreover, we described a novel prophylactic strategy based on local nasal administration of this unique hyper-enriched anti-RSV IgG solution using a mouse model of infection with bioluminescent RSV. Our results demonstrated that very low doses of hyper-enriched anti-RSV IgG can be administered locally to ensure rapid and efficient inhibition of virus infection. Thus, the general hyper-enriched Ig concept appeared a promising approach and might provide solutions to prevent and treat other infectious diseases. IMPORTANCE: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory infections in children, and is also recognized as a cause of morbidity in the elderly. There are still no vaccines and no efficient antiviral therapy against this virus. Here, we described an approach of passive immunization with a new class of hyper-enriched anti-RSV immunoglobulins (Ig) manufactured from human normal plasma. This new class of immunoglobulin plasma derived product is generated by an innovative bioprocess, called Ig cracking, which requires a combination of expertise in both plasma derived products and affinity chromatography. The strong efficacy in a small volume of these hyper-enriched anti-RSV IgG to inhibit the viral infection was demonstrated using a mouse model. This new class of immunoglobulin plasma-derived products could be applied to other pathogens to address specific therapeutic needs in the field of infectious diseases or even pandemics, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/administration & dosage , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Lung/drug effects , Lung/virology , Neutralization Tests , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Turbinates/drug effects , Turbinates/virology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280634

ABSTRACT

Although SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies are promising therapeutics against COVID-19, little is known about their mechanism(s) of action or effective dosing windows. We report the generation and development of SC31, a potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, isolated from a convalescent patient. Antibody-mediated neutralization occurs via an epitope within the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. SC31 exhibited potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities in multiple animal models. In SARS-CoV-2 infected K18-human ACE2 transgenic mice, treatment with SC31 greatly reduced viral loads and attenuated pro-inflammatory responses linked to the severity of COVID-19. Importantly, a comparison of the efficacies of SC31 and its Fc-null LALA variant revealed that the optimal therapeutic efficacy of SC31 requires Fc-mediated effector functions that promote IFNγ-driven anti-viral immune responses, in addition to its neutralization ability. A dose-dependent efficacy of SC31 was observed down to 5mg/kg when administered before viral-induced lung inflammatory responses. In addition, antibody-dependent enhancement was not observed even when infected mice were treated with SC31 at sub-therapeutic doses. In SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters, SC31 treatment significantly prevented weight loss, reduced viral loads, and attenuated the histopathology of the lungs. In rhesus macaques, the therapeutic potential of SC31 was evidenced through the reduction of viral loads in both upper and lower respiratory tracts to undetectable levels. Together, the results of our preclinical studies demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of SC31 in three different models and its potential as a COVID-19 therapeutic candidate.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/blood , Chemokines/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Convalescence , Cricetinae , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice, Transgenic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Load
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2548-2552, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227757

ABSTRACT

Data regarding antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients infected with COVID-19 are not yet available. In this study, we aimed to evaluate serum antibody responses in patients regardless of the outcome. We measured the circulating immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels in 60 subjects with a certified history of SARS-CoV-2 infection by using immunoenzymatic, chemiluminescent, and Neutralization assays. Half patients had a severe infection, the other half were pauci-symptomatic. We analyzed their antibody response to see the trend of the humoral response. Our results showed a significant difference in circulating IgG level among the two groups. The neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 was significantly higher among those who had severe disease. Furthermore, ten subjects from each group were screened twice, and a declining antibody trend was observed in pauci-symptomatic individuals. These findings provide evidence that humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in pauci-symptomatic people is weak and may not be long-lasting. This may have implications for immunity strategy and prevention, since it is still not clear whether a time-dependent decrease of both circulating and neutralizing antibodies to nonprotective levels could occur in a longer time span and whether potential vaccines are able to induce a herd immunity and a durable response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Vero Cells
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3084-3091, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196538

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Fast, accurate, and simple blood-based assays for quantification of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are urgently needed to identify infected individuals and keep track of the spread of disease. METHODS: The study included 33 plasma samples from 20 individuals with confirmed COVID-19 by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and 40 non-COVID-19 plasma samples. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM)/immunoglobulin A (IgA) or immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were detected by a microfluidic quantitative immunomagnetic assay (IMA) (ViroTrack Sero COVID IgM + IgA/IgG Ab, Blusense Diagnostics) and compared to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (EuroImmun Medizinische Labordiagnostika). RESULTS: Of the 33 plasma samples from the COVID-19 patients, 28 were positive for IgA/IgM or IgG by IMA and 29 samples were positive by ELISA. Sensitivity for only one sample per patient was 68% for IgA + IgM and 75% IgG by IMA and 80% by ELISA. For samples collected 14 days after symptom onset, the sensitivity of both IMA and ELISA was around 91%. The specificity of the IMA reached 100% compared to 95% for ELISA IgA and 97.5% for ELISA IgG. CONCLUSION: IMA for COVID-19 is a rapid simple-to-use point-of-care test with sensitivity and specificity similar to a commercial ELISA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunomagnetic Separation/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(5)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195815

ABSTRACT

Serological assays for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are needed to support clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations. Recently, assays for large-scale detection of total antibodies (Ab), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgM against SARS-CoV-2 antigens have been developed, but there are limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of these assays. This study was a Danish national collaboration and evaluated 15 commercial and one in-house anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays in 16 laboratories. Sensitivity was evaluated using 150 samples from individuals with asymptomatic, mild, or moderate COVID-19, nonhospitalized or hospitalized, confirmed by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT); samples were collected 13 to 73 days either from symptom onset or from positive NAAT (patients without symptoms). Specificity and cross-reactivity were evaluated in samples collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic from >586 blood donors and patients with autoimmune diseases, cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus infections, and acute viral infections. A specificity of ≥99% was achieved by all total-Ab and IgG assays except one, DiaSorin Liaison XL IgG (97.2%). Sensitivities in descending order were Wantai ELISA total Ab (96.7%), CUH-NOVO in-house ELISA total Ab (96.0%), Ortho Vitros total Ab (95.3%), YHLO iFlash IgG (94.0%), Ortho Vitros IgG (93.3%), Siemens Atellica total Ab (93.2%), Roche Elecsys total Ab (92.7%), Abbott Architect IgG (90.0%), Abbott Alinity IgG (median 88.0%), DiaSorin Liaison XL IgG (median 84.6%), Siemens Vista total Ab (81.0%), Euroimmun/ELISA IgG (78.0%), and Snibe Maglumi IgG (median 78.0%). However, confidence intervals overlapped for several assays. The IgM results were variable, with the Wantai IgM ELISA showing the highest sensitivity (82.7%) and specificity (99%). The rate of seropositivity increased with time from symptom onset and symptom severity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e046800, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150238

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In Italy, the pandemic of COVID-19 resulted in congestion of hospitals and laboratories and probably determined an underestimation of the number of infected subjects, as the molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was mainly performed on hospitalised patients. Therefore, limited data are available about the number of asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic subjects in the general population across time. To understand SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population, we have developed a cross-sectional study (the 'UNIversity against CORoNavirus study') to investigate infection trends in asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic subjects in Milan (Italy), between March and June 2020. PARTICIPANTS: The study population included 2023 subjects asymptomatic at the enrolment. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: A nasal mid-turbinate swab for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and blood specimen for testing serum antibodies (immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG) were collected. RESULTS: Subjects showing positivity for the SARS-CoV-2 RNA and/or for anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ig is 237 (11.7%). Only 1.2% (n=25) of the total population had a positive nasal swab for SARS-CoV-2 and the large majority (21/25) of them were observed in March. A total of 226 subjects (11%) had IgM (n=19; 0.9%), IgG (n=155; 7.7%) or both (n=52; 2.6%) against SARS-CoV-2. Subjects with a present or past SARS-CoV-2 infection did not differ from other subjects as regards the number of cohabiting family members, travels, fever and upper and lower respiratory infection episodes. CONCLUSIONS: Results from the present study support the hypothesis that the actual spread of the virus in Lombardy was underestimated in the official records. However, as it is not known how long Ig persist, numbers should be taken cautiously.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1577, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132068

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a new recently emerged sarbecovirus. This virus uses the human ACE2 enzyme as receptor for cell entry, recognizing it with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the viral spike protein. We present the use of phage display to select anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies from the human naïve antibody gene libraries HAL9/10 and subsequent identification of 309 unique fully human antibodies against S1. 17 antibodies are binding to the RBD, showing inhibition of spike binding to cells expressing ACE2 as scFv-Fc and neutralize active SARS-CoV-2 virus infection of VeroE6 cells. The antibody STE73-2E9 is showing neutralization of active SARS-CoV-2 as IgG and is binding to the ACE2-RBD interface. Thus, universal libraries from healthy human donors offer the advantage that antibodies can be generated quickly and independent from the availability of material from recovering patients in a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Antibody Affinity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Library , Healthy Volunteers , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Peptide Library , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells
12.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(5)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081941

ABSTRACT

Serological assays for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are needed to support clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations. Recently, assays for large-scale detection of total antibodies (Ab), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgM against SARS-CoV-2 antigens have been developed, but there are limited data on the diagnostic accuracy of these assays. This study was a Danish national collaboration and evaluated 15 commercial and one in-house anti-SARS-CoV-2 assays in 16 laboratories. Sensitivity was evaluated using 150 samples from individuals with asymptomatic, mild, or moderate COVID-19, nonhospitalized or hospitalized, confirmed by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT); samples were collected 13 to 73 days either from symptom onset or from positive NAAT (patients without symptoms). Specificity and cross-reactivity were evaluated in samples collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic from >586 blood donors and patients with autoimmune diseases, cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus infections, and acute viral infections. A specificity of ≥99% was achieved by all total-Ab and IgG assays except one, DiaSorin Liaison XL IgG (97.2%). Sensitivities in descending order were Wantai ELISA total Ab (96.7%), CUH-NOVO in-house ELISA total Ab (96.0%), Ortho Vitros total Ab (95.3%), YHLO iFlash IgG (94.0%), Ortho Vitros IgG (93.3%), Siemens Atellica total Ab (93.2%), Roche Elecsys total Ab (92.7%), Abbott Architect IgG (90.0%), Abbott Alinity IgG (median 88.0%), DiaSorin Liaison XL IgG (median 84.6%), Siemens Vista total Ab (81.0%), Euroimmun/ELISA IgG (78.0%), and Snibe Maglumi IgG (median 78.0%). However, confidence intervals overlapped for several assays. The IgM results were variable, with the Wantai IgM ELISA showing the highest sensitivity (82.7%) and specificity (99%). The rate of seropositivity increased with time from symptom onset and symptom severity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 715-724, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067512

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is now rapidly spreading globally. Serological tests are an important method to assist in the diagnosis of COVID-19, used for epidemiological investigations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of different types of vacuum collection tubes on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies, using the colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 112 patients with COVID-19 and 200 healthy control subjects with no infection were enrolled in this study. Their serum and plasma were collected into four different types of vacuum blood collection tubes. SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG specific antibodies in the plasma and serum were then detected by GICA and chemiluminescence assay (CA), respectively. In addition, the particle sizes of different colloidal gold solutions in the presence of different anticoagulants and coagulants were evaluated by both laser diffraction (Malvern) and confocal laser microscope, respectively. RESULTS: Our results revealed that anticoagulated plasma with EDTA-K2 improved the positive detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies. Furthermore, our results shown that the detection results by GICA and CA were highly consistent, especially, the results of EDTA-K2 anticoagulated plasma detected by GICA was more consistent with CA results. We confirmed that EDTA-K2 could improve the detection sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies by chelating excessive colloidal gold compared with sodium citrate or lithium heparin, these methodologies did not appear to cause false positives. Colloidal gold particles could be chelated and aggregated by EDTA-K2, but not by sodium citrate, lithium heparin and coagulants. CONCLUSION: GICA is widely used to detect antibodies for the advantages of convenient, fast, low cost, suitable for screening large sample and require minimal equipment. In this study, we found that EDTA-K2 amplified the positive antibody signal by chelating colloidal gold and improved the detection sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies when using the GICA. Therefore, we suggested that EDTA-K2 anticoagulated plasma was more suitable for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Gold Colloid/chemistry , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Specificity/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Weight , Particle Size , Polymers/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
JCI Insight ; 6(4)2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039950

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become the worst public health crisis in a century. However, knowledge about the dynamics of antibody responses in patients with COVID-19 is still poorly understood. In this study, we performed a serological study with serum specimens collected at the acute and the convalescent phases from 104 patients with severe COVID-19 who were part of the first wave of COVID-19 cases in Wuhan, China. Our findings revealed that neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are persistent for at least 6 months in patients with severe COVID-19, despite that IgG levels against the receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (N) IgG declined from the acute to the convalescent phase. Moreover, we demonstrate that the level of RBD-IgG is capable of correlating with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing activities in COVID-19 serum. In summary, our findings identify the magnitude, functionality, and longevity of antibody responses in patients with COVID-19, which sheds light on the humoral immune response to COVID-19 and would be beneficial for developing vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immune Sera , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Survivors , Time Factors
16.
Cell ; 182(4): 828-842.e16, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027977

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody responses to coronaviruses mainly target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the trimeric spike. Here, we characterized polyclonal immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) and Fabs from COVID-19 convalescent individuals for recognition of coronavirus spikes. Plasma IgGs differed in their focus on RBD epitopes, recognition of alpha- and beta-coronaviruses, and contributions of avidity to increased binding/neutralization of IgGs over Fabs. Using electron microscopy, we examined specificities of polyclonal plasma Fabs, revealing recognition of both S1A and RBD epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 spike. Moreover, a 3.4 Å cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a neutralizing monoclonal Fab-spike complex revealed an epitope that blocks ACE2 receptor binding. Modeling based on these structures suggested different potentials for inter-spike crosslinking by IgGs on viruses, and characterized IgGs would not be affected by identified SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations. Overall, our studies structurally define a recurrent anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody class derived from VH3-53/VH3-66 and similarity to a SARS-CoV VH3-30 antibody, providing criteria for evaluating vaccine-elicited antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross Reactions , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/blood , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/ultrastructure , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin G/ultrastructure , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/chemistry , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
17.
J Infect Dis ; 223(7): 1120-1131, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine how serologic antibody testing outcome links with virus neutralization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we evaluated individuals for SARS-CoV-2 antibody level and viral neutralization. METHODS: We compared serum Ig levels across platforms of viral antigens and antibodies with 15 positive and 30 negative SARS-CoV-2 controls followed by viral neutralization assessment. We then applied these platforms to a clinically relevant cohort of 114 individuals with unknown histories of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: In controls, the best-performing virus-specific antibody detection platforms were SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG (sensitivity 87%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value [PPV] 100%, negative predictive value [NPV] 94%), spike IgG3 (sensitivity 93%, specificity 97%, PPV 93%, NPV 97%), and nucleocapsid protein (NP) IgG (sensitivity 93%, specificity 97%, PPV 93%, NPV 97%). Neutralization of positive and negative control sera showed 100% agreement. Twenty individuals with unknown history had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with 16 demonstrating virus neutralization. Spike IgG3 provided the highest accuracy for predicting serologically positive individuals with virus neutralization activity (misidentified 1/20 unknowns compared to 2/20 for RBD and NP IgG). CONCLUSIONS: The coupling of virus neutralization analysis to a spike IgG3 antibody test is optimal to categorize patients for correlates of SARS-CoV-2 immune protection status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
18.
Dan Med J ; 67(12)2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955060

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The deadly coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a pandemic affecting the whole world. Lower health literacy and higher mortality rates in the homeless and vulnerable population compared with the background population potentially leaves this group or people more exposed to COVID-19. This study assessed the vulnerable population of Aarhus in relation to COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Participants were tested during a six-day period in April and a four-day period in June at drop-in centres, injection rooms and homeless shelters in Aarhus. Oropharyngeal swab tests were performed and analysed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Test days in June were supplemented with lateral flow tests for immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM. Prevalence and corresponding Wilson 95% confidence intervals were computed. RESULTS: We tested 295 individuals in April and 141 individuals in June. All oropharyngeal swabs were COVID-19 negative. The lateral flow tests were IgM-positive in six of 129 individuals (4.7%) and IgG-positive less than five of 129 (less than 3.9%) individuals. On the day of testing, COVID-19 symptoms such as fever, coughing and/or sore throat were found in 63 of 240 (26.3%) of the participants in April and in 26 of 123 (21.1%) in June. In the April testing round, 175 of 291 (59.9%) reported to be born in Denmark. The corresponding number for the June testing round was 84 of 138 (60.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite their vulnerable profile, the vulnerable citizens tested in Aarhus were not infected with COVID-19 at the testing day and very few participants carried antibodies. FUNDING: Testing was funded by Aarhus University Hospital. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Appl Lab Med ; 6(2): 491-495, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887281

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are capable of binding to a virus to render it incapable of infection. The ability of commercially available SARS-CoV-2 serological tests to detect NAbs has not been widely reported. We sought to correlate the antibodies detected by an automated chemiluminescent immunoassay with NAbs. METHODS: Residual serum samples from 35 patients that had a positive antibody test using the LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG chemiluminescent immunoassay and 2 antibody-negative control sera were tested for NAbs using a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). RESULTS: NAbs were detected in 66% (23/35) of the antibody-positive samples. The immunoassay signal value ranged from 21.7 to 131.3 AU/mL (median, 90.5) with significant correlation between it and the PRNT (r = 0.61, P = 0.002). In the samples without NAbs, the immunoassay signal ranged from 16.3 to 66.2 AU/mL (median, 27.2). An immunoassay signal cutoff of >41 AU/mL was 91% sensitive and 92% specific for the detection of NAbs. DISCUSSION: It is important that correlates of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 be identified and NAbs are considered to be central indicators of such. PRNT is the gold-standard test for identifying NAbs but it cannot be used for large-scale testing of populations. It is necessary to establish relationships between it and widely used commercial serological assays for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Luminescent Measurements/instrumentation , Luminescent Measurements/standards , Luminescent Measurements/statistics & numerical data , Neutralization Tests/standards , Neutralization Tests/statistics & numerical data , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL