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1.
Mult Scler ; 28(7): 1041-1050, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Optimal management of anti-CD20-treated patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is an important clinical task during the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To characterize humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations/infections in a longitudinal cohort of anti-CD20 treated (n = 175) and anti-CD20 therapy-naïve (n = 41) pwMS. METHODS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA, virus neutralizing capacity, IgG avidity and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were determined. RESULTS: Following two SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations, not only SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG and IgA, but also neutralizing capacity and avidity of SARS-CoV-2 IgG were lower in anti-CD20-treated (n = 51) than in anti-CD20 therapy-naïve pwMS (n = 14) and in healthy controls (HC, n = 19). However, in all anti-CD20-treated pwMS vaccinated twice (n = 26) or infected with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 2), in whom SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were measured, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were detectable, at levels similar to those of twice-vaccinated anti-CD20 therapy-naïve pwMS (n = 7) and HC (n = 19). SARS-CoV-2-S1 IgG levels (r = 0.42, p = 0.002), antibody avidity (r = 0.7, p < 0.001), and neutralizing capacity (r = 0.44, p = 0.03) increased with time between anti-CD20 infusion and second vaccination. Based on detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred in 4 out of 175 (2.3%) anti-CD20-treated pwMS, all of whom recovered fully. CONCLUSIONS: These findings should inform treatment decisions and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination management in pwMS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 868915, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793012

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunomodulatory/immunosuppressive activity of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease modifying therapies (DMTs) might affect immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 exposure or vaccination in patients with MS (PwMS). We evaluated the effect of DMTs on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to 2 and 3 vaccinations and the longevity of SARS-Cov-2 IgG levels in PwMS. Methods: 522 PwMS and 68 healthy controls vaccinated with BNT162b2-Pfizer mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, or recovering from COVID-19, were recruited in a nation-wide multi-center study. Blood was collected at 3 time-points: 2-16 weeks and ~6 months post 2nd vaccination and 1-16 weeks following 3rd vaccination. Serological responses were measured by quantifying IgG levels against the spike-receptor-binding-domain of SARS-CoV-2, and cellular responses (in a subgroup analysis) by quantifying IFNγ secretion in blood incubated with COVID-19 spike-antigen. Results: 75% PwMS were seropositive post 2nd or 3rd vaccination. IgG levels decreased by 82% within 6 months from vaccination (p<0.0001), but were boosted 10.3 fold by the 3rd vaccination (p<0.0001), and 1.8 fold compared to ≤3m post 2nd vaccination (p=0.025). Patients treated with most DMTs were seropositive post 2nd and 3rd vaccinations, however only 38% and 44% of ocrelizumab-treated patients and 54% and 46% of fingolimod-treated patients, respectively, were seropositive. Similarly, in COVID-19-recovered patients only 54% of ocrelizumab-treated, 75% of fingolimod-treated and 67% of cladribine-treated patients were seropositive. A time interval of ≥5 months between ocrelizumab infusion and vaccination was associated with higher IgG levels (p=0.039 post-2nd vaccination; p=0.036 post-3rd vaccination), and with higher proportions of seropositive patients. Most fingolimod- and ocrelizumab-treated patients responded similarly to 2nd and 3rd vaccination. IFNγ-T-cell responses were detected in 89% and 63% of PwMS post 2nd and 3rd vaccination, however in only 25% and 0% of fingolimod-treated patients, while in 100% and 86% of ocrelizumab-treated patients, respectively. Conclusion: PwMS treated with most DMTs developed humoral and T-cell responses following 2 and 3 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations. Fingolimod- or ocrelizumab-treated patients had diminished humoral responses, and fingolimod compromised the cellular responses, with no improvement after a 3rd booster. Vaccination following >5 months since ocrelizumab infusion was associated with better sero-positivity. These findings may contribute to the development of treatment-stratified vaccination guidelines for PwMS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Israel , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 62: 103800, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The persistence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 pandemic, partly due to the appearance of highly infectious variants, has made booster vaccinations necessary for vulnerable groups. Here, we present data regarding the decline of the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine-induced humoral immune response in a monocentric cohort of MS patients. METHODS: 96 MS patients undergoing eight different DMTs, all without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, were evaluated for anti-Spike IgG levels, 21 days (T1) and 5-6 months (T2) after the second SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine dose. The anti-Spike IgG titre from MS subjects was compared with 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: When compared with SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels at T2 in HC, we observed comparable levels in interferon-ß 1a-, dimethyl fumarate-, teriflunomide- and natalizumab-treated MS subjects, but an impaired humoral response in MS subjects undergoing glatiramer acetate-, cladribine-, fingolimod- and ocrelizumab-treatments. Moreover, comparison between SARS-CoV-2 IgG Spike titre at T1 and T2 revealed a faster decline of the humoral response in patients undergoing dimethyl fumarate-, interferon-ß 1a- and glatiramer acetate-therapies, while those receiving teriflunomide and natalizumab showed higher persistence compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The prominent decline in humoral response in MS subjects undergoing dimethyl fumarate-, interferon-ß 1a- and glatiramer acetate-therapies should be considered when formulating booster regimens as these subjects would benefit of early booster vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Glatiramer Acetate/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
4.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 60: 103724, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783662

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Real-world clinical data suggest an attenuated short-term humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) receiving high efficacy (HE) disease modifying therapies (DMTs) such as Ocrelizumab (OCR) and Fingolimod (FNG). Long-term humoral response in pwMS treated with these HE-DMTs has been poorly investigated. The aim of our study was to explore: i) the humoral response up to six months after a full cycle of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine in pwMS treated with OCR and FNG and to compare it to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs); ii) the relationship between humoral response and clinical and immunological characteristics of the studied population. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from HCs and pwMS treated with OCR or FNG at the following time points: before BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine (T0), and 4 (T1), 8 (T2), 16 (T3) and 24 (T4) weeks after the first dose. Sera were stored at -20 °C and tested for the quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 trimeric spike protein (Anti-TSP IgG) expressed in binding antibody units (BAU). At T1 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) titres were assessed. The relationship between Anti-TSP IgG at each time-point and clinical and laboratoristic analyses were analysed by the Spearman correlation coefficient. RESULTS: 47 HCs and 50 pwMS (28 on OCR and 22 on FNG) were included in the study. All HCs mounted a positive humoral response at T1 and preserved it up to six months. At T1 only 57.1% pwMS on OCR (p < 0.001 compared with HCs) and 40.9% on FNG (p < 0.001) had a positive humoral response at T1, with only 39.3% and 27.3% maintaining a positive response at sixth months (T4), respectively. A strong positive correlation was observed between Nabs titres and Anti-TSP IgG at T1 (rho 0.87, p < 0.0001) with NAbs titres significantly higher in HCs compared with pwMS on OCR and FNG (p<0.0001). We also found a strong positive correlation between time-window since last OCR infusion and anti-TSP IgG titres at all time-points (T1 rho=0.58, p = 0.001; T2 rho=0.59, p = 0.001; T3 rho=0.53, p = 0.004; T4 rho=0.47, p = 0.01). In the FNG group we observed a significant correlation between the humoral response measured from T1 to T4 and: i) treatment duration (T1: rho -0.65, p = 0.001; T2: rho -0.8 p< 0.001; T3: rho -0.72, p=<0.001; T4: rho -0.67, p<0.001), ii) disease duration (T1: rho -0.5, p = 0.017; T2: rho -0.6, p = 0.003; T3: rho -0.58, p = 0.005; T4: rho -0.57, p = 0.006), and iii) baseline total lymphocyte count (T1: rho 0.37, p = 0.08; T2: rho 0.45, p = 0.03; T3: rho 0.43, p = 0.04; T4: rho 0.45, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our long-term data show a weakened and short-lasting humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in pwMS treated with OCR and FNG when compared with HCs. MS neurologists should take into account the time elapsed since the last infusion for pwMS on OCR, and the lymphocyte count as well as the disease and treatment duration for those on FNG when called to counsel such pwMS regarding the vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 61: 103776, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757690

ABSTRACT

Anti-SARS-CoV2 mRNA vaccines showed a blunted antibody (Ab) response in people with MS (pwMS) on high efficacy therapies, suggesting the need for a booster dose. We evaluated the kinetics of the production of anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) Immunoglobulins G (IgG) after the vaccination cycle and the booster in pwMS receiving ocrelizumab, fingolimod and cladribine. A significant increase of anti-RBD IgG seroconversion was observed after booster respect to the vaccination cycle. Results obtained from this study will be useful for the management of pwMS in relation to their disease modifying therapy (DMT) and for any future vaccination campaign.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
ESMO Open ; 7(2): 100458, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although a full course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is effective in cancer patients, the duration of the protection and the efficacy of a booster dose against the new variants remain unknown. We prospectively evaluated the immunogenicity of the third dose of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine in cancer patients undergoing active treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with solid cancer, vaccinated with a booster dose during active treatment, were enrolled in this study. Patients were classified into SARS-CoV-2 naïve (without previous COVID-19 infection) and SARS-CoV-2 experienced (with previous COVID-19 infection). Neutralizing antibody (NT Ab) titer and total anti-Spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration were quantified in serum. Heparinized whole blood samples were used for SARS-CoV-2 Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA). The primary endpoint was to assess the increase of IgG antibody level between baseline and 3 weeks after the booster. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-two consecutive patients were recruited. In SARS-CoV-2-naïve subjects, the median level of IgG was 157 BAU/ml [interquartile range (IQR) 62-423 BAU/ml] at T0 and reached a median of 2080 BAU/ml (IQR 2080-2080 BAU/ml) at 3 weeks after booster administration (T1; P < 0.0001). A median 16-fold increase of SARS-CoV-2 NT Ab titer (IQR 4-32) was observed in naïve subjects (from median 20, IQR 10-40, to median 640, IQR 160-640; P < 0.0001). Median interferon-γ level at T1 was significantly higher than that measured at T0 in SARS-CoV-2-naïve subjects (P = 0.0049) but not in SARS-CoV-2-experienced patients. The median level of SARS-CoV-2 NT Abs was 32-fold lower against Omicron compared to the wild-type strain (P = 0.0004) and 12-fold lower compared to the Delta strain (P = 0.0110). CONCLUSIONS: The third dose is able to trigger both the humoral and the cell-mediated immune response in cancer patients on active treatment. Our preliminary data about the neutralization of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against variants of concern seem to confirm the lower vaccine activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0257930, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731590

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 has resulted in the death of nearly 4 million people within the last 18 months. While preventive vaccination, and monoclonal antibody therapies have been rapidly developed and deployed, early in the pandemic the use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) was a common means of passive immunization with a theoretical risk of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of viral infection. Though vaccines elicit a strong and protective immune response and transfusion of CCP with high titers of neutralization activity are correlated with better clinical outcomes, the question of whether antibodies in CCP can enhance infection of SARS-CoV-2 has not been directly addressed. In this study, we analyzed for and observed passive transfer of neutralization activity with CCP transfusion. Furthermore, to specifically understand if antibodies against the spike protein (S) enhance infection, we measured the anti-S IgG, IgA, and IgM responses and adapted retroviral-pseudotypes to measure virus neutralization with target cells expressing the ACE2 virus receptor and the Fc alpha receptor (FcαR) or Fc gamma receptor IIA (FcγRIIA). Whereas neutralizing activity of CCP correlated best with higher titers of anti-S IgG antibodies, the neutralizing titer was not affected when Fc receptors were present on target cells. These observations support the absence of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) by IgG and IgA isotypes found in CCP. The results presented, therefore, not only supports the therapeutic use of currently available antibody-based treatment, including the continuation of CCP transfusion strategies, but also the use of various vaccine platforms in a prophylactic approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Receptors, IgG/genetics , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Young Adult
8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(5): 710-719, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685510

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the distinct impact of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) combination and monotherapy in immune response to an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: This phase 4 prospective study analysed seroconversion (SC) of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralising antibodies (NAb) induced by the inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac) in patients with RA in comparison to controls (CG). Disease activity and treatment were also assessed. Only participants with baseline negative IgG/NAb were included. RESULTS: Patients with RA (N=260) and CG (N=104) had comparable median ages (59 years (50-65 years) vs 58 years (49.8-64 years), p=0.483). Patients with RA had moderate but lower SC (61.8% vs 94.2%, p<0.001) and NAb positivity (45% vs 78.6%, p<0.001) in comparison to CG after full vaccination. Baseline disease activity did not influence immunogenicity (p>0.05). After multivariate analyses, factors independently related to reduced SC were: older age (OR=0.79 (0.70-0.89) for each 5-year interval, p<0.001), methotrexate (OR=0.54 (0.29-0.98), p=0.044), abatacept (OR=0.37 (0.19-0.73), p=0.004) and number of DMARD (OR=0.55 (0.33-0.90), p=0.018). Regarding NAb, age (OR=0.87 (0.78-0.96) for each 5-year interval, p=0.007) and prednisone >7.5 mg/day (OR=0.38 (0.19-0.74), p=0.004) were negatively related to the presence of NAb. Further comparison of SC/NAb positivity among RA treatment subgroups and CG revealed that methotrexate/tofacitinib/abatacept/tocilizumab use, in monotherapy or in combination, resulted in lower responses (p<0.05), while tumour necrosis factor inhibitor and other conventional synthetic DMARD interfered solely when combined with other therapies. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with RA under DMARD have a moderate immunogenicity to CoronaVac. We identified that nearly all DMARD combinations have a deleterious effect in immunogenicity, whereas a more restricted number of drugs (methotrexate/tofacitinib/abatacept/tocilizumab) also hampered this response as monotherapy. These findings reinforce the need of a broader approach, not limited to specific drugs, to improve vaccine response for this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION DETAILS: NCT04754698.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Abatacept/therapeutic use , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, Inactivated
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010175, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592244

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Currently, as dangerous mutations emerge, there is an increased demand for specific treatments for SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The spike glycoprotein on the virus envelope binds to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells through its receptor binding domain (RBD) to mediate virus entry. Thus, blocking this interaction may inhibit viral entry and consequently stop infection. Here, we generated fusion proteins composed of the extracellular portions of ACE2 and RBD fused to the Fc portion of human IgG1 (ACE2-Ig and RBD-Ig, respectively). We demonstrate that ACE2-Ig is enzymatically active and that it can be recognized by the SARS-CoV-2 RBD, independently of its enzymatic activity. We further show that RBD-Ig efficiently inhibits in-vivo SARS-CoV-2 infection better than ACE2-Ig. Mechanistically, we show that anti-spike antibody generation, ACE2 enzymatic activity, and ACE2 surface expression were not affected by RBD-Ig. Finally, we show that RBD-Ig is more efficient than ACE2-Ig at neutralizing high virus titers. We thus propose that RBD-Ig physically blocks virus infection by binding to ACE2 and that RBD-Ig should be used for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Protein Domains , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , Binding Sites, Antibody , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Mice, Transgenic , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells
10.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2005507, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585297

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a serious public health crisis worldwide, and considering the novelty of the disease, preventative and therapeutic measures alike are urgently needed. To accelerate such efforts, the development of JS016, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody directed against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, was expedited from a typical 12- to 18-month period to a 4-month period. During this process, transient Chinese hamster ovary cell lines are used to support preclinical, investigational new drug-enabling toxicology research, and early Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls development; mini-pool materials to supply Phase 1 clinical trials; and a single-clone working cell bank for late-stage and pivotal clinical trials were successively adopted. Moreover, key process performance and product quality investigations using a series of orthogonal and state-of-the-art techniques were conducted to demonstrate the comparability of products manufactured using these three processes, and the results indicated that, despite observed variations in process performance, the primary and high-order structures, purity and impurity profiles, biological and immunological functions, and degradation behaviors under stress conditions were largely comparable. The study suggests that, in particular situations, this strategy can be adopted to accelerate the development of therapeutic biopharmaceuticals and their access to patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Circular Dichroism , Clone Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Isoelectric Point , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
11.
Drugs ; 81(18): 2133-2137, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491483

ABSTRACT

Regdanvimab (Regkirona™) is a recombinant human monoclonal antibody targeted against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. It is being developed by Celltrion Inc. for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In September 2021, regdanvimab received full approval in South Korea for the treatment of COVID-19 in elderly patients aged > 50 years with at least one underlying medical condition (obesity, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, and patients on immunosuppressive agents) and mild symptoms of COVID-19 and in adult patients with moderate symptoms of COVID-19. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of regdanvimab leading to this first approval for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacokinetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Evidence-Based Medicine , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
12.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211044344, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440890

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed many aspects of everyday life. Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) are in a particularly difficult situation. The purpose of the present study was to contribute to the very limited research on the everyday aspects of functioning in PID patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The survey included 85 adult PID patients treated with immunoglobulin replacement therapy in four reference centers for immunology. Everyday functioning of the patients as well as their opinion concerning new solutions in medical care were analyzed. RESULTS: During the pandemic, the percentage of patients experiencing fear/anxiety has increased from 47% to 70%. The wide dissemination of information about the SARS-CoV-2 in the media has increased anxiety in 40% of the patients. Patients diagnosed with PID were most afraid of the exposure to contact with strangers, especially in public places. As many as 67 respondents (79%) considered the introduction of restrictions concerning social functioning as good. Only every fifth person learned about the pandemic from reliable sources. Eighty three percent of the patients receiving immunoglobulin substitution experienced less fear of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patients positively evaluated the solutions related to the direct delivery of drugs to the place of residence in order to continue home IgRT therapy. Fifty three respondents (62.5%) believed that the possibility of a remote consultation was a very good solution. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to increase educational activities concerning the pandemic provided by health care professionals, as patients obtain information mainly from the media and the Internet, which adversely affects the feeling of anxiety. The pandemic, in addition to the very negative impact on patients and the deterioration of their daily functioning, has made patients appreciate their life more, devote more time to family and friends, and do things they like.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/drug therapy , Access to Information , Adult , Affect , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cost of Illness , Drug Substitution , Fear , Female , Health Care Surveys , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Education as Topic , Poland , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/diagnosis , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/psychology , Social Behavior , Telemedicine , Treatment Outcome
13.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(6): 553-558, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440658

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of the current state of antibody therapy for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 infection that has progressed immensely in a very short time period. RECENT FINDINGS: Limited clinical effect of classical passive immunotherapy (plasma therapy, hyperimmune immunoglobulin [IgG] preparations) whereas monoclonal antibody therapy, if initiated early in the disease process, shows promising results. SUMMARY: Although antibody therapy still remains to be fully explored in patients with COVID-19, a combination of IgG monoclonal antibodies against the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein currently appears to provide the best form of antibody therapy, Immunoglobulin A dimers and Immunoglobulin M pentamers also show promising preliminary therapeutic results.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin A/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 711915, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317228

ABSTRACT

Passive antibody therapy has been used to treat outbreaks of viral disease, including the ongoing pandemic of severe respiratory acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19. However, the real benefits of the procedure are unclear. We infused a concentrated solution of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies obtained from a convalescent donor with a single session of double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) into a 56-year-old woman with long history of unremitting, severe COVID-19. She was unable to establish an adequate antiviral immune response because of previous chemotherapy, including the infusion of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab, administered to treat a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The disease promptly recovered despite evidence of no endogenous anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody production. The observation that passive antibody therapy might prove particularly effective in immunodepressed COVID-19 patients requires evaluation in prospective randomized controlled trial.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Plasmapheresis/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/drug therapy , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Rituximab/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 566: 135-140, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260666

ABSTRACT

The global circulation of newly emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 is a new threat to public health due to their increased transmissibility and immune evasion. Moreover, currently available vaccines and therapeutic antibodies were shown to be less effective against new variants, in particular, the South African (SA) variant, termed 501Y.V2 or B.1.351. To assess the efficacy of the CT-P59 monoclonal antibody against the SA variant, we sought to perform as in vitro binding and neutralization assays, and in vivo animal studies. CT-P59 neutralized B.1.1.7 variant to a similar extent as to wild type virus. CT-P59 showed reduced binding affinity against a RBD (receptor binding domain) triple mutant containing mutations defining B.1.351 (K417N/E484K/N501Y) also showed reduced potency against the SA variant in live virus and pseudovirus neutralization assay systems. However, in vivo ferret challenge studies demonstrated that a therapeutic dosage of CT-P59 was able to decrease B.1.351 viral load in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, comparable to that observed for the wild type virus. Overall, although CT-P59 showed reduced in vitro neutralizing activity against the SA variant, sufficient antiviral effect in B.1.351-infected animals was confirmed with a clinical dosage of CT-P59, suggesting that CT-P59 has therapeutic potential for COVID-19 patients infected with SA variant.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Ferrets , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , In Vitro Techniques , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , South Africa , Viral Load/immunology
17.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(3): 308-309, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221045

ABSTRACT

Clinical management protocols for COVID-19 are evolving rapidly as more information about the epidemiology and pathophysiological changes in COVID-19 become available. However, no definite treatment of COVID-19 has been found till date. The COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) therapy has emerged as an important investigational therapy in the management of COVID-19 patients. Additionally, the regulatory agencies, in particular, the Indian blood transfusion council must release some interim recommendations for the blood centres on the CCP blood donor eligibility criteria after COVID-19 vaccination. More clinical trials are needed to know the efficacy of the CCP harvested from COVID-19 recovered individuals who have been vaccinated against those COVID-19 recovered individuals who are not vaccinated to understand the vaccine impact on the IgG titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Blood Safety , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/therapy , Donor Selection/standards , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Human Experimentation , Humans , Immunization, Passive/ethics , Immunization, Passive/standards , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Informed Consent , Viral Proteins/immunology
18.
J Infect Dis ; 223(6): 957-970, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people globally. Virus infection requires the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. Although studies have demonstrated anti-spike and -RBD antibodies to be protective in animal models, and convalescent plasma as a promising therapeutic option, little is known about immunoglobulin isotypes capable of blocking infection. METHODS: We studied spike- and RBD-specific immunoglobulin isotypes in convalescent and acute plasma/serum samples using a multiplex bead assay. We also determined virus neutralization activities in plasma and serum samples, and purified immunoglobulin fractions using a vesicular stomatitis pseudovirus assay. RESULTS: Spike- and RBD-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG1, and IgA1 were produced by all or nearly all subjects at variable levels and detected early after infection. All samples displayed neutralizing activity. Regression analyses revealed that IgM and IgG1 contributed most to neutralization, consistent with IgM and IgG fractions' neutralization potency. IgA also exhibited neutralizing activity, but with lower potency. CONCLUSION: IgG, IgM, and IgA are critical components of convalescent plasma used for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin A/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , Male , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
19.
Trials ; 22(1): 199, 2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early inhibition of entry and replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a very promising therapeutic approach. Polyclonal neutralizing antibodies offers many advantages such as providing immediate immunity, consequently blunting an early pro-inflammatory pathogenic endogenous antibody response and lack of drug-drug interactions. By providing immediate immunity and inhibiting entry into cells, neutralizing antibody treatment is of interest for patient with COVID-19-induced moderate pneumonia. Convalescent plasma to treat infected patients is therefore a relevant therapeutic option currently under assessment (CORIMUNO-PLASM NCT04324047). However, the difficulties of collecting plasma on the long term are not adapted to a broad use across all populations. New polyclonal humanized anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies (XAV-19) developed by Xenothera and administered intravenous. XAV-19 is a heterologous swine glyco-humanized polyclonal antibody (GH-pAb) raised against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, blocking infection of ACE-2-positive human cells with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have been performed in preclinical models including primates. A first human study with another fully representative GH-pAb from Xenothera is ongoing in recipients of a kidney graft. These studies indicated that 5 consecutive administrations of GH-pAbs can be safely performed in humans. The objectives of this 2-step phase 2 randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled study are to define the safety and the optimal XAV-19 dose to administrate to patients with SARS-CoV-2 induced moderate pneumonia, and to assess the clinical benefits of a selected dose of XAV-19 in this population. DISCUSSION: This study will determine the clinical benefits of XAV-19 when administered to patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced moderate pneumonia. As a prerequisite, a first step of the study will define the safety and the dose of XAV-19 to be used. Such treatment might become a new therapeutic option to provide an effective treatment for COVID-19 patients (possibly in combination with anti-viral and immunotherapies). Further studies could later evaluate such passive immunotherapy as a potential post-exposure prophylaxis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04453384 , registered on 1 July 2020, and EUDRACT 2020-002574-27, registered 6 June 2020.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Swine , Time Factors
20.
Hum Immunol ; 82(4): 255-263, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085551

ABSTRACT

Early in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, convalescent plasma (CP) therapy was proposed as a treatment for severely ill patients. We conducted a CP treatment protocol under the Mayo Clinic Extended Access Program at University Hospital Brooklyn (UHB). Potential donors were screened with a lateral flow assay (LFA) for IgM and IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 S1 receptor-binding domain (RBD). Volunteers that were LFA positive were tested with an ELISA to measure IgG titers against the RBD. Subjects with titers of at least 1:1024 were selected to donate. Most donors with positive LFA had acceptable titers and were eligible to donate. Out of 171 volunteers, only 65 tested positive in the LFA (38.0%), and 55 (32.2%) had titers of at least 1:1024. Before our donation program started, 31 CP units were procured from the New York Blood Center (NYBC). Among the 31 CP units that were obtained from the NYBC, 25 units (80.6%) were positive in the LFA but only 12 units (38.7%) had titers of at least 1:1024. CP was administered to 28 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients who received low titer CP, high titer CP and patients who did not receive CP were followed for 45 days after presentation. Severe adverse events were not associated with CP transfusion. Death was a less frequent outcome for patients that received high titer CP (>1:1024) 38.6% mortality, than patients that received low titer CP (≤1:1024) 77.8% mortality.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , Donor Selection , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma/immunology , Retrospective Studies
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