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1.
Cell Rep ; 38(7): 110393, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719435

ABSTRACT

B cells are important in immunity to both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and vaccination, but B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire development in these contexts has not been compared. We analyze serial samples from 171 SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals and 63 vaccine recipients and find the global BCR repertoire differs between them. Following infection, immunoglobulin (Ig)G1/3 and IgA1 BCRs increase, somatic hypermutation (SHM) decreases, and, in severe disease, IgM and IgA clones are expanded. In contrast, after vaccination, the proportion of IgD/M BCRs increase, SHM is unchanged, and expansion of IgG clones is prominent. VH1-24, which targets the N-terminal domain (NTD) and contributes to neutralization, is expanded post infection except in the most severe disease. Infection generates a broad distribution of SARS-CoV-2-specific clones predicted to target the spike protein, while a more focused response after vaccination mainly targets the spike's receptor-binding domain. Thus, the nature of SARS-CoV-2 exposure differentially affects BCR repertoire development, potentially informing vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Vaccination , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clonal Evolution , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/genetics , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/genetics , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology , Kinetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Protein Sci ; 31(1): 141-146, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520274

ABSTRACT

The antibody repertoires of individuals and groups have been used to explore disease states, understand vaccine responses, and drive therapeutic development. The arrival of B-cell receptor repertoire sequencing has enabled researchers to get a snapshot of these antibody repertoires, and as more data are generated, increasingly in-depth studies are possible. However, most publicly available data only exist as raw FASTQ files, making the data hard to access, process, and compare. The Observed Antibody Space (OAS) database was created in 2018 to offer clean, annotated, and translated repertoire data. In this paper, we describe an update to OAS that has been driven by the increasing volume of data and the appearance of paired (VH/VL) sequence data. OAS is now accessible via a new web server, with standardized search parameters and a new sequence-based search option. The new database provides both nucleotides and amino acids for every sequence, with additional sequence annotations to make the data Minimal Information about Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire compliant, and comments on potential problems with the sequence. OAS now contains 25 new studies, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 data and paired sequencing data. The new database is accessible at http://opig.stats.ox.ac.uk/webapps/oas/, and all data are freely available for download.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/chemistry , Databases, Protein , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
Hum Immunol ; 83(2): 119-129, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499900

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Great international efforts have been put into the development of prophylactic vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. However, the knowledge about the B cell immune response induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is still limited. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of the dynamics of immunoglobin heavy chain (IGH) repertoire in COVID-19 patients. By using next-generation sequencing technology, we examined the temporal changes in the landscape of the patient's immunological status and found dramatic changes in the IGH within the patient's immune system after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Although different patients have distinct immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, by employing clonotype overlap, lineage expansion, and clonotype network analyses, we observed a higher clonotype overlap and substantial lineage expansion of B cell clones 2-3 weeks after the onset of illness, which is of great importance to B-cell immune responses. Meanwhile, for preferences of V gene usage during SARS-CoV-2 infection, IGHV3-74 and IGHV4-34, and IGHV4-39 in COVID-19 patients were more abundant than those of healthy controls. Overall, we present an immunological resource for SARS-CoV-2 that could promote both therapeutic development as well as mechanistic research.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Male , Middle Aged
4.
Cell Rep ; 37(1): 109771, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439919

ABSTRACT

Understanding mechanisms of protective antibody recognition can inform vaccine and therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2. We report a monoclonal antibody, 910-30, targeting the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding site for ACE2 as a member of a public antibody response encoded by IGHV3-53/IGHV3-66 genes. Sequence and structural analyses of 910-30 and related antibodies explore how class recognition features correlate with SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Cryo-EM structures of 910-30 bound to the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer reveal binding interactions and its ability to disassemble spike. Despite heavy-chain sequence similarity, biophysical analyses of IGHV3-53/3-66-encoded antibodies highlight the importance of native heavy:light pairings for ACE2-binding competition and SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. We develop paired heavy:light class sequence signatures and determine antibody precursor prevalence to be ∼1 in 44,000 human B cells, consistent with public antibody identification in several convalescent COVID-19 patients. These class signatures reveal genetic, structural, and functional immune features that are helpful in accelerating antibody-based medical interventions for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Binding Sites , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/ultrastructure , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/genetics , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/ultrastructure , Male , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells
5.
Science ; 372(6546): 1108-1112, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388437

ABSTRACT

The molecular composition and binding epitopes of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies that circulate in blood plasma after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are unknown. Proteomic deconvolution of the IgG repertoire to the spike glycoprotein in convalescent subjects revealed that the response is directed predominantly (>80%) against epitopes residing outside the receptor binding domain (RBD). In one subject, just four IgG lineages accounted for 93.5% of the response, including an amino (N)-terminal domain (NTD)-directed antibody that was protective against lethal viral challenge. Genetic, structural, and functional characterization of a multidonor class of "public" antibodies revealed an NTD epitope that is recurrently mutated among emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. These data show that "public" NTD-directed and other non-RBD plasma antibodies are prevalent and have implications for SARS-CoV-2 protection and antibody escape.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibody Affinity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Protein Domains , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
STAR Protoc ; 2(3): 100617, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386745

ABSTRACT

This protocol is a comprehensive guide to phage display-based selection of virus neutralizing VH antibody domains. It details three optimized parts including (1) construction of a large-sized (theoretically > 1011) naïve human antibody heavy chain domain library, (2) SARS-CoV-2 antigen expression and stable cell line construction, and (3) library panning for selection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody domains. Using this protocol, we identified a high-affinity neutralizing human VH antibody domain, VH ab8, which exhibits high prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Li et al. (2020).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology , Peptide Library , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Cell Surface Display Techniques/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Homology
7.
Cell Rep ; 33(3): 108274, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385223

ABSTRACT

IGHV3-53-encoded neutralizing antibodies are commonly elicited during SARS-CoV-2 infection and target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein. Such IGHV3-53 antibodies generally have a short CDR H3 because of structural constraints in binding the RBD (mode A). However, a small subset of IGHV3-53 antibodies to the RBD contain a longer CDR H3. Crystal structures of two IGHV3-53 neutralizing antibodies here demonstrate that a longer CDR H3 can be accommodated in a different binding mode (mode B). These two classes of IGHV3-53 antibodies both target the ACE2 receptor binding site, but with very different angles of approach and molecular interactions. Overall, these findings emphasize the versatility of IGHV3-53 in this common antibody response to SARS-CoV-2, where conserved IGHV3-53 germline-encoded features can be combined with very different CDR H3 lengths and light chains for SARS-CoV-2 RBD recognition and virus neutralization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Complementarity Determining Regions/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Science ; 372(6546): 1108-1112, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216772

ABSTRACT

The molecular composition and binding epitopes of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies that circulate in blood plasma after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are unknown. Proteomic deconvolution of the IgG repertoire to the spike glycoprotein in convalescent subjects revealed that the response is directed predominantly (>80%) against epitopes residing outside the receptor binding domain (RBD). In one subject, just four IgG lineages accounted for 93.5% of the response, including an amino (N)-terminal domain (NTD)-directed antibody that was protective against lethal viral challenge. Genetic, structural, and functional characterization of a multidonor class of "public" antibodies revealed an NTD epitope that is recurrently mutated among emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. These data show that "public" NTD-directed and other non-RBD plasma antibodies are prevalent and have implications for SARS-CoV-2 protection and antibody escape.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibody Affinity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Protein Domains , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
Science ; 372(6543): 738-741, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180894

ABSTRACT

Vaccination and infection promote the formation, tissue distribution, and clonal evolution of B cells, which encode humoral immune memory. We evaluated pediatric and adult blood and deceased adult organ donor tissues to determine convergent antigen-specific antibody genes of similar sequences shared between individuals. B cell memory varied for different pathogens. Polysaccharide antigen-specific clones were not exclusive to the spleen. Adults had higher clone frequencies and greater class switching in lymphoid tissues than blood, while pediatric blood had abundant class-switched convergent clones. Consistent with reported serology, prepandemic children had class-switched convergent clones to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with weak cross-reactivity to other coronaviruses, while adult blood or tissues showed few such clones. These results highlight the prominence of early childhood B cell clonal expansions and cross-reactivity for future responses to novel pathogens.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Child, Preschool , Cross Reactions , Ebolavirus/immunology , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Genes, Immunoglobulin , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin D/genetics , Immunoglobulin D/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/genetics , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Infant , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin , Spleen/immunology , Young Adult
10.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(578)2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007317

ABSTRACT

Stereotypic antibody clonotypes exist in healthy individuals and may provide protective immunity against viral infections by neutralization. We observed that 13 of 17 patients with COVID-19 had stereotypic variable heavy chain (VH) antibody clonotypes directed against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These antibody clonotypes were composed of immunoglobulin heavy variable 3-53 (IGHV3-53) or IGHV3-66 and immunoglobulin heavy joining 6 (IGHJ6) genes. These clonotypes included IgM, IgG3, IgG1, IgA1, IgG2, and IgA2 subtypes and had minimal somatic mutations, which suggested swift class switching after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The different IGHV chains were paired with diverse light chains resulting in binding to the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Human antibodies specific for the RBD can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting entry into host cells. We observed that one of these stereotypic neutralizing antibodies could inhibit viral replication in vitro using a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2. We also found that these VH clonotypes existed in 6 of 10 healthy individuals, with IgM isotypes predominating. These findings suggest that stereotypic clonotypes can develop de novo from naïve B cells and not from memory B cells established from prior exposure to similar viruses. The expeditious and stereotypic expansion of these clonotypes may have occurred in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 because they were already present.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Clone Cells , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mutation/genetics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
11.
Cell ; 183(2): 429-441.e16, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-878393

ABSTRACT

Novel COVID-19 therapeutics are urgently needed. We generated a phage-displayed human antibody VH domain library from which we identified a high-affinity VH binder ab8. Bivalent VH, VH-Fc ab8, bound with high avidity to membrane-associated S glycoprotein and to mutants found in patients. It potently neutralized mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 in wild-type mice at a dose as low as 2 mg/kg and exhibited high prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, possibly enhanced by its relatively small size. Electron microscopy combined with scanning mutagenesis identified ab8 interactions with all three S protomers and showed how ab8 neutralized the virus by directly interfering with ACE2 binding. VH-Fc ab8 did not aggregate and did not bind to 5,300 human membrane-associated proteins. The potent neutralization activity of VH-Fc ab8 combined with good developability properties and cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 mutants provide a strong rationale for its evaluation as a COVID-19 therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/administration & dosage , Peptide Library , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/ultrastructure , Antibody Affinity , COVID-19 , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/ultrastructure , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/ultrastructure , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure
12.
Science ; 369(6507): 1119-1123, 2020 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654485

ABSTRACT

Molecular understanding of neutralizing antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could accelerate vaccine design and drug discovery. We analyzed 294 anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and found that immunoglobulin G heavy-chain variable region 3-53 (IGHV3-53) is the most frequently used IGHV gene for targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. Co-crystal structures of two IGHV3-53-neutralizing antibodies with RBD, with or without Fab CR3022, at 2.33- to 3.20-angstrom resolution revealed that the germline-encoded residues dominate recognition of the angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-binding site. This binding mode limits the IGHV3-53 antibodies to short complementarity-determining region H3 loops but accommodates light-chain diversity. These IGHV3-53 antibodies show minimal affinity maturation and high potency, which is promising for vaccine design. Knowledge of these structural motifs and binding mode should facilitate the design of antigens that elicit this type of neutralizing response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibody Formation , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Complementarity Determining Regions/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Complementarity Determining Regions/genetics , Complementarity Determining Regions/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
13.
MAbs ; 12(1): 1778435, 2020 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601168

ABSTRACT

Effective therapies are urgently needed for COVID-19. Here we describe the identification of a new stable human immunoglobulin G1 heavy-chain variable (VH) domain scaffold that was used for the construction of a large library, lCAT6, of engineered human VHs. This library was panned against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein. Two VH domains (VH ab6 and VH m397) were selected and fused to Fc for increased half-life in circulation. The VH-Fc ab6 and m397 specifically neutralized SARS-CoV-2 with high potencies (50% neutralization at 0.35 µg/ml and 1.5 µg/ml, respectively) as measured by two independent replication-competent virus neutralization assays. Ab6 and m397 competed with ACE2 for binding to RBD, suggesting a competitive mechanism of virus neutralization. These VH domains may have potential applications for prophylaxis and therapy of COVID-19 alone or in combination, as well as for diagnosis and as tools for research.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Peptide Library , SARS-CoV-2
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