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1.
Protein Sci ; 31(1): 141-146, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520274

ABSTRACT

The antibody repertoires of individuals and groups have been used to explore disease states, understand vaccine responses, and drive therapeutic development. The arrival of B-cell receptor repertoire sequencing has enabled researchers to get a snapshot of these antibody repertoires, and as more data are generated, increasingly in-depth studies are possible. However, most publicly available data only exist as raw FASTQ files, making the data hard to access, process, and compare. The Observed Antibody Space (OAS) database was created in 2018 to offer clean, annotated, and translated repertoire data. In this paper, we describe an update to OAS that has been driven by the increasing volume of data and the appearance of paired (VH/VL) sequence data. OAS is now accessible via a new web server, with standardized search parameters and a new sequence-based search option. The new database provides both nucleotides and amino acids for every sequence, with additional sequence annotations to make the data Minimal Information about Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire compliant, and comments on potential problems with the sequence. OAS now contains 25 new studies, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 data and paired sequencing data. The new database is accessible at http://opig.stats.ox.ac.uk/webapps/oas/, and all data are freely available for download.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/chemistry , Databases, Protein , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
2.
Cell Rep ; 37(1): 109771, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439919

ABSTRACT

Understanding mechanisms of protective antibody recognition can inform vaccine and therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2. We report a monoclonal antibody, 910-30, targeting the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding site for ACE2 as a member of a public antibody response encoded by IGHV3-53/IGHV3-66 genes. Sequence and structural analyses of 910-30 and related antibodies explore how class recognition features correlate with SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Cryo-EM structures of 910-30 bound to the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer reveal binding interactions and its ability to disassemble spike. Despite heavy-chain sequence similarity, biophysical analyses of IGHV3-53/3-66-encoded antibodies highlight the importance of native heavy:light pairings for ACE2-binding competition and SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. We develop paired heavy:light class sequence signatures and determine antibody precursor prevalence to be ∼1 in 44,000 human B cells, consistent with public antibody identification in several convalescent COVID-19 patients. These class signatures reveal genetic, structural, and functional immune features that are helpful in accelerating antibody-based medical interventions for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Binding Sites , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/ultrastructure , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/genetics , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/ultrastructure , Male , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells
3.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314765

ABSTRACT

Distinguishing between severe and nonsevere COVID-19 to ensure adequate healthcare quality and efficiency is a challenge for the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of CBC parameters together with analysis of FLC serum concentration in risk stratification of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CBC was analyzed in 735 COVID ICU, COVID non-ICU, and non-COVID ICU cases. FLC concentration was analyzed in 133 of them. RESULTS: COVID ICU had neutrophils and lymphocytes with the greatest size, granularity, and nucleic acid content. Significant differences in concentrations of κ and λ FLCs were shown between COVID ICU and COVID non-ICU. However, no difference was found in the κ/λ ratio between these groups, and the ratio stayed within the reference value, which indicates the presence of polyclonal FLCs. FLC κ measurement has significant power to distinguish between severe COVID-19 and nonsevere COVID-19 (AUC = 0.7669), with a sensitivity of 86.67% and specificity of 93.33%. The κ coefficients' odds ratio of 3.0401 was estimated. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that the results obtained from the measure of free light immunoglobulin concentration in serum are useful in distinguishing between severe and nonsevere COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Ferritins/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/immunology , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
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