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1.
Science ; 372(6543): 738-741, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180894

ABSTRACT

Vaccination and infection promote the formation, tissue distribution, and clonal evolution of B cells, which encode humoral immune memory. We evaluated pediatric and adult blood and deceased adult organ donor tissues to determine convergent antigen-specific antibody genes of similar sequences shared between individuals. B cell memory varied for different pathogens. Polysaccharide antigen-specific clones were not exclusive to the spleen. Adults had higher clone frequencies and greater class switching in lymphoid tissues than blood, while pediatric blood had abundant class-switched convergent clones. Consistent with reported serology, prepandemic children had class-switched convergent clones to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with weak cross-reactivity to other coronaviruses, while adult blood or tissues showed few such clones. These results highlight the prominence of early childhood B cell clonal expansions and cross-reactivity for future responses to novel pathogens.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Child, Preschool , Cross Reactions , Ebolavirus/immunology , Female , Fetal Blood/immunology , Genes, Immunoglobulin , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin D/genetics , Immunoglobulin D/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/genetics , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Infant , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin , Spleen/immunology , Young Adult
2.
Clin Chim Acta ; 511: 291-297, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Repositivity of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in discharged COVID-19 patients was reported recently. However, the characteristics of repositive results are still not well understood, leading to a lack of effective monitoring strategies. METHODS: In the present study, a total of 59 COVID-19 patients were enrolled, and the characteristics of the repositive samples were analyzed. RESULTS: The repositive rate in this cohort was 15.79%. The N gene was the main target gene that was positive in the repositive results as well as in the last positive results of all patients. The median duration from diagnosis to the last positive test was 20 days (IQR, 16-31 days), and the longest duration was 40 days. Repositivity was only observed in IgM single- or both IgM- and IgG-positive patients, instead of IgG single-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant proportion of repositives in the recovered COVID-19 patients, and increasing the required number of negatives for consecutive nucleic acid tests may reduce the incidence of repositives. The recommended monitoring strategy for repositivity is monitoring the N gene in IgM-positive patients. This can ensure high sensitivity while reducing the time and cost of nucleic acid detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin M/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Retrospective Studies
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