Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 208
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3351, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908222

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally since its emergence in 2019. Most SARS-CoV-2 infections generate immune responses leading to rising levels of immunoglobulins (Ig) M, A and G which can be detected using diagnostic tests including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Whilst implying previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, the detection of Ig by ELISA does not guarantee the presence of neutralising antibodies (NAb) that can prevent the virus infecting cells. Plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNT) detect NAb, but are not amenable to mass testing as they take several days and require use of SARS-CoV-2 in high biocontainment laboratories. We evaluated the ability of IgG and IgM ELISAs targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike subunit 1 receptor binding domain (S1-RBD), and spike subunit 2 (S2) and nucleocapsid protein (NP), at predicting the presence and magnitude of NAb determined by PRNT. IgG S2 + NP ELISA was 96.8% [95% CI 83.8-99.9] sensitive and 88.9% [95% CI 51.8-99.7] specific at predicting the presence of NAbs (PRNT80 > 1:40). IgG and IgM S1-RBD ELISAs correlated with PRNT titre, with higher ELISA results increasing the likelihood of a robust neutralising response. The IgM S1-RBD assay can be used as a rapid, high throughput test to approximate the magnitude of NAb titre.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aged , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
2.
Elife ; 112022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742932

ABSTRACT

Preexisting antibodies to endemic coronaviruses (CoV) that cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 have the potential to influence the antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination and infection for better or worse. In this observational study of mucosal and systemic humoral immunity in acutely infected, convalescent, and vaccinated subjects, we tested for cross-reactivity against endemic CoV spike (S) protein at subdomain resolution. Elevated responses, particularly to the ß-CoV OC43, were observed in all natural infection cohorts tested and were correlated with the response to SARS-CoV-2. The kinetics of this response and isotypes involved suggest that infection boosts preexisting antibody lineages raised against prior endemic CoV exposure that cross-react. While further research is needed to discern whether this recalled response is desirable or detrimental, the boosted antibodies principally targeted the better-conserved S2 subdomain of the viral spike and were not associated with neutralization activity. In contrast, vaccination with a stabilized spike mRNA vaccine did not robustly boost cross-reactive antibodies, suggesting differing antigenicity and immunogenicity. In sum, this study provides evidence that antibodies targeting endemic CoV are robustly boosted in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection but not to vaccination with stabilized S, and that depending on conformation or other factors, the S2 subdomain of the spike protein triggers a rapidly recalled, IgG-dominated response that lacks neutralization activity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Vaccination
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(10): 375-377, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737447

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of dengue disease, caused by the dengue virus (DENV) (a flavivirus), often requires serologic testing during acute and early convalescent phases of the disease. Some symptoms of DENV infection, such as nonspecific fever, are similar to those caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. In studies with few COVID-19 cases, positive DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM) results were reported with various serologic tests, indicating possible cross-reactivity in these tests for DENV and SARS-CoV-2 infections (1,2). DENV antibodies can cross-react with other flaviviruses, including Zika virus. To assess the potential cross-reactivity of SARS-CoV-2, DENV, and Zika virus IgM antibodies, serum specimens from 97 patients from Puerto Rico and 12 U.S.-based patients with confirmed COVID-19 were tested using the DENV Detect IgM Capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (InBios International).* In addition, 122 serum specimens from patients with confirmed dengue and 121 from patients with confirmed Zika virus disease (all from Puerto Rico) were tested using the SARS-CoV-2 pan-Ig Spike Protein ELISA (CDC).† Results obtained for DENV, Zika virus IgM, and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies indicated 98% test specificity and minimal levels of cross-reactivity between the two flaviviruses and SARS-CoV-2. These findings indicate that diagnoses of dengue or Zika virus diseases with the serological assays described in this report are not affected by COVID-19, nor do dengue or Zika virus diseases interfere with the diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Dengue Virus/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serologic Tests , Zika Virus/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross Reactions/immunology , Dengue/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Puerto Rico , Sensitivity and Specificity , United States , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
4.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2031483, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713454

ABSTRACT

Early humoral immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are dominated by IgM and IgA antibodies, which greatly contribute to virus neutralization at mucosal sites. Given the essential roles of IgM and IgA in the control and elimination of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the mucosal immunity could be exploited for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. However, almost all neutralizing antibodies that are authorized for emergency use and under clinical development are IgG antibodies, and no vaccine has been developed to boost mucosal immunity for SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition to IgM and IgA, bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) combine specificities of two antibodies in one molecule, representing an important alternative to monoclonal antibody cocktails. Here, we summarize the latest advances in studies on IgM, IgA and bsAbs against SARS-CoV-2. The current challenges and future directions in vaccine design and antibody-based therapeutics are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antibodies, Bispecific/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 829665, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686487

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the long-term kinetic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the impact of inactivated vaccines on SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in convalescent patients can provide information for developing and improving vaccination strategies in such populations. Methods: In this cohort, 402 convalescent patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR from 1 January to 22 June 2020 in Jiangsu, China, were enrolled. The epidemiological data included demographics, symptom onset, and vaccination history. Blood samples were collected and tested for antibody levels of specific IgG, IgM, RBD-IgG, S-IgG, and neutralizing antibodies using a the commercial magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. Results: The median follow-up time after symptom onset was 15.6 months (IQR, 14.6 to 15.8). Of the 402 convalescent patients, 44 (13.84%) received an inactivated vaccine against COVID-19. A total of 255 (80.19%) patients were IgG-positive and 65 (20.44%) were IgM-positive. The neutralizing antibody was 83.02%. Compared with non-vaccinated individuals, the IgG antibody levels in vaccinated people were higher (P=0.007). Similarly, antibody levels for RBD-IgG, S-IgG, and neutralizing antibodies were all highly increased in vaccinated individuals (P<0.05). IgG levels were significantly higher after vaccination than before vaccination in the same population. IgG levels in those who received 'single dose and ≥14d' were similar to those with two doses (P>0.05). Similar conclusions were drawn for RBD-IgG and the neutralizing antibody. Conclusion: 15.6 months after symptom onset, the majority of participants remained positive for serum-specific IgG, RBD-IgG, S-IgG, and neutralizing antibodies. For convalescent patients, a single dose of inactivated vaccine against COVID-19 can further boost antibody titres.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Child , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Young Adult
6.
Geroscience ; 44(2): 597-618, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1681579

ABSTRACT

A tiny fraction of people immunized with lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-enclosed mRNA (LNP-mRNA) vaccines develop allergic symptoms following their first or subsequent vaccinations, including anaphylaxis. These reactions resemble complement (C) activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA) to i.v. administered liposomes, for which pigs provide a naturally oversensitive model. Using this model, we injected i.v. the human vaccination dose (HVD) of BNT162b2 (Comirnaty, CMT) or its 2-fold (2x) or 5-fold (5x) amounts and measured the hemodynamic changes and other parameters of CARPA. We observed in 6 of 14 pigs transient pulmonary hypertension along with thromboxane A2 release into the blood and other hemodynamic and blood cell changes, including hypertension, granulocytosis, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia. One pig injected with 5x CMT developed an anaphylactic shock requiring resuscitation, while a repeat dose failed to induce the reaction, implying tachyphylaxis. These typical CARPA symptoms could not be linked to animal age, sex, prior immune stimulation with zymosan, immunization of animals with Comirnaty i.v., or i.m. 2 weeks before the vaccine challenge, and anti-PEG IgM levels in Comirnaty-immunized pigs. Nevertheless, IgM binding to the whole vaccine, used as antigen in an ELISA, was significantly higher in reactive animals compared to non-reactive ones. Incubation of Comirnaty with pig serum in vitro showed significant elevations of C3a anaphylatoxin and sC5b-9, the C-terminal complex. These data raise the possibility that C activation plays a causal or contributing role in the rare HSRs to Comirnaty and other vaccines with similar side effects. Further studies are needed to uncover the factors controlling these vaccine reactions in pigs and to understand their translational value to humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , mRNA Vaccines , Animals , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Complement Activation , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Liposomes , Nanoparticles , Swine , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects
7.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(3): 423-433, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671570

ABSTRACT

Elucidating the dynamics of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescents is crucial in controlling the pandemic and informing vaccination strategies. Here we measured nAb titres across 411 sequential plasma samples collected during 1-480 d after illness onset or laboratory confirmation (d.a.o.) from 214 COVID-19 convalescents, covering the clinical spectrum of disease and without additional exposure history after recovery or vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, using authentic SARS-CoV-2 microneutralization (MN) assays. Forty-eight samples were also tested for neutralizing activities against the circulating variants using pseudotyped neutralization assay. Results showed that anti-RBD IgG and MN titres peaked at ~120 d.a.o. and subsequently declined, with significantly reduced nAb responses found in 91.67% of COVID-19 convalescents (≥50% decrease in current MN titres compared with the paired peak MN titres). Despite this decline, majority of the COVID-19 convalescents maintained detectable anti-RBD IgG and MN titres at 400-480 d.a.o., with undetectable neutralizing activity found in 14.41% (16/111) of the mild and 50% (5/10) of the asymptomatic infections at 330-480 d.a.o. Persistent antibody-dependent immunity could provide protection against circulating variants after one year, despite significantly decreased neutralizing activities against Beta, Delta and Mu variants. In conclusion, these data show that despite a marked decline in neutralizing activity over time, nAb responses persist for up to 480 d in most convalescents of symptomatic COVID-19, whereas a high rate of undetectable nAb responses was found in convalescents from asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 446, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655574

ABSTRACT

Following acute infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) a significant proportion of individuals develop prolonged symptoms, a serious condition termed post-acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) syndrome (PACS) or long COVID. Predictors of PACS are needed. In a prospective multicentric cohort study of 215 individuals, we study COVID-19 patients during primary infection and up to one year later, compared to healthy subjects. We discover an immunoglobulin (Ig) signature, based on total IgM and IgG3 levels, which - combined with age, history of asthma bronchiale, and five symptoms during primary infection - is able to predict the risk of PACS independently of timepoint of blood sampling. We validate the score in an independent cohort of 395 individuals with COVID-19. Our results highlight the benefit of measuring Igs for the early identification of patients at high risk for PACS, which facilitates the study of targeted treatment and pathomechanisms of PACS.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Cough/blood , Cough/complications , Cough/immunology , Dyspnea/blood , Dyspnea/complications , Dyspnea/immunology , Fatigue/blood , Fatigue/complications , Fatigue/immunology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/complications , Fever/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262868, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643287

ABSTRACT

A serological COVID-19 Multiplex Assay was developed and validated using serum samples from convalescent patients and those collected prior to the 2020 pandemic. After initial testing of multiple potential antigens, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein were selected for the human COVID-19 Multiplex Assay. A comparison of synthesized and mammalian expressed RBD proteins revealed clear advantages of mammalian expression. Antibodies directed against NP strongly correlated with SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization assay titers (rsp = 0.726), while anti-RBD correlation was moderate (rsp = 0.436). Pan-Ig, IgG, IgA, and IgM against NP and RBD antigens were evaluated on the validation sample sets. Detection of NP and RBD specific IgG and IgA had outstanding performance (AUC > 0.90) for distinguishing patients from controls, but the dynamic range of the IgG assay was substantially greater. The COVID-19 Multiplex Assay was utilized to identify seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2 in people living in a low-incidence community in Ithaca, NY. Samples were taken from a cohort of healthy volunteers (n = 332) in early June 2020. Only two volunteers had a positive result on a COVID-19 PCR test performed prior to serum sampling. Serological testing revealed an exposure rate of at least 1.2% (NP) or as high as 5.7% (RBD), higher than the measured incidence rate of 0.16% in the county at that time. This highly sensitive and quantitative assay can be used for monitoring community exposure rates and duration of immune response following both infection and vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/chemistry , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/chemistry , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 320, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632529

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women represent a high-risk population for severe/critical COVID-19 and mortality. However, the maternal-fetal immune responses initiated by SARS-CoV-2 infection, and whether this virus is detectable in the placenta, are still under investigation. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy primarily induces unique inflammatory responses at the maternal-fetal interface, which are largely governed by maternal T cells and fetal stromal cells. SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is also associated with humoral and cellular immune responses in the maternal blood, as well as with a mild cytokine response in the neonatal circulation (i.e., umbilical cord blood), without compromising the T-cell repertoire or initiating IgM responses. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 is not detected in the placental tissues, nor is the sterility of the placenta compromised by maternal viral infection. This study provides insight into the maternal-fetal immune responses triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and emphasizes the rarity of placental infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Infant, Newborn , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
11.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262820, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1628968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early and accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical to prevent spread of the infection. Understanding of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is insufficient, particularly in relation to those whose responses persist for more than 1 month after the onset of symptoms. We conducted a SARS-CoV-2 antibody test to identify factors affecting the serological response and to evaluate its diagnostic utility in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND FINDING: We collected 1,048 residual serum samples from 396 patients with COVID-19 confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2. The samples had been used for routine admission tests in six healthcare institutions in Daegu. Antibody to SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed and the cutoff index (COI) was calculated for quantitative analysis. The patients' information was reviewed to evaluate the relationship between antibody positivity and clinical characteristics. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity rate was 85% and the average COI was 24·3. The positivity rate and COI increased with time elapsed since symptom onset. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody persisted for at least 13 weeks after symptom onset at a high COI. There was a significant difference in anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity rate between patients with and without symptoms, but not according to sex or disease course. The descending COI pattern at weeks 1 to 5 after symptom onset was significantly more frequent in patients who died than in those who recovered. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody persisted for at least 13 weeks at a high COI in patients with COVID-19. A decreasing COI pattern up to fifth week may be associated with a poor prognosis of COVID-19. As new treatments and vaccines are introduced, it is important to monitor continuously the usefulness of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Clin Immunol ; 234: 108897, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606333

ABSTRACT

Rituximab (RTX), an important therapeutic option for patients with rheumatic diseases, has been shown to reduce immune responses to various vaccines. We asked whether following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, response rates in RTX treated patients are reduced and whether specific patient characteristics influence the responses. We recruited patients on chronic RTX therapy undergoing anti-SARS-CoV2 vaccination and measured the post-vaccination anti-spike IgG antibody levels. The median time from pre-vaccination RTX infusion to vaccination and from vaccination to the post-vaccination RTX infusion was 20.5 weeks and 7.2 weeks respectively. Only 36.5% of patients developed measurable titers of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody after vaccination. Hypogammaglobulinemia (IgG and/or IgM) but not timing of vaccination, B cell numbers, or concomitant immune suppressive medications, correlated with sero-negativity (p = 0.004). Our results underscore the fact that even after B cell reconstitution, RTX induced chronic hypogammaglobulinemia significantly impairs the ability of the immune system to respond to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Vaccination/methods
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247797, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605332

ABSTRACT

Since the initial identification of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in December of 2019, researchers have raced to understand its pathogenesis and begun devising vaccine and treatment strategies. An accurate understanding of the body's temporal immune response against SARS-CoV-2 is paramount to successful vaccine development and disease progression monitoring. To provide insight into the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2, plasma samples from 181 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients collected at various timepoints post-symptom onset (PSO) were tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies via lateral flow. Additionally, 21 donors were tracked over time to elucidate patient-specific immune responses. We found sustained levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies past 130 days PSO, with 99% positivity observed at 31-60 days PSO. By 61-90 days PSO, the percentage of IgM-/IgG+ results were nearly equal to that of IgM+/IgG+ results, demonstrating a shift in the immune response with a decrease in IgM antibody levels. Results from this study not only provide evidence that the antibody response to COVID-19 can persist for over 4 months, but also demonstrates the ability of Easy Check™ to monitor seroconversion and antibody response of patients. Easy Check was sufficiently sensitive to detect antibodies in patient samples as early as 1-4 days PSO with 86% positivity observed at 5-7 days PSO. Further studies are required to determine the longevity and efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and whether they are protective against re-infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Equipment Design , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 793191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608200

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific antibody production and plasma neutralizing capacity against B.1 wild-type-like strain, and Gamma/P.1 and Delta/B.1.617.2 variants-of-concern, in subjects with different Covid-19 disease and vaccination histories. Methods: Adult subjects were: 1) Unvaccinated/hospitalized for Covid-19; 2) Covid-19-recovered followed by one BNT162b2 vaccine dose; and 3) Covid-19-naïve/2-dose BNT162b2 vaccinated. Multiplex Luminex® immunoassays measured IgG, IgA, and IgM plasma levels against SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), spike-1 (S), and nucleocapsid proteins. Neutralizing activity was determined in Vero E6 cytopathic assays. Results: Maximum anti-RBD IgG levels were similar in Covid-19­recovered individuals 8‒10 days after single-dose vaccination and in Covid-19-naïve subjects 7 days after 2nd vaccine dosing; both groups had ≈2­fold higher anti-RBD IgG levels than Unvaccinated/Covid-19 subjects tracked through 2 weeks post-symptom onset. Anti-S IgG expression patterns were similar to RBD within each group, but with lower signal strengths. Viral antigen-specific IgA and IgM levels were more variable than IgG patterns. Anti-nucleocapsid immunoglobulins were not detected in Covid-19-naïve subjects. Neutralizing activity against the B.1 strain, and Gamma/P.1 and Delta/B.1.617.2 variants, was highest in Covid­19-recovered/single-dose vaccinated subjects; although neutralization against the Delta variant in this group was only 26% compared to B.1 neutralization, absolute anti-Delta titers suggested maintained protection. Neutralizing titers against the Gamma and Delta variants were 33‒77% and 26‒67%, respectively, versus neutralization against the B.1 strain (100%) in the three groups. Conclusion: These findings support SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine usefulness regardless of Covid-19 history, and confirm remarkable protection provided by a single vaccine dose in people who have recovered from Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells
16.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262162, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605852

ABSTRACT

Analysis of convalescent plasma derived from individuals has shown that IgG3 has the most important role in binding to SARS-CoV-2 antigens; however, this has not yet been confirmed in large studies, and the link between binding and neutralization has not been confirmed. By analyzing plasma pools consisting of 247-567 individual convalescent donors, we demonstrated the binding of IgG3 and IgM to Spike-1 protein and the receptor-binding domain correlates strongly with viral neutralization in vitro. Furthermore, despite accounting for only approximately 12% of total immunoglobulin mass, collectively IgG3 and IgM account for approximately 80% of the total neutralization. This may have important implications for the development of potent therapies for COVID-19, as it indicates that hyperimmune globulins or convalescent plasma donations with high IgG3 concentrations may be a highly efficacious therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells
17.
Viral Immunol ; 34(10): 708-713, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595620

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is initiated by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has imposed critical challenges to global health. Understanding the kinetic of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG responses in different subsets of COVID-19 patients is crucial to get insight into the humoral immune response elicited against the virus. We investigated IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike protein in two groups of recovered and deceased COVID-19 patients. The levels of IgM and IgG specific to N and RBD proteins were detected by ELISA. N- and RBD-specific IgM was higher in deceased patients in comparison with recovered patients, while there was no significant difference in N- and RBD-specific IgG between the two groups. A significant correlation was observed between IgG and IgM titers against RBD and N, in both groups of patients. These results argue against impaired antibody response in deceased COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid/chemistry , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580419

ABSTRACT

A microarray-based assay to detect IgG and IgM antibodies against betacoronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2, SARS, MERS, OC43, and HKU1), other respiratory viruses and type I interferons (IFN-Is) was developed. This multiplex assay was applied to track antibody cross-reactivity due to previous contact with similar viruses and to identify antibodies against IFN-Is as the markers for severe COVID-19. In total, 278 serum samples from convalescent plasma donors, COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and patients who recovered from mild/moderate COVID-19, vaccine recipients, prepandemic and pandemic patients with autoimmune endocrine disorders, and a heterogeneous prepandemic cohort including healthy individuals and chronically ill patients were analyzed. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 microarray results agreed well with the ELISA results. Regarding ICU patients, autoantibodies against IFN-Is were detected in 10.5% of samples, and 10.5% of samples were found to simultaneously contain IgM antibodies against more than two different viruses. Cross-reactivity between IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and IgG against the OC43 and HKU1 spike proteins was observed, resulting in positive signals for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid in prepandemic samples from patients with autoimmune endocrine disorders. The presence of IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid in the absence of IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Protein Array Analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 103: 108491, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587489

ABSTRACT

To better understand the immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in individuals with COVID-19, it is important to investigate the kinetics of the antibody responses and their associations with the clinical course in different populations, since there seem to be considerable differences between Western and Asian populations in the clinical features and spread of COVID-19. In this study, we serially measured the serum titers of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies generated against the nucleocapsid protein (NCP), S1 subunit of the spike protein (S1), and receptor-binding domain in the S1 subunit (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in Japanese individuals with COVID-19. Among the IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies, IgA antibodies against all of the aforementioned viral proteins were the first to appear after the infection, and IgG and/or IgA seroconversion often preceded IgM seroconversion. In regard to the timeline of the antibody responses to the different viral proteins (NCP, S1 and RBD), IgA against NCP appeared than IgA against S1 or RBD, while IgM and IgG against S1 appeared earlier than IgM/IgG against NCP or RBD. The IgG responses to all three viral proteins and responses of all three antibody classes to S1 and RBD were sustained for longer durations than the IgA/IgM responses to all three viral proteins and responses of all three antibody classes to NCP, respectively. The seroconversion of IgA against NCP occurred later and less frequently in patients with mild COVID-19. These results suggest possible differences in the antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens between the Japanese and Western populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibody Formation , Asians , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Japan/epidemiology , Japan/ethnology , Seroconversion , Viral Proteins/immunology
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 772511, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556241

ABSTRACT

Recent exposure to seasonal coronaviruses (sCoVs) may stimulate cross-reactive antibody responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, previous studies have produced divergent results regarding protective or damaging immunity induced by prior sCoV exposure. It remains unknown whether pre-existing humoral immunity plays a role in vaccine-induced neutralization and antibody responses. In this study, we collected 36 paired sera samples from 36 healthy volunteers before and after immunization with inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for COVID-19, and analyzed the distribution and intensity of pre-existing antibody responses at the epitope level pre-vaccination as well as the relationship between pre-existing sCoV immunity and vaccine-induced neutralization. We observed large amounts of pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies in the conserved regions among sCoVs, especially the S2 subunit. Excep t for a few peptides, the IgG and IgM fluorescence intensities against S, M and N peptides did not differ significantly between pre-vaccination and post-vaccination sera of vaccinees who developed a neutralization inhibition rate (%inhibition) <40 and %inhibition ≥40 after two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine. Participants with strong and weak pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies (strong pre-CRA; weak pre-CRA) had similar %inhibition pre-vaccination (10.9% ± 2.9% vs. 12.0% ± 2.2%, P=0.990) and post-vaccination (43.8% ± 25.1% vs. 44.6% ± 21.5%, P=0.997). Overall, the strong pre-CRA group did not show a significantly greater increase in antibody responses to the S protein linear peptides post-vaccination compared with the weak pre-CRA group. Therefore, we found no evidence for a significant impact of pre-existing antibody responses on inactivated vaccine-induced neutralization and antibody responses. Our research provides an important basis for inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine use in the context of high sCoV seroprevalence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Seasons , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL