Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
2.
Life Sci Alliance ; 4(9)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298278

ABSTRACT

Here, we recorded serum proteome profiles of 33 severe COVID-19 patients admitted to respiratory and intensive care units because of respiratory failure. We received, for most patients, blood samples just after admission and at two more later time points. With the aim to predict treatment outcome, we focused on serum proteins different in abundance between the group of survivors and non-survivors. We observed that a small panel of about a dozen proteins were significantly different in abundance between these two groups. The four structurally and functionally related type-3 cystatins AHSG, FETUB, histidine-rich glycoprotein, and KNG1 were all more abundant in the survivors. The family of inter-α-trypsin inhibitors, ITIH1, ITIH2, ITIH3, and ITIH4, were all found to be differentially abundant in between survivors and non-survivors, whereby ITIH1 and ITIH2 were more abundant in the survivor group and ITIH3 and ITIH4 more abundant in the non-survivors. ITIH1/ITIH2 and ITIH3/ITIH4 also showed opposite trends in protein abundance during disease progression. We defined an optimal panel of nine proteins for mortality risk assessment. The prediction power of this mortality risk panel was evaluated against two recent COVID-19 serum proteomics studies on independent cohorts measured in other laboratories in different countries and observed to perform very well in predicting mortality also in these cohorts. This panel may not be unique for COVID-19 as some of the proteins in the panel have previously been annotated as mortality markers in aging and in other diseases caused by different pathogens, including bacteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Proteome/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulins/blood , Male , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survivors
3.
Clin Immunol ; 235: 108791, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293654

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged as a global pandemic resulting in significant mortality and morbidity. COVID-19 vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing COVID-19 infections and significantly reducing disease severity and mortality. We report on a novel COVID-19 antibody assay using a unique platform to rapidly detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with a drop of fingerstick blood in a subject following COVID-19 vaccination. We show early detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies post vaccination and persistence of detectable antibodies for at least 6 months. Rapid point of care COVID-19 antibody tests might have a role in assessing the appearance and durability of immune response following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Specimen Collection/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Fingers , Humans , Immunoglobulins/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 634181, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177976

ABSTRACT

Bacterial respiratory tract infections are the hallmark of primary antibody deficiencies (PADs). Because they are also among the most common infections in healthy individuals, PADs are usually overlooked in these patients. Careful evaluation of the history, including frequency, chronicity, and presence of other infections, would help suspect PADs. This review will focus on infections in relatively common PADs, discussing diagnostic challenges, and some management strategies to prevent infections.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulins/deficiency , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Agammaglobulinemia/blood , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , Agammaglobulinemia/therapy , Animals , Bacterial Infections/blood , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/blood , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/immunology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/blood , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins/blood , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/blood , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/therapy , Prognosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
5.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 22, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085161

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infections of animals with SARS-CoV-2 have recently been reported, and an increase of severe lung pathologies in domestic dogs has also been detected by veterinarians in Spain. Therefore, further descriptions of the pathological processes in those animals that show symptoms similar to those described in humans affected by COVID-19 would be highly valuable. The potential for companion animals to contribute to the continued transmission and community spread of this known human-to-human disease is an urgent issue to be considered. Forty animals with pulmonary pathologies were studied by chest X-ray, ultrasound analysis, and computed tomography. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs were analyzed to detect canine pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. An additional twenty healthy dogs living in SARS-CoV-2-positive households were included. Immunoglobulin detection by several immunoassays was performed. Our findings show that sick dogs presented severe alveolar or interstitial patterns with pulmonary opacity, parenchymal abnormalities, and bilateral lesions. The forty sick dogs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 but Mycoplasma spp. was detected in 26 of 33 dogs. Five healthy and one pathological dog presented IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that despite detecting dogs with α-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, we never obtained a positive RT-qPCR for SARS-SoV-2, not even in dogs with severe pulmonary disease; suggesting that even in the case of canine infection, transmission would be unlikely. Moreover, dogs living in COVID-19-positive households could have been more highly exposed to infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/transmission , Immunoglobulins/blood , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Female , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Spain , Zoonoses/virology
6.
Drugs R D ; 21(1): 1-8, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951645

ABSTRACT

At present, no cure is available for COVID-19 but vaccines, antiviral drugs, immunoglobulins, or the combination of immunoglobulins with antiviral drugs have been suggested and are in clinical trials. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of a pharmacokinetic and viral load analysis as a basis for adjusting immunoglobulin dosing to treat COVID-19. We reviewed the pre-clinical and clinical literature that describes the impact of a high antigen load on pharmacokinetic data following antibody treatment. Representative examples are provided to illustrate the effect of high viral and tumor loads on antibody clearance. We then highlight the implications of these factors for facilitating the development and dosing of hyperimmune anti-SARS CoV2 immunoglobulin. Both nonclinical and clinical examples indicate that high antigen loads, whether they be viral, bacterial, or tumoral in origin, result in increased clearance and decreased area under the curve and half-life of antibodies. A dosing strategy that matches the antigen load can be achieved by giving initially high doses and adjusting the frequency of dosing intervals based on pharmacokinetic parameters. We suggest that study design and dose selection for immunoglobulin products for the treatment of COVID-19 require special considerations such as viral load, antibody-virus interaction, and dosing adjustment based on the pharmacokinetics of the antibody.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunoglobulins/administration & dosage , Viral Load/drug effects , Antigens, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Immunoglobulins/blood , Viral Load/physiology
7.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(3): 634-647, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950362

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes an abrupt response by the host immune system, which is largely responsible for the outcome of COVID-19. We investigated whether the specific immune responses in the peripheral blood of 276 patients were associated with the severity and progression of COVID-19. At admission, dramatic lymphopenia of T, B, and NK cells is associated with severity. Conversely, the proportion of B cells, plasmablasts, circulating follicular helper T cells (cTfh) and CD56- CD16+ NK-cells increased. Regarding humoral immunity, levels of IgM, IgA, and IgG were unaffected, but when degrees of severity were considered, IgG was lower in severe patients. Compared to healthy donors, complement C3 and C4 protein levels were higher in mild and moderate, but not in severe patients, while the activation peptide of C5 (C5a) increased from the admission in every patient, regardless of their severity. Moreover, total IgG, the IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes, and C4 decreased from day 0 to day 10 in patients who were hospitalized for more than two weeks, but not in patients who were discharged earlier. Our study provides important clues to understand the immune response observed in COVID-19 patients, associating severity with an imbalanced humoral response, and identifying new targets for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Immunoglobulins/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Complement C3/analysis , Complement C4/analysis , Complement C5/analysis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology
8.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 6914878, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has threatened every civilian as a global pandemic. The immune system poses the critical interactive chain between the human body and the virus. Here, we make efforts to examine whether comorbidity with type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the immunological response in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective pilot study investigating immunological characteristics of confirmed cases of COVID-19 with or without comorbid T2D. Two subcohorts of sex- and age-matched participants were eligible for data analysis, of which 33 participants were with T2D and the remaining 37 were nondiabetic (NDM). Cellular immunity was assessed by flow cytometric determination of surface markers including CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD16, and CD56 in peripheral blood. Levels of C reactive protein, immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE), and complements (C3, C4) were detected by rate nephelometry immunoassay. And Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) were detected by Cytometric Bead Array. RESULTS: Neutrophil counts were found to be significantly higher in the T2D group than in the NDM group and had a significant relevance with clinical severity. Lymphocyte frequencies showed no significant differences in the two groups. However, the proportions and absolute counts of T, Tc, Th, and NK cells decreased in both groups to different degrees. An abnormal increase in neutrophil count and a decrease in lymphocyte subpopulations may represent risk factors of COVID-19 severity. The level of IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, and C4 showed no significant difference between the two groups, while the IgE levels were higher in the T2D group than in the NDM group (p < 0.05). Th1 cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as CRP, appeared significantly higher in the T2D group. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 patients comorbid with T2D demonstrated distinguishable immunological parameters, which represented clinical relevancies with the predisposed disease severity in T2D.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytokines/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulins/blood , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040036, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841445

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As of 30 April 2020, the novel betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 had infected more than 3 172 000 individuals, killing over 224 000 people and spreading to more than 200 countries. Italy was the most affected country in Europe and the third most affected in the world in terms of the number of cases. Therefore, the aims of this study are: (1) to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals among the general population of Verona; (2) to assess the accuracy (sensitivity, specificity and predictive values) of an ELISA serological test for the screening of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study will be carried out on a random sample of subjects aged at least 10 years from the general population of Verona. Participants will undergo the measurement of vital parameters (oxygen saturation measured by oximeter, respiratory rate and body temperature detected by laser thermometer), the administration of a COVID-19-related symptoms questionnaire, the collection of a blood sample and a nasopharyngeal swab. Our evaluation will include the statistical technique of Latent Class Analysis, which will be the basis for the estimation of prevalence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Verona and Rovigo provinces on 15 April 2020 (internal protocol number 2641CESC). The study results will be submitted for publication in international, peer-reviewed journals and the complete dataset will be deposited in a public repository. Most relevant data will be made available to policy-makers as well as disseminated to stakeholders and to the community.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Serologic Tests/methods , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulins/blood , Italy , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
10.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(11): e366-e367, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835206

ABSTRACT

With recent reports showing clinical and laboratory overlap of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and Kawasaki disease (KD), we addressed the hypothesis that cross coronavirus humoral immunity leads to a parallel postinfectious phenomenon explaining similar pathologic findings in KD and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. We demonstrated no cross-reactivity in children with KD but observed some nonspecific interactions postintravenous immunoglobulin infusion.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulins/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(2): 261-268, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743735

ABSTRACT

According to anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroresponse in patients with COVID-19 from Croatia, we emphasised the issue of different serological tests and need for combining diagnostic methods for COVID-19 diagnosis. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG ELISA and IgM/IgG immunochromatographic assay (ICA) were used for testing 60 sera from 21 patients (6 with severe, 10 moderate, and 5 with mild disease). The main clinical, demographic, and haemato-biochemical data were analysed. The most common symptoms were cough (95.2%), fever (90.5%), and fatigue and shortness of breath (42.9%). Pulmonary opacities showed 76.2% of patients. Within the first 7 days of illness, seropositivity for ELISA IgA and IgG was 42.9% and 7.1%, and for ICA IgM and IgG 25% and 10.7%, respectively. From day 8 after onset, ELISA IgA and IgG seropositivity was 90.6% and 68.8%, and for ICA IgM and IgG 84.4% and 75%, respectively. In general, sensitivity for ELISA IgA and IgG was 68.3% and 40%, and for ICA IgM and IgG 56.7% and 45.0%, respectively. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody distributions by each method were statistically different (ICA IgM vs. IgG, p = 0.016; ELISA IgG vs. IgA, p < 0.001). Antibody response in COVID-19 varies and depends on the time the serum is taken, on the severity of disease, and on the type of test used. IgM and IgA antibodies as early-stage disease markers are comparable, although they cannot replace each other. Simultaneous IgM/IgG/IgA anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing followed by the confirmation of positive findings with another test in a two-tier testing is recommended.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Serologic Tests
12.
Science ; 369(6508): 1210-1220, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704393

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a global crisis, yet major knowledge gaps remain about human immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We analyzed immune responses in 76 COVID-19 patients and 69 healthy individuals from Hong Kong and Atlanta, Georgia, United States. In the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of COVID-19 patients, we observed reduced expression of human leukocyte antigen class DR (HLA-DR) and proinflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells as well as impaired mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and interferon-α (IFN-α) production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. By contrast, we detected enhanced plasma levels of inflammatory mediators-including EN-RAGE, TNFSF14, and oncostatin M-which correlated with disease severity and increased bacterial products in plasma. Single-cell transcriptomics revealed a lack of type I IFNs, reduced HLA-DR in the myeloid cells of patients with severe COVID-19, and transient expression of IFN-stimulated genes. This was consistent with bulk PBMC transcriptomics and transient, low IFN-α levels in plasma during infection. These results reveal mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , DNA, Bacterial/blood , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , HLA-DR Antigens/analysis , Humans , Immunity , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulins/blood , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/blood , Male , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Single-Cell Analysis , Systems Biology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic , Transcriptome
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 924-927, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-52604

ABSTRACT

Confirmative diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections has been challenged due to unsatisfactory positive rate of molecular assays. Here we identified a family cluster of SARS-CoV-2 infections, with five of six family members were SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobin serology testing positive, while molecular assays only detected two of this five patients even repeated twice. We comprehensively analyzed this familial cluster of cases based on the clinical characteristics, chest CT images, SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection results, and serology testing results. At last, two patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, two were suspected of COVID-19, and two were considered close contacts. Our results emphasized the significance of serology testing to assist timely diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections, especially for COVID-19 close contacts screening.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections , Family , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/standards , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL