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Front Immunol ; 12: 721738, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378191


Here, we described the case of a B cell-deficient patient after CD19 CAR-T cell therapy for refractory B cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with protracted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). For weeks, this patient only inefficiently contained the virus while convalescent plasma transfusion correlated with virus clearance. Interestingly, following convalescent plasma therapy natural killer cells matured and virus-specific T cells expanded, presumably allowing virus clearance and recovery from the disease. Our findings, thus, suggest that convalescent plasma therapy can activate cellular immune responses to clear SARS-CoV-2 infections. If confirmed in larger clinical studies, these data could be of general importance for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.

B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/complications , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphopoiesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
Transfusion ; 61(8): 2503-2511, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243670


In the absence of effective countermeasures, human convalescent plasma has been widely used to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the causative agent of novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), including among patients with innate or acquired immunosuppression. However, the association between COVID-19-associated mortality in patients with immunosuppression and therapeutic use of convalescent plasma is unknown. We review 75 reports, including one large matched-control registry study of 143 COVID-19 patients with hematological malignancies, and 51 case reports and 23 case series representing 238 COVID-19 patients with immunosuppression. We review clinical features and treatment protocols of COVID-19 patients with immunosuppression after treatment with human convalescent plasma. We also discuss the time course and clinical features of recovery. The available data from case reports and case series provide evidence suggesting a mortality benefit and rapid clinical improvement in patients with several forms of immunosuppression following COVID-19 convalescent plasma transfusion. The utility of convalescent plasma or other forms of antibody therapy in immune-deficient and immune-suppressed patients with COVID-19 warrants further investigation.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Immune Tolerance , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/complications , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(7): 2125-2134, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-373867


In early 2020, the first US and Canadian cases of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were detected. In the ensuing months, there has been rapid spread of the infection. In March 2020, in response to the virus, state/provincial and local governments instituted shelter-in-place orders, and nonessential ambulatory care was significantly curtailed, including allergy/immunology services. With rates of new infections and fatalities potentially reaching a plateau and/or declining, restrictions on provision of routine ambulatory care are lifting, and there is a need to help guide the allergy/immunology clinician on how to reinitiate services. Given the fact that coronavirus disease 2019 will circulate within our communities for months or longer, we present a flexible, algorithmic best-practices planning approach on how to prioritize services, in 4 stratified phases of reopening according to community risk level, as well as highlight key considerations for how to safely do so. The decisions on what services to offer and how fast to proceed are left to the discretion of the individual clinician and practice, operating in accordance with state and local ordinances with respect to the level of nonessential ambulatory care that can be provided. Clear communication with staff and patients before and after all changes should be incorporated into this new paradigm on continual change, given the movement may be forward and even backward through the phases because this is an evolving situation.

Allergy and Immunology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine