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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 769011, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650341

ABSTRACT

Asthma patients may increase their susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the poor prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, anti-COVID-19/asthma comorbidity approaches are restricted on condition. Existing evidence indicates that luteolin has antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immune regulation capabilities. We aimed to evaluate the possibility of luteolin evolving into an ideal drug and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of luteolin against COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. We used system pharmacology and bioinformatics analysis to assess the physicochemical properties and biological activities of luteolin and further analyze the binding activities, targets, biological functions, and mechanisms of luteolin against COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. We found that luteolin may exert ideal physicochemical properties and bioactivity, and molecular docking analysis confirmed that luteolin performed effective binding activities in COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. Furthermore, a protein-protein interaction network of 538 common targets between drug and disease was constructed and 264 hub targets were obtained. Then, the top 6 hub targets of luteolin against COVID-19/asthma comorbidity were identified, namely, TP53, AKT1, ALB, IL-6, TNF, and VEGFA. Furthermore, the enrichment analysis suggested that luteolin may exert effects on virus defense, regulation of inflammation, cell growth and cell replication, and immune responses, reducing oxidative stress and regulating blood circulation through the Toll-like receptor; MAPK, TNF, AGE/RAGE, EGFR, ErbB, HIF-1, and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways; PD-L1 expression; and PD-1 checkpoint pathway in cancer. The possible "dangerous liaison" between COVID-19 and asthma is still a potential threat to world health. This research is the first to explore whether luteolin could evolve into a drug candidate for COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. This study indicated that luteolin with superior drug likeness and bioactivity has great potential to be used for treating COVID-19/asthma comorbidity, but the predicted results still need to be rigorously verified by experiments.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Luteolin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Comorbidity , Computational Biology/methods , Drug Discovery/methods , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Luteolin/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
2.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438675

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and is leading to the worst health crisis of this century. It emerged in China during late 2019 and rapidly spread all over the world, producing a broad spectrum of clinical disease severity, ranging from asymptomatic infection to death (4.3 million victims so far). Consequently, the scientific research is devoted to investigating the mechanisms of COVID-19 pathogenesis to both identify specific therapeutic drugs and develop vaccines. Although immunological mechanisms driving COVID-19 pathogenesis are still largely unknown, new understanding has emerged about the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which are mainly focused on the dysregulated inflammatory response in severe COVID-19. Polyphenols are naturally occurring products with immunomodulatory activity, playing a relevant role in reducing inflammation and preventing the onset of serious chronic diseases. Mainly based on data collected before the appearance of SARS-CoV-2, polyphenols have been recently suggested as promising agents to fight COVID-19, and some clinical trials have already been approved with polyphenols to treat COVID-19. The aim of this review is to analyze and discuss the in vitro and in vivo research on the immunomodulatory activity of quercetin as a research model of polyphenols, focusing on research that addresses issues related to the dysregulated immune response in severe COVID-19. From this analysis, it emerges that although encouraging data are present, they are still insufficient to recommend polyphenols as potential immunomodulatory agents against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367768

ABSTRACT

In 2019, COVID-19 emerged as a severe respiratory disease that is caused by the novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease has been associated with high mortality rate, especially in patients with comorbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney diseases. This could be attributed to dysregulated immune responses and severe systemic inflammation in COVID-19 patients. The use of effective antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and modulation of the immune responses could be a potential therapeutic strategy for COVID-19. Studies have shown that natural phenolic compounds have several pharmacological properties, including anticoronavirus and immunomodulatory activities. Therefore, this review discusses the dual action of these natural products from the perspective of applicability at COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 1753-1773, 2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243010

ABSTRACT

The deficiency of chemical-synthesized antiviral drugs when applied in clinical therapy, such as drug resistance, and the lack of effective antiviral drugs to treat some newly emerging virus infections, such as COVID-19, promote the demand of novelty and safety anti-virus drug candidate from natural functional ingredient. Numerous studies have shown that some polysaccharides sourcing from edible and medicinal fungus (EMFs) exert direct or indirect anti-viral capacities. However, the internal connection of fungus type, polysaccharides structural characteristics, action mechanism was still unclear. Herein, our review focus on the two aspects, on the one hand, we discussed the type of anti-viral EMFs and the structural characteristics of polysaccharides to clarify the structure-activity relationship, on the other hand, the directly or indirectly antiviral mechanism of EMFs polysaccharides, including virus function suppression, immune-modulatory activity, anti-inflammatory activity, regulation of population balance of gut microbiota have been concluded to provide a comprehensive theory basis for better clinical utilization of EMFs polysaccharides as anti-viral agents.


Subject(s)
Agaricales/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fungal Polysaccharides , Immunologic Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/classification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fungal Polysaccharides/chemistry , Fungal Polysaccharides/classification , Fungal Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/classification , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use
5.
Carbohydr Res ; 505: 108326, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213065

ABSTRACT

The viral infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 has increased the mortality rate and engaged several adverse effects on the affected individuals. Currently available antiviral drugs have found to be unsuccessful in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The demand for efficient antiviral drugs has created a huge burden on physicians and health workers. Plasma therapy seems to be less accomplishable due to insufficient donors to donate plasma and low recovery rate from viral infection. Repurposing of antivirals has been evolved as a suitable strategy in the current treatment and preventive measures. The concept of drug repurposing represents new experimental approaches for effective therapeutic benefits. Besides, SARS-CoV-2 exhibits several complications such as lung damage, blood clot formation, respiratory illness and organ failures in most of the patients. Based on the accumulation of data, sulfated marine polysaccharides have exerted successful inhibition of virus entry, attachment and replication with known or unknown possible mechanisms against deadly animal and human viruses so far. Since the virus entry into the host cells is the key process, the prevention of such entry mechanism makes any antiviral strategy effective. Enveloped viruses are more sensitive to polyanions than non-enveloped viruses. Besides, the viral infection caused by RNA virus types embarks severe oxidative stress in the human body that leads to malfunction of tissues and organs. In this context, polysaccharides play a very significant role in providing shielding effect against the virus due to their polyanionic rich features and a molecular weight that hinders their reactive surface glycoproteins. Significantly the functional groups especially sulfate, sulfate pattern and addition, uronic acids, monosaccharides, glycosidic linkage and high molecular weight have greater influence in the antiviral activity. Moreover, they are very good antioxidants that can reduce the free radical generation and provokes intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, polysaccharides enable a host-virus immune response, activate phagocytosis and stimulate interferon systems. Therefore, polysaccharides can be used as candidate drugs, adjuvants in vaccines or combination with other antivirals, antioxidants and immune-activating nutritional supplements and antiviral materials in healthcare products to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Anticoagulants/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/isolation & purification , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Phaeophyta/chemistry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Rhodophyta/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfuric Acid Esters/chemistry , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
6.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(9): 1137-1150, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155796

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Isatis indigotica Fort. (I. indigotica) is an herbaceous plant belonging to Cruciferae family. Its leaf (IIL) and root (IIR) are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) with good clinical efficacies such as clearing away heat and detoxification, cooling blood and reducing swelling. This review aimed to provide a systematic summary on the phytochemistry, pharmacology and clinical applications of I. indigotica. KEY FINDINGS: This plant contains alkaloids, organic acids, flavonoids, lignans, nucleosides, amino acids, and steroids. Previous pharmacological researches indicated that I. indigotica possesses promising antivirus, antibacterial, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammation, and cholagogic effects. Importantly, it can inhibit various viruses, such as influenza, hepatitis B, mumps, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, and coxsachievirus. Clinically, it is frequently used to treat various viral diseases like viral influenza, parotitis and viral hepatitis. Consequently, I. indigotica may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SUMMARY: This paper reviewed the chemical constituents, pharmacological effects and clinical applications of I. indigotica which may guide further research and application of this plant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Isatis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Treatment Outcome
7.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 169: 100-117, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966180

ABSTRACT

To address the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an unprecedented global effort to advance potent neutralizing mAbs against SARS-CoV-2 as therapeutics. However, historical efforts to advance antiviral monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the treatment of other respiratory infections have been met with categorical failures in the clinic. By investigating the mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 and similar viruses spread within the lung, along with available biodistribution data for systemically injected mAb, we highlight the challenges faced by current antiviral mAbs for COVID-19. We summarize some of the leading mAbs currently in development, and present the evidence supporting inhaled delivery of antiviral mAb as an early intervention against COVID-19 that could prevent important pulmonary morbidities associated with the infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Virus Shedding/physiology
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945833

ABSTRACT

At least since March 2020, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and the multi-organ coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are keeping a firm grip on the world. Although most cases are mild, older patients and those with co-morbidities are at increased risk of developing a cytokine storm, characterized by a systemic inflammatory response leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and organ failure. The present paper focuses on the small molecule MP1032, describes its mode of action, and gives rationale why it is a promising option for the prevention/treatment of the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine storm. MP1032 is a phase-pure anhydrous polymorph of 5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione sodium salt that exhibits good stability and bioavailability. The physiological action of MP1032 is based on a multi-target mechanism including localized, self-limiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities that were demonstrated in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced joint inflammation. Furthermore, its immune-regulatory and PARP-1-modulating properties, coupled with antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2, have been demonstrated in various cell models. Preclinical efficacy was elucidated in LPS-induced endotoxemia, a model with heightened innate immune responses that shares many similarities to COVID-19. So far, during oral clinical development with three-month daily administrations, no serious adverse drug reactions occurred, highlighting the outstanding safety profile of MP1032.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Luminol/analogs & derivatives , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Amination , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Inflammation/immunology , Luminol/chemistry , Luminol/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
9.
Sci Adv ; 6(23): eaaz5466, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602279

ABSTRACT

Uncontrolled inflammatory processes are at the root of numerous pathologies. Most recently, studies on confirmed COVID-19 cases have suggested that mortality might be due to virally induced hyperinflammation. Uncontrolled pro-inflammatory states are often driven by continuous positive feedback loops between pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which cannot be resolved in a targeted manner. Here, we report on the development of multidrug nanoparticles for the mitigation of uncontrolled inflammation. The nanoparticles are made by conjugating squalene, a natural lipid, to adenosine, an endogenous immunomodulator, and then encapsulating α-tocopherol, as antioxidant. This resulted in high drug loading, biocompatible, multidrug nanoparticles. By exploiting the endothelial dysfunction at sites of acute inflammation, these multidrug nanoparticles delivered the therapeutic agents in a targeted manner, conferring survival advantage to treated animals in models of endotoxemia. Selectively delivering adenosine and antioxidants together could serve as a novel therapeutic approach for safe treatment of acute paradoxal inflammation.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Endotoxemia/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Squalene/chemistry , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Adenosine/administration & dosage , Adenosine/chemistry , Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/chemistry , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Endotoxemia/chemically induced , Female , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Squalene/administration & dosage , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/chemically induced , Treatment Outcome , alpha-Tocopherol/administration & dosage , alpha-Tocopherol/chemistry
10.
Molecules ; 25(8)2020 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71998

ABSTRACT

The inhibition of viral protease is an important target in antiviral drug discovery and development. To date, protease inhibitor drugs, especially HIV-1 protease inhibitors, have been available for human clinical use in the treatment of coronaviruses. However, these drugs can have adverse side effects and they can become ineffective due to eventual drug resistance. Thus, the search for natural bioactive compounds that were obtained from bio-resources that exert inhibitory capabilities against HIV-1 protease activity is of great interest. Fungi are a source of natural bioactive compounds that offer therapeutic potential in the prevention of viral diseases and for the improvement of human immunomodulation. Here, we made a brief review of the current findings on fungi as producers of protease inhibitors and studies on the relevant candidate fungal bioactive compounds that can offer immunomodulatory activities as potential therapeutic agents of coronaviruses in the future.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Fungi/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Coronavirus/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/isolation & purification , Molecular Structure , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Structure-Activity Relationship
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