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1.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(11): 129974, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330651

ABSTRACT

Background Since December 2019, the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to infect humans and many people died from severe Covid-19 during the last 2 years worldwide. Different approaches are being used for treatment of this infection and its consequences, but limited results have been achieved and new therapeutics are still needed. One of the most interesting biotherapeutics in this era are Nanobodies which have shown very promising results in recent researches. Scope of review Here, we have reviewed the potentials of Nanobodies in Covid-19 treatment. We have also discussed the properties of these biotherapeutics that make them very suitable for pulmonary drug delivery, which seems to be very important route of administration in this disease. Major conclusion Nanobodies with their special biological and biophysical characteristics and their resistance against harsh manufacturing condition, can be considered as promising, targeted biotherapeutics which can be administered by pulmonary delivery pharmaceutical systems against Covid-19. General significance Covid-19 has become a global problem during the last two years and with emerging mutant strains, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are still highly needed. Nanobodies with their specific properties can be considered as valuable and promising candidates in Covid-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Single-Domain Antibodies/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelus , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/biosynthesis , Immunologic Factors/isolation & purification , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Peptide Library , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/biosynthesis , Single-Domain Antibodies/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Carbohydr Res ; 505: 108326, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213065

ABSTRACT

The viral infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 has increased the mortality rate and engaged several adverse effects on the affected individuals. Currently available antiviral drugs have found to be unsuccessful in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The demand for efficient antiviral drugs has created a huge burden on physicians and health workers. Plasma therapy seems to be less accomplishable due to insufficient donors to donate plasma and low recovery rate from viral infection. Repurposing of antivirals has been evolved as a suitable strategy in the current treatment and preventive measures. The concept of drug repurposing represents new experimental approaches for effective therapeutic benefits. Besides, SARS-CoV-2 exhibits several complications such as lung damage, blood clot formation, respiratory illness and organ failures in most of the patients. Based on the accumulation of data, sulfated marine polysaccharides have exerted successful inhibition of virus entry, attachment and replication with known or unknown possible mechanisms against deadly animal and human viruses so far. Since the virus entry into the host cells is the key process, the prevention of such entry mechanism makes any antiviral strategy effective. Enveloped viruses are more sensitive to polyanions than non-enveloped viruses. Besides, the viral infection caused by RNA virus types embarks severe oxidative stress in the human body that leads to malfunction of tissues and organs. In this context, polysaccharides play a very significant role in providing shielding effect against the virus due to their polyanionic rich features and a molecular weight that hinders their reactive surface glycoproteins. Significantly the functional groups especially sulfate, sulfate pattern and addition, uronic acids, monosaccharides, glycosidic linkage and high molecular weight have greater influence in the antiviral activity. Moreover, they are very good antioxidants that can reduce the free radical generation and provokes intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, polysaccharides enable a host-virus immune response, activate phagocytosis and stimulate interferon systems. Therefore, polysaccharides can be used as candidate drugs, adjuvants in vaccines or combination with other antivirals, antioxidants and immune-activating nutritional supplements and antiviral materials in healthcare products to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Anticoagulants/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/isolation & purification , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Phaeophyta/chemistry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Rhodophyta/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfuric Acid Esters/chemistry , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
3.
Molecules ; 25(8)2020 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71998

ABSTRACT

The inhibition of viral protease is an important target in antiviral drug discovery and development. To date, protease inhibitor drugs, especially HIV-1 protease inhibitors, have been available for human clinical use in the treatment of coronaviruses. However, these drugs can have adverse side effects and they can become ineffective due to eventual drug resistance. Thus, the search for natural bioactive compounds that were obtained from bio-resources that exert inhibitory capabilities against HIV-1 protease activity is of great interest. Fungi are a source of natural bioactive compounds that offer therapeutic potential in the prevention of viral diseases and for the improvement of human immunomodulation. Here, we made a brief review of the current findings on fungi as producers of protease inhibitors and studies on the relevant candidate fungal bioactive compounds that can offer immunomodulatory activities as potential therapeutic agents of coronaviruses in the future.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Fungi/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Coronavirus/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/isolation & purification , Molecular Structure , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Structure-Activity Relationship
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