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1.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0248479, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266543

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic in a very short time span. Currently, there is no specific treatment or vaccine to counter this highly contagious disease. There is an urgent need to find a specific cure for the disease and global efforts are directed at developing SARS-CoV-2 specific antivirals and immunomodulators. Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy has been traditionally used in India for its immunomodulatory and adaptogenic effects, and more recently has been included as therapeutic adjuvant for several maladies. Amongst several others, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) play an important role in Rasayana therapy. The objective of this study was to explore the immunomodulatory and anti SARS-CoV2 potential of phytoconstituents from Ashwagandha, Guduchi and Shatavari using network pharmacology and docking. The plant extracts were prepared as per ayurvedic procedures and a total of 31 phytoconstituents were identified using UHPLC-PDA and mass spectrometry studies. To assess the immunomodulatory potential of these phytoconstituents an in-silico network pharmacology model was constructed. The model predicts that the phytoconstituents possess the potential to modulate several targets in immune pathways potentially providing a protective role. To explore if these phytoconstituents also possess antiviral activity, docking was performed with the Spike protein, Main Protease and RNA dependent RNA polymerase of the virus. Interestingly, several phytoconstituents are predicted to possess good affinity for the three targets, suggesting their application for the termination of viral life cycle. Further, predictive tools indicate that there would not be adverse herb-drug pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic interactions with concomitantly administered drug therapy. We thus make a compelling case to evaluate the potential of these Rasayana botanicals as therapeutic adjuvants in the management of COVID-19 following rigorous experimental validation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Asparagus Plant/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Plant Extracts/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Tinospora/chemistry , Withania/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Herb-Drug Interactions , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacokinetics , India , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacokinetics , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
2.
J Nutr Biochem ; 97: 108787, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253236

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of mysterious pneumonia at the end of 2019 is associated with widespread research interest worldwide. The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) targets multiple organs through inflammatory, immune, and redox mechanisms, and no effective drug for its prophylaxis or treatment has been identified until now. The use of dietary bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds (PC), has emerged as a putative nutritional or therapeutic adjunct approach for COVID-19. In the present study, scientific data on the mechanisms underlying the bioactivity of PC and their usefulness in COVID-19 mitigation are reviewed. In addition, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects of dietary PC are studied. Moreover, the implications of digestion on the putative benefits of dietary PC against COVID-19 are presented by addressing the bioavailability and biotransformation of PC by the gut microbiota. Lastly, safety issues and possible drug interactions of PC and their implications in COVID-19 therapeutics are discussed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Phenols/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacokinetics , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Curcumin/pharmacokinetics , Curcumin/pharmacology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacokinetics , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Phenols/pharmacokinetics , Phenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/pharmacokinetics , Quercetin/pharmacology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Resveratrol/pharmacokinetics , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
J Intern Med ; 289(5): 738-746, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Published reports on tocilizumab in COVID-19 pneumonitis show conflicting results due to weak designs or heterogeneity in critical methodological issues. METHODS: This open-label trial, structured according to Simon's optimal design, aims to identify factors predicting which patients could benefit from anti-IL6 strategies and to enhance the design of unequivocal and reliable future randomized trials. A total of 46 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia needing of oxygen therapy to maintain SO2 > 93% and with recent worsening of lung function received a single infusion of tocilizumab. Clinical and biological markers were measured to test their predictive values. Primary end point was early and sustained clinical response. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients fulfilled pre-defined response criteria. Lower levels of IL-6 at 24 h after tocilizumab infusion (P = 0.049) and higher baseline values of PaO2/FiO2 (P = 0.008) predicted a favourable response. CONCLUSIONS: Objective clinical response rate overcame the pre-defined threshold of 30%. Efficacy of tocilizumab to improve respiratory function in patients selected according to our inclusion criteria warrants investigations in randomized trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Biomarkers, Pharmacological/analysis , COVID-19 , Drug Monitoring/methods , Interleukin-6 , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/pharmacokinetics , Infusions, Intravenous , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/blood , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Oximetry/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Pharm Sci ; 110(3): 1002-1017, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943678

ABSTRACT

Over 50 million people have been infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, while around 1 million have died due to COVID-19 disease progression. COVID-19 presents flu-like symptoms that can escalate, in about 7-10 days from onset, into a cytokine storm causing respiratory failure and death. Although social distancing reduces transmissibility, COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics are essential to regain socioeconomic normalcy. Even if effective and safe vaccines are found, pharmacological interventions are still needed to limit disease severity and mortality. Integrating current knowledge and drug candidates (approved drugs for repositioning among >35 candidates) undergoing clinical studies (>3000 registered in ClinicalTrials.gov), we employed Systems Pharmacology approaches to project how antivirals and immunoregulatory agents could be optimally evaluated for use. Antivirals are likely to be effective only at the early stage of infection, soon after exposure and before hospitalization, while immunomodulatory agents should be effective in the later-stage cytokine storm. As current antiviral candidates are administered in hospitals over 5-7 days, a long-acting combination that targets multiple SARS-CoV-2 lifecycle steps may provide a long-lasting, single-dose treatment in outpatient settings. Long-acting therapeutics may still be needed even when vaccines become available as vaccines are likely to be approved based on a 50% efficacy target.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacokinetics , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Models, Biological , Pharmacology, Clinical , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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