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1.
Clin Lab ; 68(10)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080866

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this retrospective study, we aimed to compare the laboratory and clinical results of cytokine hem-adsorption as an immunomodulation therapy in COVID-19 ICU patients with or without sepsis. METHODS: The levels of PCT, CRP, and ferritin were determined as indicators of infection/sepsis; the levels of in-terleukins (IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, and TNF-α) were determined as indicators of cytokine storm were compared. APACHE score, SOFA score, and mortality rates were compared for the progression of the disease in 23 COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The therapy was generally successful in reducing the levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α but the levels measured after the procedure did not differ among the patients with or without sepsis, suggesting that the presence of sepsis did not affect the efficacy and function of the cytokine hemadsorption procedure in COVID-19 patients. All parameters were reduced after the procedure except the levels of PCT and ferritin and mortality rates of patients diagnosed with sepsis. The level of PCT was significantly higher in these patients compared with the patients without sepsis while the ferritin and mortality did not show any significant difference between the two groups, suggesting that the cytokine hemadsorption may be safe in the treatment of critical COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: As a result, the progression of sepsis in COVID-19 may be avoided with cytokine hemadsorption applied as an immunomodulator therapy. However, this therapy should be further explored and validated prior to its introduction to everyday clinical practice when the epidemic conditions end.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Cytokines , Ferritins , Hemadsorption , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
2.
Clin Lab ; 68(9)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proper identification of patients at risk of developing serious disease in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the initiation of early treatment, is one of the fundamental elements for successful management of COVID-19. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of serum biomarkers (neutrophils, lymphocytes, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, ferritin, and interleukin-6) to predict the early response to immunosuppressant therapy in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a case-control study nested in a retrospective cohort, which included hospitalized patients with interstitial pneumonia and with elevation of some proinflammatory parameters. Each of the individuals who died during the 28-day follow-up was defined as a case. For each case, 4 controls were selected, matched by age, gender, and comorbidities. RESULTS: The initial cohort included 856 patients. The incidence of therapeutic failure in the cohort was 14%, thus we identified a total of 120 cases. After the application of a Cox regression model, high serum concentrations of LDH (> 451 IU/L), ferritin (> 1,014 ng/mL) and D-Dimer (> 1,300 ng/mL) were identified as predictors of poor response to treatment. Highly-specific cut-off points could not be established for any of these biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Some inflammatory biomarkers, such as LDH, ferritin, and D-dimer, may be helpful in identifying patients for whom an early immunomodulatory therapeutic intervention should be considered in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Ferritins , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6 , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(8)2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019952

ABSTRACT

A male in his teens with a history of liver transplant for biliary atresia (aged 2 years) and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA, aged 6 years) presented with jaundice, dark urine, fatigue and chest discomfort that began 48 hours after the first dose of SARS-CoV-2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (BNT162b2 mRNA). Investigations revealed a warm AIHA picture. Over 4 weeks the patient developed life-threatening anaemia culminating in haemoglobin of 35 g/L (after transfusion), lactate dehydrogenase of 1293 units/L and bilirubin of 228 µmol/L, refractory to standard treatment with corticosteroids and rituximab. An emergency splenectomy was performed that slowed haemolysis but did not completely ameliorate it. Eculizumab, a terminal complement pathway inhibitor, was initiated to arrest intravascular haemolysis and showed a favourable response. AIHA is rare but described after the SARS-CoV-2 Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. This case highlights the rare complication of AIHA, the use of emergency splenectomy for disease control, and the use of eculizumab.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/complications , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Bilirubin , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Hemoglobins , Hemolysis , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lactate Dehydrogenases , Male , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Splenectomy/adverse effects
4.
Immunotherapy ; 14(14): 1149-1164, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009820

ABSTRACT

In the past decade, the emergence of biologics targeting human cytokine networks has advanced a new era in atopic dermatitis therapy. Dupilumab, in particular, the most widely studied and used IL-4/IL-13 inhibitor, has been considered a milestone in the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. In addition to the IL-4 and IL-13 pathways, many other cytokines and receptors have been newly targeted as therapeutic options. In this review, the authors provide an overview of the approved and tested biologics and JAK inhibitors for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, including their advantages and limitations.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Dermatitis, Atopic , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4
5.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 380, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002186

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells can recognize invading pathogens through recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The recognition of PAMPs by PRRs triggers immune defense mechanisms and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6. However, sustained and overwhelming activation of immune system may disrupt immune homeostasis and contribute to inflammatory disorders. Immunomodulators targeting PRRs may be beneficial to treat infectious diseases and their associated complications. However, therapeutic performances of immunomodulators can be negatively affected by (1) high immune-mediated toxicity, (2) poor solubility and (3) bioactivity loss after long circulation. Recently, nanocarriers have emerged as a very promising tool to overcome these obstacles owning to their unique properties such as sustained circulation, desired bio-distribution, and preferred pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. In this review, we aim to provide an up-to-date overview on the strategies and applications of nanocarrier-assisted innate immune modulation for the management of infections and their associated complications. We first summarize examples of important innate immune modulators. The types of nanomaterials available for drug delivery, as well as their applications for the delivery of immunomodulatory drugs and vaccine adjuvants are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Immune System , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Receptors, Pattern Recognition
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5702-5712, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966061

ABSTRACT

Immunomodulators (tocilizumab/baricitinib) improve outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, but the synergistic effect of remdesivir is unknown. The effect of combination therapy with remdesivir, immunomodulators, and standard treatment in COVID-19 patients was investigated. This retrospective, single-center study included COVID-19 patients who were treated with tocilizumab or baricitinib. The severity of respiratory status in the two groups on Days 14 and 28 and the duration to respiratory recovery in both groups were compared, and the effect of remdesivir use on respiratory status was examined in a multivariate analysis. Ninety-eight patients received tocilizumab or baricitinib; among them, 72 used remdesivir (remdesivir group) and 26 did not (control group). The remdesivir group achieved faster respiratory recovery than the control group (median 11 vs. 21 days, p = 0.033), faster weaning from supplemental oxygen (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-5.66, p = 0.021). Age, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, and time from onset to oxygen administration were independent prognostic factors. The remdesivir group achieved better severity level at Days 14 and 28 (p = 0.033 and 0.003, respectively) and greater improvement from baseline severity (p = 0.047 and 0.018, respectively). Remdesivir combination therapy did not prolong survival (HR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.04-2.16, p = 0.23). Among severely ill COVID-19 patients who received immunomodulator, remdesivir contributed to a shorter respiratory recovery time and better respiratory status at Days 14 and 28. Concomitant remdesivir with immunomodulators and standard treatment may provide additional benefit in improving respiratory status of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents , Azetidines , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Purines , Pyrazoles , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides
8.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 134, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and degenerative disease of the central nervous system with an increasing worldwide prevalence. Since 1993, more than 15 disease-modifying immunotherapies (DMTs) have been licenced and have shown moderate efficacy in clinical trials. Based on the heterogeneity of the disease and the partial effectiveness of therapies, a personalised medicine approach would be valuable taking individual prognosis and suitability of a chosen therapy into account to gain the best possible treatment effect. The primary objective of this review is to assess the differential treatment effects of all approved DMTs in subgroups of adults with clinically isolated syndrome or relapsing forms of MS. We will analyse possible treatment effect modifiers (TEM) defined by baseline demographic characteristics (gender, age), and diagnostic (i.e. MRI measures) and clinical (i.e. relapses, disability level) measures of MS disease activity. METHODS: We will include all published and accessible unpublished primary and secondary analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a follow-up of at least 12 months investigating the efficacy of at least one approved DMT, with placebo or other approved DMTs as control intervention(s) in subgroups of trial participants. As the primary outcome, we will address disability as defined by the Expanded Disability Status Scale or multiple sclerosis functional composite scores followed by relapse frequency, quality of life measures, and side effects. MRI data will be analysed as secondary outcomes. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, CENTRAL and major trial registers will be searched for suitable studies. Titles and abstracts and full texts will be screened by two persons independently using Covidence. The risk of bias will be analysed based on the Cochrane "Risk of Bias 2" tool, and the certainty of evidence will be assessed using GRADE. Treatment effects will be reported as rate ratio or odds ratio. Primary analyses will follow the intention-to-treat principle. Meta-analyses will be carried out using random-effects models. DISCUSSION: Given that individual patient data from clinical studies are often not available, the review will allow to analyse the evidence on TEM in MS immunotherapy and thus support clinical decision making in individual cases. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021279665 .


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Biomarkers , Demography , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
11.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104102, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), while disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) may influence the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in this population. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of DMTs on immune response to COVID-19 vaccines in pwMS. METHODS: Literature search from December 1, 2019 to March 31, 2022 was performed in PubMed, MedRxiv, Embase and Cochrane Library. The risk of impaired response to vaccination in pwMS receiving DMTs was estimated in odds ratios (ORs) using random-effects method. FINDINGS: A total of 48 studies comprising 6860 pwMS were included. Overall, pwMS with anti-CD20 (OR=0.02, 95% CI: 0.01-0.03) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator (S1PRM) (OR=0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.06) treatments had attenuated serologic response after full vaccination compared with those without DMTs. Additionally, pwMS vaccinated within six months since last anti-CD20 therapy were at significantly higher risk of blunted response compared with those receiving anti-CD20 therapy more than six months prior to vaccination (P = 0.001). We found no significant associations between other treatments (including IFN-ß, GA, DMF, TERI, NTZ, CLAD, and ALE) and humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in pwMS. As for T-cell response, no significant difference was found between pwMS on anti-CD20 and those without DMTs after vaccination, while S1PRM was marginally associated with impaired cellular response (P = 0.03). INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggested that routine serological monitoring may be required for pwMS on anti-CD20 and S1PRMs after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and highlighted the benefits of a booster dose. The effect of cellular response and optimal interval from last anti-CD20 treatment to vaccination should be further addressed. FUNDING: This study was supported by Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (21ZR1433000).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antigens, CD20 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936574, 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a disorder of the central nervous system which has been associated with preceding infection as well as vaccinations. We present a case of a 61-year-old woman with ADEM after receiving her initial vaccination for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This case highlights management of this acute condition. CASE REPORT A 61-year-old woman with history of hypertension and anxiety presented with progressive generalized weakness and difficulty with communication which began a few weeks ago, shortly after receiving the Pfizer vaccine for the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). On arrival, she was found to be encephalopathic and tachypneic, ultimately requiring emergent intubation. During her hospital course, an MRI of her brain was obtained which showed nonspecific acute versus subacute leukoencephalopathy involving the brainstem and deep white matter. Her cerebrospinal fluid showed elevated protein but was otherwise unremarkable. Further testing to rule out tick-borne illnesses, viral etiology, and multiple sclerosis were negative. Electroencephalography showed nonspecific diffuse cerebral dysfunction but no seizures or epileptiform discharges. She was treated with 5 doses of methylprednisolone 1 g and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) 2 g/kg over 5 days. She had marked improvement in her neurologic status after treatment. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, ADEM should be acknowledged as a rare but potential complication related to COVID-19 vaccination. A proper history and physical exam in addition to a thorough work-up are necessary for prompt recognition of this condition. Initial treatment should consist of steroids followed by IVIG versus plasmapheresis for those not responsive to steroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/complications , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Leukoencephalopathies , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Tachypnea
13.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 34(3): 286-294, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895869

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Using highly effective (HE) compounds right from the beginning of disease-modifying immunotherapy (DMT) in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) has gained popularity among clinicians and pwMS alike. We discuss the most recent evidence supporting this approach, and whether any of the associated risks should stop us adopting it as a default strategy. RECENT FINDINGS: With the addition of injectable ofatumumab, and the two oral sphingosine one phosphate modulators siponimod and ozanimod, ten HE DMTs are now available for pwMS, though variation in licensing status and cost may limit their use in some healthcare environments. Real World evidence based on large MS registry data suggests the superiority of early HE DMT over a slow treatment escalation approach; delaying HE DMT leads to more rapid and often irreversible disability accrual. Mechanistically, B-cell depletion, particularly memory B-cell suppression, is a common denominator closely associated with DMT efficacy. SUMMARY: The concept that HE DMTs are necessarily associated with a high risk of adverse effects, is no longer supported by the evidence. The rather predictable and manageable risk profile of most HE DMTs should lower the threshold for clinicians to discuss such treatment with pwMS as a first line approach.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis , Administration, Oral , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
14.
Immunotherapy ; 14(12): 915-925, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892545

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer have a higher risk of severe COVID-19, and expert consensus advocates for COVID-19 vaccination in this population. Some cases of autoimmune hepatitis have been described after the administration of COVID-19 vaccine in the people in apparently good health. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are responsible for a wide spectrum of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). This article reports a case of hepatitis and colitis in a 52-year-old woman who was undergoing immunotherapy and was HBV positive 10 days after receiving the first Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine dose. Because both ICIs and the COVID-19 vaccines stimulate the immune response, the authors hypothesize that these vaccines may increase the incidence of irAEs during ICI treatment. There is a complex interplay between the immune-mediated reaction triggered by the vaccination and PD-L1 co-administration.


Patients with cancer have a higher risk of severe COVID-19, and expert consensus advocates for COVID-19 vaccination in this population. Some reports have described autoimmune hepatitis after the administration of COVID-19 vaccine. It is difficult, however, to establish a causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and autoimmune hepatitis. This article reports a case of hepatitis and colitis in a 52-year-old woman with lung cancer who was undergoing immunotherapy and was was found to be HBV positive 10 days after her first Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine dose. Because both immunotherapy and COVID-19 vaccines stimulate the immune response, the authors hypothesize that these vaccines may increase the incidence of immune-related side effects.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hepatitis , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Hepatitis/etiology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
15.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 42: 1-13, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879288

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer generally have a higher risk of adverse outcomes from COVID-19, with higher age, male sex, poor performance status, cancer type, and uncontrolled malignant disease as the main risk factors. However, the influence of specific cancer therapies varies and raises concerns during the pandemic. In patients undergoing cancer immunotherapy or other immunosuppressive cancer treatments, we summarize the evidence on outcomes from COVID-19; address the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination; and review COVID-19 antiviral therapeutics for the patient with cancer. Despite higher mortality for patients with cancer, treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors does not seem to increase mortality risk based on observational evidence. Inhibitory therapies directed toward B-cell lineages, including monoclonal antibodies against CD20 and CAR T-cell therapies, are associated with poor outcomes in COVID-19; however, the data are sparse. Regarding vaccination in patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors, clinical efficacy comparable to that in the general population can be expected. In patients undergoing B-cell-depleting therapy, immunogenicity and clinical efficacy are curtailed, but vaccination is not futile, which is thought to be due to the cellular response. Vaccine reactogenicity and toxicity in all groups of patients with cancer are comparable to that of the general population. Preexposure prophylaxis with monoclonal antibodies directed against the viral spike may provide passive immunity for those not likely to mount an adequate vaccine response. If infected, prompt treatment with monoclonal antibodies or oral small molecule antivirals is beneficial, though with oral antiviral therapies, care must be taken to avoid drug interactions in patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 27(1): 10, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753103

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide, and finding a safe therapeutic strategy and effective vaccine is critical to overcoming severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, elucidation of pathogenesis mechanisms, especially entry routes of SARS-CoV-2 may help propose antiviral drugs and novel vaccines. Several receptors have been demonstrated for the interaction of spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 with host cells, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2), ephrin ligands and Eph receptors, neuropilin 1 (NRP-1), P2X7, and CD147. The expression of these entry receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) may make the CNS prone to SARS-CoV-2 invasion, leading to neurodegenerative diseases. The present review provides potential pathological mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the CNS, including entry receptors and cytokines involved in neuroinflammatory conditions. Moreover, it explains several neurodegenerative disorders associated with COVID-19. Finally, we suggest inflammasome and JaK inhibitors as potential therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Central Nervous System/virology , Ephrins/genetics , Ephrins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/genetics , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/genetics , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction
18.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 59-73, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719339

ABSTRACT

As of April 15, 2020, the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) pandemic has swept through 213 countries and infected more than 1,870,000 individuals, posing an unprecedented threat to international health and the economy. There is currently no specific treatment available for patients with COVID-19 infection. The lessons learned from past management of respiratory viral infections have provided insights into treating COVID-19. Numerous potential therapies, including supportive intervention, immunomodulatory agents, antiviral therapy, and convalescent plasma transfusion, have been tentatively applied in clinical settings. A number of these therapies have provided substantially curative benefits in treating patients with COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, intensive research and clinical trials are underway to assess the efficacy of existing drugs and identify potential therapeutic targets to develop new drugs for treating COVID-19. Herein, we summarize the current potential therapeutic approaches for diseases related to COVID-19 infection and introduce their mechanisms of action, safety, and effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Killer Cells, Natural , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use
19.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 57, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702971

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that poses a major threat to global public health. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, causing severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe cases, it can also result in multiple extrapulmonary complications. The pathogenesis of extrapulmonary damage in patients with COVID-19 is probably multifactorial, involving both the direct effects of SARS-CoV-2 and the indirect mechanisms associated with the host inflammatory response. Recognition of features and pathogenesis of extrapulmonary complications has clinical implications for identifying disease progression and designing therapeutic strategies. This review provides an overview of the extrapulmonary complications of COVID-19 from immunological and pathophysiologic perspectives and focuses on the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 18, 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, different treatments have been used in critically ill patients. Using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been suggested in various studies as an effective option. Our study aims to access the efficacy of IVIG in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this retrospective matched cohort study, records of three tertiary centers with a large number of COVID-19 admissions were evaluated and used. Based on treatment options, patients were divided into two groups, standard COVID-19 treatment (109 patients) and IVIG treatment (74 patients) patients. Also, the effect of IVIG in different dosages was evaluated. Patients with IVIG treatment were divided into three groups of low (0.25 gr/kg), medium (0.5 gr/kg), and high (1 gr/kg) dose. Data analysis was performed using an independent t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare the outcomes between two groups, including duration of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and mortality rate. RESULTS: The duration of hospitalization in the IVIG group was significantly longer than standard treatment (13.74 days vs. 11.10 days, p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in ICU length of stay, the number of intubated patients, and duration of mechanical ventilation (p > 0.05). Also, initial outcomes in IVIG subgroups were compared separately with the standard treatment group. The results indicated that only the duration of hospitalization in the IVIG subgroup with medium dose is significantly longer than the standard treatment group (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the use of IVIG in critically ill COVID-19 patients could not be beneficial, based on no remarkable differences in duration of hospitalization, ICU length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and even mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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