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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 889876, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198816

ABSTRACT

IgM memory B cells, are a peculiar subset of memory B cells, which probably originates in the spleen and outside germinal centers and provide a rapid line of defence against mucosal infections. Their role in counteracting COVID-19 is still elusive but, recent evidence, mainly boosted by studies on spleen function/involvement in COVID-19, seems to support the notion that this subset of memory B cells could exert a protective role against this virus, along with other coronaviruses, particularly in the acute setting of the infection, as outlined by worst clinical outcomes observed in unvaccinated patients with impaired IgM B memory response and spleen function. Herein we critically summarise the current landscape of studies on IgM memory B cells, focusing on the clinical impact of their depletion, by comparing the COVID-19-related splenic dysfunction with other hypo- and asplenic conditions and by adding recent data on follow-up studies and postulate a mechanistic explanation for their reduced numbers. The early detection of an impaired IgM memory B cell response in patients with COVID-19 may contribute to their improved care through different strategies, such as through tailored vaccine strategies, prompt hospital admission and/or administration of anti-infective treatments, thus resulting in an better prognosis, although at present management algorithms are still unavailable. Moreover, further studies with longer follow-up are needed to assess the evolution of COVID-19-associated/exacerbated immune deficit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells , Spleen
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20376, 2022 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133642

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal studies have revealed large interindividual differences in antibody responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. Thus, we performed a comprehensive analysis of adaptive immune responses induced by three doses of the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. The responses of spike-specific CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and serum IgG, and the serum neutralization capacities induced by the two vaccines declined 6 months later. The 3rd dose increased serum spike IgG and neutralizing capacities against the wild-type and Omicron spikes to higher levels than the 2nd dose, and this was supported by memory B cell responses, which gradually increased after the 2nd dose and were further enhanced by the 3rd dose. The 3rd dose moderately increased the frequencies of spike-specific CD4+ T cells, but the frequencies of spike-specific CD8+ T cells remained unchanged. T cells reactive against the Omicron spike were 1.3-fold fewer than those against the wild-type spike. The early responsiveness of spike-specific CD4+ T, circulating T follicular helper cells and circulating T peripheral helper cells correlated with memory B cell responses to the booster vaccination, and early spike-specific CD4+ T cell responses were also associated with spike-specific CD8+ T cell responses. These findings highlight the importance of evaluating cellular responses to optimize future vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunologic Memory , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Immunoglobulin G
3.
Mucosal Immunol ; 15(6): 1405-1415, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133297

ABSTRACT

Multiple SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates have been approved for use and have had a major impact on the COVID-19 pandemic. There remains, however, a significant need for vaccines that are safe, easily transportable and protective against infection, as well as disease. Mucosal vaccination is favored for its ability to induce immune memory at the site of infection, making it appealing for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strategies. In this study we performed in-depth analysis of the immune responses in mice to a subunit recombinant spike protein vaccine formulated with the delta-inulin adjuvant Advax when administered intratracheally (IT), versus intramuscular delivery (IM). Both routes produced robust neutralizing antibody titers (NAb) and generated sterilizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2. IT delivery, however, produced significantly higher systemic and lung-local NAb that resisted waning up to six months post vaccination, and only IT delivery generated inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT), a site of lymphocyte antigen presentation and proliferation. This was coupled with robust and long-lasting lung tissue-resident memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that were not observed in IM-vaccinated mice. This study provides a detailed view of the lung-resident cellular response to IT vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 and demonstrates the importance of delivery site selection in the development of vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Mice , Animals , Humans , Inulin , COVID-19 Vaccines , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Immunologic Memory , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization , Vaccines, Synthetic , Vaccination , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Gastric Mucosa , Lung
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1033364, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123418

ABSTRACT

This is the third year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and yet most children remain unvaccinated. COVID-19 in children manifests as mostly mild or asymptomatic, however high viral titers and strong cellular and humoral responses are observed upon acute infection. It is still unclear how long these responses persist, and if they can protect from re-infection and/or disease severity. Here, we analyzed immune memory responses in a cohort of children and adults with COVID-19. Important differences between children and adults are evident in kinetics and profile of memory responses. Children develop early N-specific cytotoxic T cell responses, that rapidly expand and dominate their immune memory to the virus. Children's anti-N, but not anti-S, antibody titers increase over time. Neutralization titers correlate with N-specific antibodies and CD8+T cells. However, antibodies generated by infection do not efficiently cross-neutralize variants Gamma or Delta. Our results indicate that mechanisms that protect from disease severity are possibly different from those that protect from reinfection, bringing novel insights for pediatric vaccine design. They also underline the importance of vaccination in children, who remain at risk for COVID-19 despite having been previously infected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Adult , Child , Immunologic Memory , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Nucleocapsid , Antibodies
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19658, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117683

ABSTRACT

Severe/critical COVID-19 is associated with immune dysregulation and plasmatic SARS-CoV-2 detection (i.e. RNAemia). We detailed the association of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia with immune responses in COVID-19 patients at the end of the first week of disease. We enrolled patients hospitalized in acute phase of ascertained SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, and evaluated SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, plasmatic cytokines, activated/pro-cytolytic T-cells phenotypes, SARS-CoV-2-specific cytokine-producing T-cells (IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-17A), simultaneous Th1-cytokines production (polyfunctionality) and amount (iMFI). The humoral responses were assessed with anti-S1/S2 IgG, anti-RBD total-Ig, IgM, IgA, IgG1 and IgG3, neutralization and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Out of 54 patients, 27 had detectable viremia (viremic). Albeit comparable age and co-morbidities, viremic more frequently required ventilatory support, with a trend to higher death. Viremic displayed higher pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-α, IL-6), lower activated T-cells (HLA-DR+CD38+), lower functional SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cells (IFN-γ+CD4+, TNF-α+CD8+, IL-4+CD8+, IL-2+TNF-α+CD4+, and IL-2+TNF-α+CD4+ iMFI) and SARS-CoV-2-specific Abs (anti-S IgG, anti-RBD total-Ig, IgM, IgG1, IgG3; ID50, %ADCC). These data suggest a link between SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia at the end of the first stage of disease and immune dysregulation. Whether high ab initium viral burden and/or intrinsic host factors contribute to immune dysregulation in severe COVID-19 remains to be elucidated, to further inform strategies of targeted therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-4 , Immunologic Memory , Cytokines , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
6.
Immunol Rev ; 310(1): 27-46, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097774

ABSTRACT

Immunological memory is the basis of protective immunity provided by vaccines and previous infections. Immunological memory can develop from multiple branches of the adaptive immune system, including CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, and long-lasting antibody responses. Extraordinary progress has been made in understanding memory to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccines, addressing development; quantitative and qualitative features of different cellular and anatomical compartments; and durability of each cellular component and antibodies. Given the sophistication of the measurements; the size of the human studies; the use of longitudinal samples and cross-sectional studies; and head-to-head comparisons between infection and vaccines or between multiple vaccines, the understanding of immune memory for 1 year to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccines already supersedes that of any other acute infectious disease. This knowledge may help inform public policies regarding COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines, as well as the scientific development of future vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and other diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Science ; 378(6622): eabo2523, 2022 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088384

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has highlighted the need for vaccines that not only prevent disease but also prevent transmission. Parenteral vaccines induce robust systemic immunity but poor immunity at the respiratory mucosa. We developed a vaccine strategy that we call "prime and spike," which leverages existing immunity generated by primary vaccination (prime) to elicit mucosal immune memory within the respiratory tract by using unadjuvanted intranasal spike boosters (spike). We show that prime and spike induces robust resident memory B and T cell responses, induces immunoglobulin A at the respiratory mucosa, boosts systemic immunity, and completely protects mice with partial immunity from lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using divergent spike proteins, prime and spike enables the induction of cross-reactive immunity against sarbecoviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells , Memory T Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Mice , Administration, Intranasal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunoglobulin A , Memory B Cells/immunology , Memory T Cells/immunology
8.
Science ; 378(6620): 619-627, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078696

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron sublineages carry distinct spike mutations resulting in escape from antibodies induced by previous infection or vaccination. We show that hybrid immunity or vaccine boosters elicit plasma-neutralizing antibodies against Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/5, and that breakthrough infections, but not vaccination alone, induce neutralizing antibodies in the nasal mucosa. Consistent with immunological imprinting, most antibodies derived from memory B cells or plasma cells of Omicron breakthrough cases cross-react with the Wuhan-Hu-1, BA.1, BA.2, and BA.4/5 receptor-binding domains, whereas Omicron primary infections elicit B cells of narrow specificity up to 6 months after infection. Although most clinical antibodies have reduced neutralization of Omicron, we identified an ultrapotent pan-variant-neutralizing antibody that is a strong candidate for clinical development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Memory B Cells/immunology
9.
Immunity ; 55(7): 1299-1315.e4, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076210

ABSTRACT

As the establishment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cell memory in children remains largely unexplored, we recruited convalescent COVID-19 children and adults to define their circulating memory SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells prior to vaccination. We analyzed epitope-specific T cells directly ex vivo using seven HLA class I and class II tetramers presenting SARS-CoV-2 epitopes, together with Spike-specific B cells. Unvaccinated children who seroconverted had comparable Spike-specific but lower ORF1a- and N-specific memory T cell responses compared with adults. This agreed with our TCR sequencing data showing reduced clonal expansion in children. A strong stem cell memory phenotype and common T cell receptor motifs were detected within tetramer-specific T cells in seroconverted children. Conversely, children who did not seroconvert had tetramer-specific T cells of predominantly naive phenotypes and diverse TCRαß repertoires. Our study demonstrates the generation of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell memory with common TCRαß motifs in unvaccinated seroconverted children after their first virus encounter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
J Leukoc Biol ; 112(1): 201-212, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075041

ABSTRACT

T cells are thought to be an important correlates of protection against SARS-CoV2 infection. However, the composition of T cell subsets in convalescent individuals of SARS-CoV2 infection has not been well studied. The authors determined the lymphocyte absolute counts, the frequency of memory T cell subsets, and the plasma levels of common γ-chain in 7 groups of COVID-19 individuals, based on days since RT-PCR confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The data show that both absolute counts and frequencies of lymphocytes as well as, the frequencies of CD4+ central and effector memory cells increased, and the frequencies of CD4+ naïve T cells, transitional memory, stem cell memory T cells, and regulatory cells decreased from Days 15-30 to Days 61-90 and plateaued thereafter. In addition, the frequencies of CD8+ central memory, effector, and terminal effector memory T cells increased, and the frequencies of CD8+ naïve cells, transitional memory, and stem cell memory T cells decreased from Days 15-30 to Days 61-90 and plateaued thereafter. The plasma levels of IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21-common γc cytokines started decreasing from Days 15-30 till Days 151-180. Severe COVID-19 patients exhibit decreased levels of lymphocyte counts and frequencies, higher frequencies of naïve cells, regulatory T cells, lower frequencies of central memory, effector memory, and stem cell memory, and elevated plasma levels of IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21. Finally, there was a significant correlation between memory T cell subsets and common γc cytokines. Thus, the study provides evidence of alterations in lymphocyte counts, memory T cell subset frequencies, and common γ-chain cytokines in convalescent COVID-19 individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Memory T Cells , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Interleukin-15/blood , Interleukin-2/blood , Interleukin-7/blood , Memory T Cells/immunology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 978760, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043449

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected half a billion people, including vulnerable populations such as cancer patients. While increasing evidence supports the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 months after a negative nasopharyngeal swab test, the effects on long-term immune memory and cancer treatment are unclear. In this report, we examined post-COVID-19 tissue-localized immune responses in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient and a colorectal cancer (CRC) patient. Using spatial whole-transcriptomic analysis, we demonstrated spatial profiles consistent with a lymphocyte-associated SARS-CoV-2 response (based on two public COVID-19 gene sets) in the tumors and adjacent normal tissues, despite intra-tumor heterogeneity. The use of RNAscope and multiplex immunohistochemistry revealed that the spatial localization of B cells was significantly associated with lymphocyte-associated SARS-CoV-2 responses within the spatial transcriptomic (ST) niches showing the highest levels of virus. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing data obtained from previous (CRC) or new (HCC) ex vivo stimulation experiments showed that patient-specific SARS-CoV-2 memory B cells were the main contributors to this positive association. Finally, we evaluated the spatial associations between SARS-CoV-2-induced immunological effects and immunotherapy-related anti-tumor immune responses. Immuno-predictive scores (IMPRES) revealed consistent positive spatial correlations between T cells/cytotoxic lymphocytes and the predicted immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) response, particularly in the HCC tissues. However, the positive spatial correlation between B cells and IMPRES score was restricted to the high-virus ST niche. In addition, tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion (TIDE) analysis revealed marked T cell dysfunction and inflammation, alongside low T cell exclusion and M2 tumor-associated macrophage infiltration. Our results provide in situ evidence of SARS-CoV-2-generated persistent immunological memory, which could not only provide tissue protection against reinfection but may also modulate the tumor microenvironment, favoring ICB responsiveness. As the number of cancer patients with COVID-19 comorbidity continues to rise, improved understanding of the long-term immune response induced by SARS-CoV-2 and its impact on cancer treatment is much needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Comorbidity , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunologic Memory , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome , Tumor Microenvironment/genetics
13.
Mult Scler ; 28(12): 1937-1943, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Development of long-lasting anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) T-cell responses in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with ocrelizumab is questioned. OBJECTIVE: Investigate antiviral T-cell responses after infection with SARS-CoV-2 in ocrelizumab-treated pwMS. Control groups included ocrelizumab-treated pwMS without SARS-CoV-2 infection, and non-MS individuals with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools and T-cell reactivity was assessed by ELISPOT for interferon (IFN)-γ detection, and by multiparametric fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analyses for assessment and characterization of T-cell activation. RESULTS: ELISPOT assay against the spike and the N protein of SARS-CoV-2 displayed specific T-cell reactivity in 28/29 (96%) pwMS treated with ocrelizumab and infected by SARS-CoV-2, similar to infected persons without MS. This reactivity was present 1 year after infection and independent from the time of ocrelizumab infusion. FACS analysis following stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools showed the presence of activation-induced markers (AIMs) in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in 96% and 92% of these individuals, respectively. Within naïve AIM+ CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, we detected T memory stem cells, suggesting the acquisition of long-term memory. CONCLUSIONS: B-cell depletion using ocrelizumab does not impair the development of long-lasting anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antiviral Agents , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Interferons , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Peptides , RNA, Viral , Stem Cells
14.
Sci Immunol ; 7(73): eabq3511, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038228

ABSTRACT

Understanding immune responses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) breakthrough infection will facilitate the development of next-generation vaccines. Here, we profiled spike (S)-specific B cell responses after Omicron/BA.1 infection in messenger RNA-vaccinated donors. The acute antibody response was characterized by high levels of somatic hypermutation and a bias toward recognition of ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strains, suggesting the early activation of vaccine-induced memory B cells. BA.1 breakthrough infection induced a shift in B cell immunodominance hierarchy from the S2 subunit, which is highly conserved across SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), and toward the antigenically variable receptor binding domain (RBD). A large proportion of RBD-directed neutralizing antibodies isolated from BA.1 breakthrough infection donors displayed convergent sequence features and broadly recognized SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. Together, these findings provide insights into the role of preexisting immunity in shaping the B cell response to heterologous SARS-CoV-2 variant exposure.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Immunologic Memory , Antibodies, Viral , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
15.
Allergy ; 77(12): 3553-3566, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019113

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, the world has been embroiled in an ongoing viral pandemic with SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants resulting in mass morbidity and an estimated 6 million deaths globally. The scientific community pivoted rapidly, providing unique and innovative means to identify infected individuals, technologies to evaluate immune responses to infection and vaccination, and new therapeutic strategies to treat infected individuals. Never before has immunology been so critically at the forefront of combatting a global pandemic. It has now become evident that not just antibody responses, but formation and durability of immune memory cells following vaccination are associated with protection against severe disease from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, the emergence of variants of concern (VoC) highlight the need for immunological markers to quantify the protective capacity of Wuhan-based vaccines. Thus, harnessing and modulating the immune response is key to successful vaccination and treatment of disease. We here review the latest knowledge about immune memory generation and durability following natural infection and vaccination, and provide insights into the attributes of immune memory that may protect from emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunologic Memory , Vaccination , Pandemics
16.
AIDS ; 36(12): F7-F16, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the long-term clinical and immunologic consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with HIV (PWH). METHODS: We measured SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses in people with and without HIV recovering from COVID-19 ( n  = 39 and n  = 43, respectively) using binding antibody, surrogate virus neutralization, intracellular cytokine staining, and inflammatory marker assays. We identified individuals experiencing postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) and evaluated immunologic parameters. We used linear regression and generalized linear models to examine differences by HIV status in the magnitude of inflammatory and virus-specific antibody and T-cell responses, as well as differences in the prevalence of PASC. RESULTS: Among PWH, we found broadly similar SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and T-cell responses as compared with a well matched group of HIV-negative individuals. PWH had 70% lower relative levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD8 + T cells ( P  = 0.007) and 53% higher relative levels of PD-1+ SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 + T cells ( P  = 0.007). Higher CD4 + /CD8 + ratio was associated with lower PD-1 expression on SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8 + T cells (0.34-fold effect, P  = 0.02). HIV status was strongly associated with PASC (odds ratio 4.01, P  = 0.008), and levels of certain inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IP-10) were associated with persistent symptoms. CONCLUSION: We identified potentially important differences in SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in PWH and HIV-negative participants that might have implications for long-term immunity conferred by natural infection. HIV status strongly predicted the presence of PASC. Larger and more detailed studies of PASC in PWH are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/metabolism , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 943331, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009867

ABSTRACT

The immune system generates memory cells on infection with a virus for the first time. These memory cells play an essential role in protection against reinfection. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells can be generated in situ once attacked by pathogens. TRM cells dominate the defense mechanism during early stages of reinfection and have gradually become one of the most popular focuses in recent years. Here, we mainly reviewed the development and regulation of various TRM cell signaling pathways in the respiratory tract. Moreover, we explored the protective roles of TRM cells in immune response against various respiratory viruses, such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and influenza. The complex roles of TRM cells against SARS-CoV-2 infection are also discussed. Current evidence supports the therapeutic strategies targeting TRM cells, providing more possibilities for treatment. Rational utilization of TRM cells for therapeutics is vital for defense against respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
Memory T Cells , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , COVID-19 , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Lung , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(37): e2205598119, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008361

ABSTRACT

The humoral immune response, a key arm of adaptive immunity, consists of B cells and their products. Upon infection or vaccination, B cells undergo a Darwinian evolutionary process in germinal centers (GCs), resulting in the production of antibodies and memory B cells. We developed a computational model to study how humoral memory is recalled upon reinfection or booster vaccination. We find that upon reexposure to the same antigen, affinity-dependent selective expansion of available memory B cells outside GCs (extragerminal center compartments [EGCs]) results in a rapid response made up of the best available antibodies. Memory B cells that enter secondary GCs can undergo mutation and selection to generate even more potent responses over time, enabling greater protection upon subsequent exposure to the same antigen. GCs also generate a diverse pool of B cells, some with low antigen affinity. These results are consistent with our analyses of data from humans vaccinated with two doses of a COVID-19 vaccine. Our results further show that the diversity of memory B cells generated in GCs is critically important upon exposure to a variant antigen. Clones drawn from this diverse pool that cross-react with the variant are rapidly expanded in EGCs to provide the best protection possible while new secondary GCs generate a tailored response for the new variant. Based on a simple evolutionary model, we suggest that the complementary roles of EGC and GC processes we describe may have evolved in response to complex organisms being exposed to evolving pathogen families for millennia.


Subject(s)
Antigens , B-Lymphocytes , Immunity, Humoral , Immunologic Memory , Antigens/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Computer Simulation , Germinal Center/immunology , Humans , Models, Biological
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(34): e2207841119, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991768

ABSTRACT

The targeted delivery of messenger RNA (mRNA) to desired organs remains a great challenge for in vivo applications of mRNA technology. For mRNA vaccines, the targeted delivery to the lymph node (LN) is predicted to reduce side effects and increase the immune response. In this study, we explored an endogenously LN-targeting lipid nanoparticle (LNP) without the modification of any active targeting ligands for developing an mRNA cancer vaccine. The LNP named 113-O12B showed increased and specific expression in the LN compared with LNP formulated with ALC-0315, a synthetic lipid used in the COVID-19 vaccine Comirnaty. The targeted delivery of mRNA to the LN increased the CD8+ T cell response to the encoded full-length ovalbumin (OVA) model antigen. As a result, the protective and therapeutic effect of the OVA-encoding mRNA vaccine on the OVA-antigen-bearing B16F10 melanoma model was also improved. Moreover, 113-O12B encapsulated with TRP-2 peptide (TRP2180-188)-encoding mRNA also exhibited excellent tumor inhibition, with the complete response of 40% in the regular B16F10 tumor model when combined with anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) therapy, revealing broad application of 113-O12B from protein to peptide antigens. All the treated mice showed long-term immune memory, hindering the occurrence of tumor metastatic nodules in the lung in the rechallenging experiments that followed. The enhanced antitumor efficacy of the LN-targeting LNP system shows great potential as a universal platform for the next generation of mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , mRNA Vaccines , Amino Alcohols , Animals , Antigens/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Decanoates , Immunologic Memory , Liposomes , Lymph Nodes , Mice , Neoplasm Metastasis/prevention & control , Neoplasms/therapy , Ovalbumin , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
20.
Cell Rep ; 36(8): 109591, 2021 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370154

ABSTRACT

The relationship between B cells and CD4 T cells has been carefully studied, revealing a collaborative effort in which B cells promote the activation, differentiation, and expansion of CD4 T cells while the so-called "helper" cells provide signals to B cells, influencing their class switching and fate. Interactions between B cells and CD8 T cells are not as well studied, although CD8 T cells exhibit an accelerated contraction after certain infections in B-cell-deficient mice. Here, we find that B cells significantly enhance primary CD8 T cell responses after vaccination. Moreover, memory CD8 numbers and function are impaired in B-cell-deficient animals, leading to increased susceptibility to bacterial challenge. We also show that interleukin-27 production by B cells contributes to their impact on primary, but not memory, CD8 responses. Better understanding of the interactions between CD8 T cells and B cells may aid in the design of more effective future vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Interleukin-27/immunology , Interleukin-27/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
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