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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745038

ABSTRACT

This review article is focused on antihypertensive drugs, namely angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), and their immunomodulatory properties reported in hypertensive patients as well as in experimental settings involving studies on animal models and cell lines. The immune regulatory action of ACEI and ARB is mainly connected with the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine secretion, diminished expression of adhesion molecules, and normalization of CRP concentration in the blood plasma. The topic has significant importance in future medical practice in the therapy of patients with comorbidities with underlying chronic inflammatory responses. Thus, this additional effect of immune regulatory action of ACEI and ARB may also benefit the treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome, allergies, or autoimmune disorders.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Humans
3.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-14, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575050

ABSTRACT

Of all the nutrients, vitamin A has been the most extensively evaluated for its impact on immunity. There are three main forms of vitamin A, retinol, retinal and retinoic acid (RA) with the latter being most biologically active and all-trans-RA (ATRA) its main derivative. Vitamin A is a key regulator of the functions of various innate and adaptive immune cells and promotes immune-homeostasis. Importantly, it augments the interferon-based innate immune response to RNA viruses decreasing RNA virus replication. Several clinical trials report decreased mortality in measles and Ebola with vitamin A supplementation.During the Covid-19 pandemic interventions such as convalescent plasma, antivirals, monoclonal antibodies and immunomodulator drugs have been tried but most of them are difficult to implement in resource-limited settings. The current review explores the possibility of mega dose vitamin A as an affordable adjunct therapy for Covid-19 illness with minimal reversible side effects. Insight is provided into the effect of vitamin A on ACE-2 expression in the respiratory tract and its association with the prognosis of Covid-19 patients. Vitamin A supplementation may aid the generation of protective immune response to Covid-19 vaccines. An overview of the dosage and safety profile of vitamin A is presented along with recommended doses for prophylactic/therapeutic use in randomised controlled trials in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Immunomodulation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vitamin A/analysis
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 63-81, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544343

ABSTRACT

Although significant research has been done to find effective drugs against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), no definite effective drug exists. Thus, research has now shifted towards immunomodulatory agents other than antivirals. In this review, we aim to describe the latest findings on the role of type I interferon (IFN)-mediated innate antiviral response against SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the use of IFNs as a medication for COVID-19. A growing body of evidence has indicated a promoting active but delayed IFNs response to SARS-CoV-2 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in infected bronchial epithelial cells. Studies have demonstrated that IFNs' administration before the viral peak and the inflammatory phase of disease could offer a highly protective effect. However, IFNs' treatment during the inflammatory and severe stages of the disease causes immunopathology and long-lasting harm for patients. Therefore, it is critical to note the best time window for IFNs' administration. Further investigation of the clinical effectiveness of interferon for patients with mild to severe COVID-19 and its optimal timing and route of administration can be beneficial in finding a safe and effective antiviral therapy for the COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon Type I/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation/drug effects
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 716084, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430699

ABSTRACT

A binary model for the classification of chronic diseases has formerly been proposed. The model classifies chronic diseases as "high Treg" or "low Treg" diseases according to the extent of regulatory T cells (Treg) activity (frequency or function) observed. The present paper applies this model to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The model correctly predicts the efficacy or inefficacy of several immune-modulating drugs in the treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. It also correctly predicts the class of pathogens mostly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical implications are the following: (a) any search for new immune-modulating drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 should exclude candidates that do not induce "high Treg" immune reaction or those that do not spare CD8+ T cells; (b) immune-modulating drugs, which are effective against SARS-CoV-2, may not be effective against any variant of the virus that does not induce "low Treg" reaction; (c) any immune-modulating drug, which is effective in treating COVID-19, will also alleviate most coinfections; and (d) severe COVID-19 patients should avoid contact with carriers of "low Treg" pathogens.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunomodulation/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Chronic Disease/classification , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sirolimus/therapeutic use
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299445

ABSTRACT

Antithrombin (AT) is a natural anticoagulant that interacts with activated proteases of the coagulation system and with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) on the surface of cells. The protein, which is synthesized in the liver, is also essential to confer the effects of therapeutic heparin. However, AT levels drop in systemic inflammatory diseases. The reason for this decline is consumption by the coagulation system but also by immunological processes. Aside from the primarily known anticoagulant effects, AT elicits distinct anti-inflammatory signaling responses. It binds to structures of the glycocalyx (syndecan-4) and further modulates the inflammatory response of endothelial cells and leukocytes by interacting with surface receptors. Additionally, AT exerts direct antimicrobial effects: depending on AT glycosylation it can bind to and perforate bacterial cell walls. Peptide fragments derived from proteolytic degradation of AT exert antibacterial properties. Despite these promising characteristics, therapeutic supplementation in inflammatory conditions has not proven to be effective in randomized control trials. Nevertheless, new insights provided by subgroup analyses and retrospective trials suggest that a recommendation be made to identify the patient population that would benefit most from AT substitution. Recent experiment findings place the role of various AT isoforms in the spotlight. This review provides an overview of new insights into a supposedly well-known molecule.


Subject(s)
Antithrombins/pharmacology , Disease Resistance/drug effects , Disease Susceptibility , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Disease Management , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/pathology , Organ Specificity , Signal Transduction/drug effects
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231496

ABSTRACT

In addition to its canonical functions, vitamin D has been proposed to be an important mediator of the immune system. Despite ample sunshine, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent (>80%) in the Middle East, resulting in a high rate of supplementation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the specific regimen prescribed and the potential factors affecting an individual's response to vitamin D supplementation are not well characterized. Our objective is to describe the changes in the blood transcriptome and explore the potential mechanisms associated with vitamin D3 supplementation in one hundred vitamin D-deficient women who were given a weekly oral dose (50,000 IU) of vitamin D3 for three months. A high-throughput targeted PCR, composed of 264 genes representing the important blood transcriptomic fingerprints of health and disease states, was performed on pre and post-supplementation blood samples to profile the molecular response to vitamin D3. We identified 54 differentially expressed genes that were strongly modulated by vitamin D3 supplementation. Network analyses showed significant changes in the immune-related pathways such as TLR4/CD14 and IFN receptors, and catabolic processes related to NF-kB, which were subsequently confirmed by gene ontology enrichment analyses. We proposed a model for vitamin D3 response based on the expression changes of molecules involved in the receptor-mediated intra-cellular signaling pathways and the ensuing predicted effects on cytokine production. Overall, vitamin D3 has a strong effect on the immune system, G-coupled protein receptor signaling, and the ubiquitin system. We highlighted the major molecular changes and biological processes induced by vitamin D3, which will help to further investigate the effectiveness of vitamin D3 supplementation among individuals in the Middle East as well as other regions.


Subject(s)
Cholecalciferol/genetics , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Vitamin D/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/immunology , Dietary Supplements , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Nutrition Therapy , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/genetics , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology , Vitamin D Deficiency/pathology , Young Adult
9.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1186-1199.e7, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207036

ABSTRACT

A cardinal feature of COVID-19 is lung inflammation and respiratory failure. In a prospective multi-country cohort of COVID-19 patients, we found that increased Notch4 expression on circulating regulatory T (Treg) cells was associated with disease severity, predicted mortality, and declined upon recovery. Deletion of Notch4 in Treg cells or therapy with anti-Notch4 antibodies in conventional and humanized mice normalized the dysregulated innate immunity and rescued disease morbidity and mortality induced by a synthetic analog of viral RNA or by influenza H1N1 virus. Mechanistically, Notch4 suppressed the induction by interleukin-18 of amphiregulin, a cytokine necessary for tissue repair. Protection by Notch4 inhibition was recapitulated by therapy with Amphiregulin and, reciprocally, abrogated by its antagonism. Amphiregulin declined in COVID-19 subjects as a function of disease severity and Notch4 expression. Thus, Notch4 expression on Treg cells dynamically restrains amphiregulin-dependent tissue repair to promote severe lung inflammation, with therapeutic implications for COVID-19 and related infections.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions , Immunity, Cellular , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Receptor, Notch4/metabolism , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , Amphiregulin/pharmacology , Animals , Biomarkers , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Influenza A virus/physiology , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Receptor, Notch4/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, Notch4/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3393-3404, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201666

ABSTRACT

The global health emergency generated by coronavirus disease-2019 has prompted the search for immunomodulatory agents. There are many potential natural products for drug discovery and development to tackle this disease. One of these candidates is the Ganoderma lucidum fungal immunomodulatory protein (FIP-glu). In the present study, we clarify the influences of N-linked glycans on the improvement of anti-inflammatory activity and the potential mechanisms of action. Four proteins, including FIP-glu (WT) and its mutants N31S, T36N and N31S/T36N, were successfully expressed in P. pastoris, of which T36N and N31S/T36N were glycoproteins. After treatment with peptide-N-glycosidase F, the results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot showed that the glycan moiety was removed completely, indicating that the glycan moiety was N-linked. This was also demonstrated by UPLC-qTOF-MS. The cytotoxicity assay showed that N-linked glycans decreased the cytotoxicity of WT; while, the RT-qPCR assay showed that N-glycosylated WT regulated the mRNA expression of IL-6 and TGF-ß1. The Western blot results showed that N-glycosylated WT reduced the phosphorylation level of p38 MAPK. In conclusion, our findings revealed a novel mechanism by which N-glycosylation of FIP-glu improved its anti-inflammatory activity through the regulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 via inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. It was proved that N-glycosylation significantly improved the functional properties of FIP-glu, providing theoretical and technical support for expanding the application of FIPs in the food and pharmaceutical industries.


Subject(s)
Fungal Proteins/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Reishi , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Animals , Blotting, Western , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cytokines , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Glycosylation , Mass Spectrometry , Mice , Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase , RAW 264.7 Cells , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saccharomycetales
11.
Antivir Ther ; 25(6): 327-333, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antiviral and immune-modulating properties of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) against Coronaviridae have been reported by in vitro studies, but no in vivo evidence is yet available. We sought to know whether the timing of prophylactic doses of LMWH during the course of COVID-19 may affect the time to SARS-CoV-2 nasal-oropharyngeal swab negativization. METHODS: Retrospective monocentric cross-sectional study on patients requiring sub-intensive ward admission due to first SARS-CoV-2 infection and undergoing early (EH; within 7 days from COVID-19 signs and symptoms onset) versus delayed prophylactic LMWH (DH; after 7 days). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was measured by reverse transcription real-time PCR according to scheduled time points: first swab after 2 weeks from COVID-19 onset, then at 1-week intervals until negativity. RESULTS: Time to SARS-CoV-2 swab negativity was shorter in EH (38 patients) compared with DH (55 patients): 22 versus 37 days (P=0.004). The number of confirmative negative swabs in EH was significantly higher compared with DH at week 2 (21.1% versus 3.6%; P=0.017) and 4 (60.0% versus 19.6%; P<0.001). At univariate, EH differed from DH for several disease severity and clinical management parameters. Nevertheless, after accounting for the differences, Cox regression showed early LMWH administration (hazard ratio [HR] 2.91 [1.51, 5.63]; P=0.002) and higher lymphocytes nadir (HR 1.04 [1.01, 1.08]; P=0.020) as predictors of shorter time to swab negativity. CONCLUSIONS: This potential antiviral and/or immune-modulating activity of LMWH needs further in vivo confirmations by randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Nasal Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(10): 1245-1258, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142581

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge loss of human lives and extensive socio-economic damages. The immuno-pathology of this disease is neither clearly understood nor there are effective drugs for severe cases of COVID-19. Repurposing of available drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 is imperative.Areas Covered: This review has gathered the evidence from PubMed, Google Scholar, WHO, and other reliable websites on COVID-19 and summarized the existing knowledge of the immuno-pathology of COVID-19. We elucidated how vitamin D through its diverse actions on immune effector cells, epithelial cells, or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system could have a modulatory role on the pathogenic mechanisms of COVID-19. The epidemiological evidence associating vitamin D deficiency with the severity and incidence of COVID-19 is also presented. However, the evidence of clinical benefit to patients of COVID-19 from randomized controlled trials with vitamin D has not come as yet.Expert opinion: It is now established that fatality of COVID-19 is primarily determined by hyperactivation of the host's innate immune system in response to SARS-CoV-2 invasion, and thus the research on the immuno-modulatory and other roles of vitamin D against viral infections should be pursued vigorously. This would be also useful for future pandemics caused by other novel viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Replication , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 319-325, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081278

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A subgroup of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection was thought to have developed cytokine release syndrome and were treated with tocilizumab; however, a significant percentage of patients evolved. This study aimed to determine the usefulness of anakinra as a rescue treatment for patients with tocilizumab-refractory COVID-19 disease. METHODS: A prospective cohort of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who received anakinra as salvage therapy after failure of tocilizumab were compared (1:1) with selected controls in a historical cohort of patients treated with tocilizumab. Cases and controls were matched by age, comorbidities, pulse oximetry oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) ratio at baseline, and time elapsed since the initiation of treatment with tocilizumab. The primary outcome was the improvement in clinical status measured by a 6-point ordinal scale, from baseline to day 21. RESULTS: The study included 20 cases and 20 controls (mean age 65.3 ± 12.8 years, 65% males). No differences were found in the clinical improvement rates at 7, 14 and 21 days of follow-up. The in-hospital mortality rate for patients receiving anakinra was 55% vs. 45% in the control group (P = 0.527). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with anakinra was not useful in improving the prognosis of patients with tocilizumab-refractory severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Failure , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Food Biochem ; 44(12): e13510, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066711

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia refers to a death-causing infection. Astragali Radix (AR) and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR) are widely used as traditional tonic and promising edible immunomodulatory herbal medicine, but the systemic mechanism is not well understood. Therefore, a strategy based on network pharmacology and molecular docking was designed to explore the systemic mechanism of AR-AMR acting on pneumonia. After a series of bioinformatics assays, seven kernel targets were obtained, including TNF, IL6, IFNG, IL1B, IL10, IL4, and TLR9. And seven key compounds were identified as the synergy components of AR-AMR acting on pneumonia, the four key compounds belonging to AR were (3R)-3-(2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-chromanol, formononetin, quercetin, and kaempferol, the three key compounds belonging to AMR were atractylone, 14-acetyl-12-senecioyl-2E, 8E, 10E-atractylentriol, and α-Amyrin. The crucial pathways were mainly related to three modules, including immune diseases, infectious disease, and organismal systems. Collectively, these observations strongly suggest that the molecular mechanisms of AR-AMR regulating pneumonia were closely related to the correlation between inflammation and immune response. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Astragali radix and Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizoma can be used as "medicine-food homology" for dietary supplement. AR and AMR are widely used as a traditional tonic and promising edible immunomodulatory herbal medicine. The AR-AMR herb pairs are used for compatibility many times in the recommended prescriptions in COVID-19 develop pneumonia in China. However, the ingredients and mechanisms of AR-AMR acting on Pneumonia via immunomodulation are unclear. In this paper, bioinformatics and network biology were used to systematically explore the mechanisms of the AR-AMR herb pairs in treatment of pneumonia, and further analyze the correlation mechanism between it and COVID-19 develop pneumonia. To sum up, our study reveals the interrelationships between components, targets, and corresponding biological processes of AR-AMR acting on pneumonia. Understanding these relationships may provide guidance and theoretical basis for the further application of AR-AMR herb pairs.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Pneumonia/immunology , Astragalus propinquus , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/genetics , Rhizome/chemistry
16.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(7): 5325-5338, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995973

ABSTRACT

In novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the increased frequency and overactivation of T helper (Th) 17 cells and subsequent production of large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines result in hyperinflammation and disease progression. The current study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of nanocurcumin on the frequency and responses of Th17 cells in mild and severe COVID-19 patients. In this study, 40 severe COVID-19 intensive care unit-admitted patients and 40 patients in mild condition were included. The frequency of Th17 cells, the messenger RNA expression of Th17 cell-related factors (RAR-related orphan receptor γt, interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-23, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and the serum levels of cytokines were measured in both nanocurcumin and placebo-treated groups before and after treatment. A significant decrease in the number of Th17 cells, downregulation of Th17 cell-related factors, and decreased levels of Th17 cell-related cytokines were found in mild and severe COVID-19 patients treated by nanocurcumin compared to the placebo group. Moreover, the abovementioned parameters were significantly decreased in the nanocurcumin-treated group after treatment versus before treatment. Curcumin could reduce the frequency of Th17 cells and their related inflammatory factors in both mild and severe COVID-19 patients. Hence, it could be considered as a potential modulatory compound in improving the patient's inflammatory condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Th17 Cells/drug effects , Adult , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/virology , Th17 Cells/metabolism
17.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(1): 591-595, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934013

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can present with a variety of clinical features, ranging from asymptomatic or mild respiratory symptoms to fulminant acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) depending on the host's immune responses and the extent of the associated pathologies. This implies that several measures need to be taken to limit severely impairing symptoms caused by viral-induced pathology in vital organs. Opioids are most exploited for their analgesic effects but their usage in the palliation of dyspnoea, immunomodulation and lysosomotropism may represent potential usages of opioids in COVID-19. Here, we describe the mechanisms involved in each of these potential usages, highlighting the benefits of using opioids in the treatment of ARDS from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Immunomodulation/physiology , Lysosomes/drug effects , Receptors, Opioid/immunology
18.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(2): 283-285, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889571

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is a biphasic illness, with an initial viral replication phase, followed by a cascade of inflammatory events. Progression to severe disease is predominantly a function of the inflammatory cascade, rather than viral replication per se. This understanding can be effectively translated to changing our approach in managing the disease. The natural course of disease offers us separate windows of specific time intervals to administer either antiviral or immunomodulatory therapy. Instituting the right attack at the right time would maximize the benefit of treatment. This concept must also be factored into studies that assess the efficacy of antivirals and immunomodulatory agents against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Time-to-Treatment , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunomodulation/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649852

ABSTRACT

Effective treatment of retinal diseases with adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy is highly dependent on the proportion of successfully transduced cells. However, due to inflammatory reactions at high vector doses, adjunctive treatment may be necessary to enhance the therapeutic outcome. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are anti-malarial drugs that have been successfully used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Evidence suggests that at high concentrations, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine can impact viral infection and replication by increasing endosomal and lysosomal pH. This effect has led to investigations into the potential benefits of these drugs in the treatment of viral infections, including human immunodeficiency virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. However, at lower concentrations, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine appear to exert immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting nucleic acid sensors, including toll-like receptor 9 and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase. This dose-dependent effect on their mechanism of action supports observations of increased viral infections associated with lower drug doses. In this review, we explore the immunomodulatory activity of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, their impact on viral infections, and their potential to improve the efficacy and safety of retinal gene therapy by reducing AAV-induced immune responses. The safety and practicalities of delivering hydroxychloroquine into the retina will also be discussed.


Subject(s)
Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Genetic Therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Retinal Diseases/therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Dependovirus/genetics , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Retinal Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1844, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742725

ABSTRACT

With the onset of the global pandemic in 2020 of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), there has been increasing research activity around certain disease-modifying drugs that are used for the management of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthrosis, psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and inflammatory bowel disease for managing coronavirus symptoms. In the conditions mentioned, many people are on long-term treatment with agents including hydroxychloroquine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor drugs, other biologic agents such as monoclonal antibodies to IL-6 and Janus kinase inhibitors including baricitinib and tofacitinib, which are used to control inflammatory responses in their respective auto-immune condition. There is emerging data that immunomodulatory drugs could be protective at reducing certain features of SARS-CoV-2 and improving recovery. In addition, it is important to understand if subjects being treated with the immunomodulatory agents described have a less severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, as they are deemed some protection from their immunomodulatory treatment, or if they develop infections similar to non-immunocompromised patients. There is a huge unmet clinical need to advise patients responsibly about whether they should remain on their immunomodulatory treatment or not in light of Covid-19 infection. In this article we will discuss potential treatment options for SARS-CoV-2 using immunomodulatory drugs and at what stage of the condition they may be beneficial. Viable treatment options during the global coronavirus pandemic are a much-needed and an intensely active area of research.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors
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