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1.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725886

ABSTRACT

Infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus worldwide has led the World Health Organization to declare a COVID-19 pandemic. Because there is no cure or treatment for this virus, it is emergingly urgent to find effective and validated methods to prevent and treat COVID-19 infection. In this context, alternatives related to nutritional therapy might help to control the infection. This narrative review proposes the importance and role of probiotics and diet as adjunct alternatives among the therapies available for the treatment of this new coronavirus. This review discusses the relationship between intestinal purine metabolism and the use of Lactobacillus gasseri and low-purine diets, particularly in individuals with hyperuricemia, as adjuvant nutritional therapies to improve the immune system and weaken viral replication, assisting in the treatment of COVID-19. These might be promising alternatives, in addition to many others that involve adequate intake of vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds from food.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diet/methods , Immunomodulation/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Humans , Lactobacillus gasseri/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Purines/immunology , Purines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/immunology
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524026

ABSTRACT

The rapid mutation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is now a major concern with no effective drugs and treatments. The severity of the disease is linked to the induction of a cytokine storm that promotes extensive inflammation in the lung, leading to many acute lung injuries, pulmonary edema, and eventually death. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might prove to be a treatment option as they have immunomodulation and regenerative properties. Clinical trials utilizing MSCs in treating acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have provided a basis in treating post-COVID-19 patients. In this review, we discussed the effects of MSCs as an immunomodulator to reduce the severity and death in patients with COVID-19, including the usage of MSCs as an alternative regenerative therapy in post-COVID-19 patients. This review also includes the current clinical trials in utilizing MSCs and their potential future utilization for long-COVID treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Immunomodulation/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Regeneration/physiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 10(11): 1482-1490, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490914

ABSTRACT

As our life expectancy increases, specific medical conditions appear, and new challenges are met in terms of global health. Frailty has become a medical and scientific concept to define pathologies where inflammation, depressed immune system, cellular senescence, and molecular aging converge. But more importantly, frailty is the ultimate cause of death that limits our life span and deteriorates health in an increasing proportion of the world population. The difficulty of tackling this problem is the combination of factors that influence frailty appearance, such as stem cells exhaustion, inflammation, loss of regeneration capability, and impaired immunomodulation. To date, multiple research fields have found mechanisms participating in this health condition, but to make progress, science will need to investigate frailty with an interdisciplinary approach. This article summarizes the current efforts to understand frailty from their processes mediated by inflammation, aging, and stem cells to provide a new perspective that unifies the efforts in producing advanced therapies against medical conditions in the context of frailty. We believe this approach against frailty is particularly relevant to COVID-19, since people in a state of frailty die more frequently due to the hyperinflammatory process associated with this infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Inflammation/complications , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Aging/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Frailty/etiology , Frailty/therapy , Humans , Immunomodulation/physiology , Inflammation/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Regeneration/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/physiology
4.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(4): 734-740, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334067

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Determine the risk of immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) for COVID-19 infection morbidity.Method: A telemedicine survey on patients of a referral uveitis clinic was performed. Signs of infection, habits, and hospitalizations during the 7 months of the COVID-19 pandemic prior to the study date were recorded. Suggestive findings in chest CT scan and/or positive RT-PCR were considered as confirmed COVID-19 infection while those with only suggestive symptoms were considered as suspected cases. Risk factors including sanitary measures and IMT were compared between patients with confirmed cases and patients without infection.Result: 694 patients were included. Eight patients were identified as confirmed cases and 22 patients as suspected cases of COVID-19 infection. Close contact with infected persons was the only significant risk factor for contracting COVID-19.Conclusion: Using IMT did not affect hospitalization and/or ICU admission and can thus be continued during the pandemic, provided that instructions for preventive measures are followed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunomodulation/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Uveitis/therapy , Adult , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uveitis/epidemiology
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107761, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253056

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery of lymphocytes with immunosuppressive activity, increasing interest has arisen in their possible influence on the immune response induced by vaccines. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for maintaining peripheral tolerance, preventing autoimmune diseases, and limiting chronic inflammatory diseases. However, they also limit beneficial immune responses by suppressing anti-infectious and anti-tumor immunity. Mounting evidence suggests that Tregs are involved, at least in part, in the low effectiveness of immunization against various diseases where it has been difficult to obtain protective vaccines. Interestingly, increased activity of Tregs is associated with aging, suggesting a key role for these cells in the lower vaccine effectiveness observed in older people. In this review, we analyze the impact of Tregs on vaccination, with a focus on older adults. Finally, we address an overview of current strategies for Tregs modulation with potential application to improve the effectiveness of future vaccines targeting older populations.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Chronic Disease/therapy , Inflammation/therapy , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/physiology , Vaccines/immunology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Immunomodulation/physiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Inflammation/immunology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Middle Aged , Vaccination
6.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(10): 7266-7289, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168883

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are located in various tissues where these cells show niche-dependent multilineage differentiation and secrete immunomodulatory molecules to support numerous physiological processes. Due to their regenerative and reparative properties, MSCs are extremely valuable for cell-based therapy in tackling several pathological conditions including COVID-19. Iron is essential for MSC processes but iron-loading, which is common in several chronic conditions, hinders normal MSC functionality. This not only aggravates disease pathology but can also affect allogeneic and autologous MSC therapy. Thus, understanding MSCs from an iron perspective is of clinical significance. Accordingly, this review highlights the roles of iron and iron-related proteins in MSC physiology. It describes the contribution of iron and endogenous iron-related effectors like hepcidin, ferroportin, transferrin receptor, lactoferrin, lipocalin-2, bone morphogenetic proteins and hypoxia inducible factors in MSC biology. It summarises the excess-iron-induced alterations in MSC components, processes and discusses signalling pathways involving ROS, PI3K/AKT, MAPK, p53, AMPK/MFF/DRP1 and Wnt. Additionally, it evaluates the endogenous and exogenous saviours of MSCs against iron-toxicity. Lastly, it elaborates on the involvement of MSCs in the pathology of clinical conditions of iron-excess, namely, hereditary hemochromatosis, diabetes, ß-thalassaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. This unique review integrates the distinct fields of iron regulation and MSC physiology. Through an iron-perspective, it describes both mechanistic and clinical aspects of MSCs and proposes an iron-linked MSC-contribution to physiology, pathology and therapeutics. It advances the understanding of MSC biology and may aid in identifying signalling pathways, molecular targets and compounds for formulating adjunctive iron-based therapies for excess-iron conditions, and thereby inform regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
Iron/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Animals , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Humans , Immunomodulation/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Regenerative Medicine/methods , Signal Transduction/physiology
7.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(1): 591-595, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934013

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can present with a variety of clinical features, ranging from asymptomatic or mild respiratory symptoms to fulminant acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) depending on the host's immune responses and the extent of the associated pathologies. This implies that several measures need to be taken to limit severely impairing symptoms caused by viral-induced pathology in vital organs. Opioids are most exploited for their analgesic effects but their usage in the palliation of dyspnoea, immunomodulation and lysosomotropism may represent potential usages of opioids in COVID-19. Here, we describe the mechanisms involved in each of these potential usages, highlighting the benefits of using opioids in the treatment of ARDS from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Immunomodulation/physiology , Lysosomes/drug effects , Receptors, Opioid/immunology
8.
Life Sci ; 263: 118588, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846721

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-novel coronavirus mediated COVID-19 has been recently declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The primary target of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is the human lungs governed by the ACE-2 receptor of epithelial type II cells/endothelial cells, which promote modulation of the immune response of host cells through generating cytokine storm, inflammation, severe pneumonia symptoms, and secondary complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although numerous antiviral and anti-parasitic drugs are under clinical trials to combat this pandemic, to date, neither a specific treatment nor any successful vaccine has been established, urging researchers to identify any potential candidate for combating the disease. Mesenchymal stem cells own self-renewal, differentiation, homing, immunomodulation and remains unaffected by the coronavirus on the virtue of the absence of ACE-2 receptors, indicating that MSC's could be used an ameliorative approach for COVID-19. MSCs have shown to combat the disease via various pathways such as repairing the lung epithelial and endothelial cells, reducing hyperimmune response, maintaining the renin-angiotensin system. Although MSCs-based treatment approaches for COVID-19 is still under consideration with limited data, many human clinical trials of MSC's has been initiated to explore their potential for COVID 19 treatment. The current review summarizes and emphasizes on how MSC's modulate the immune response, can repair the lungs from the impact of the virus, and various aspects of MSC's as a remedial source for COVID-19, to provide better insight for biomedical researchers and for those who are fascinated by stem cells as a therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Humans , Immunomodulation/physiology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Regeneration/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 24(4): 224-234, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809639

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by 'Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2' (SARS-CoV-2) infection emerged in Wuhan, a city of China, and spread to the entire planet in early 2020. The virus enters the respiratory tract cells and other tissues via ACE2 receptors. Approximately 20% of infected subjects develop severe or critical disease. A cytokine storm leads to over inflammation and thrombotic events. The most common clinical presentation in COVID-19 is pneumonia, typically characterized by bilateral, peripheral, and patchy infiltrations in the lungs. However multi-systemic involvement including peripheral thromboembolic skin lesions, central nervous, gastrointestinal, circulatory, and urinary systems are reported. The disease has a higher mortality compared to other viral agents causing pneumonia and unfortunately, no approved specific therapy, nor vaccine has yet been discovered. Several clinical trials are ongoing with hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, and low molecular weight heparins. This comprehensive review aimed to summarize coagulation abnormalities reported in COVID-19, discuss the thrombosis, and inflammation-driven background of the disease, emphasize the impact of thrombotic and inflammatory processes on the progression and prognosis of COVID-19, and to provide evidence-based therapeutic guidance, especially from antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory perspectives.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Inflammation/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombosis/virology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Hemostatic Disorders/virology , Humans , Immunomodulation/physiology , Inflammation/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/therapy
10.
Life Sci ; 262: 118493, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-786057

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019, has become an urgent and serious public health emergency. At present, there is no effective treatment or vaccine for COVID-19. Therefore, there is a crucial unmet need to develop a safe and effective treatment for COVID-19 patients. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in basic science and in a variety of clinical trials. MSCs are able to engraft to the damaged tissues after transplantation and promote tissue regeneration, besides MSCs able to secrete immunomodulatory factors that suppress the cytokine storms. Moreover, the contribution of MSCs to prevent cell death and inhibit tissue fibrosis is well established. In the current review article, the potential mechanisms by which MSCs contribute to the treatment of COVID-19 patients are highlighted. Also, current trials that evaluated the potential of MSC-based treatments for COVID-19 are briefly reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulation/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans
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