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1.
RMD Open ; 8(2)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Humoral vaccine responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are impaired and short lasting in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) following two vaccine doses. To protect these vulnerable patients against severe COVID-19 disease, a three-dose primary vaccination strategy has been implemented in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate humoral response and safety of primary vaccination with three doses in patients with IMID. METHODS: Patients with IMID on immunosuppressive therapy and healthy controls receiving three-dose and two-dose primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, respectively, were included in this prospective observational cohort study. Anti-Spike antibodies were assessed 2-4 weeks, and 12 weeks following each dose. The main outcome was anti-Spike antibody levels 2-4 weeks following three doses in patients with IMID and two doses in controls. Additional outcomes were the antibody decline rate and adverse events. RESULTS: 1100 patients and 303 controls were included. Following three-dose vaccination, patients achieved median (IQR) antibody levels of 5720 BAU/mL (2138-8732) compared with 4495 (1591-6639) in controls receiving two doses, p=0.27. Anti-Spike antibody levels increased with median 1932 BAU/mL (IQR 150-4978) after the third dose. The interval between the vaccine doses and vaccination with mRNA-1273 or a combination of vaccines were associated with antibody levels following the third dose. Antibody levels had a slower decline-rate following the third than the second vaccine dose, p<0.001. Adverse events were reported by 464 (47%) patients and by 196 (78%) controls. Disease flares were reported by 70 (7%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that additional vaccine doses to patients with IMID contribute to strong and sustained immune-responses comparable to healthy persons vaccinated twice, and supports repeated vaccination of patients with IMID. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04798625.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunosuppression Therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects
2.
Hematology ; 27(1): 1191-1195, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087622

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Various hematologic side effects of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has been reported, and most of them are thought to be related to autoimmune pathways. To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of post-COVID-19 vaccination aplastic anemia (AA) have been reported and there is no reported Korean case of COVID-19 vaccine-induced AA yet. We present a case of severe immune-mediated AA that developed after the administration of a messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) gene-based spike protein vaccine against COVID-19, which responded well to immunosuppressive therapy, and discuss the probable pathogenesis of AA and the implication of vaccination along with a comparison of previous cases reported. METHODS: A 53-year-old Korean man developed sudden pancytopenia three months after COVID-19 vaccination. To evaluate the cause of pancytopenia, a bone marrow study was performed. RESULTS: A diagnosis of AA was made through the bone marrow study and he received triple immunosuppressive therapy (IST). After triple IST for five months, his blood cell count was improved and maintained without transfusion and his follow-up bone marrow examination showed improved cellularity. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine might be associated with the development of immune-mediated AA. Prompt hematologic evaluation should be performed when there are symptoms or signs suggestive of cytopenia after COVID-19 vaccination. Although the clinical outcome of post-vaccination AA varies, a good prognosis can be possible for patients with COVID-19 vaccination-induced AA.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pancytopenia , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anemia, Aplastic/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Pancytopenia/chemically induced , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 378, 2022 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The durability of vaccine-induced humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) on immunosuppressive therapy is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the persistence of anti-Spike antibodies following two-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination between IMID patients and healthy controls and to identify factors associated with antibody decline. METHODS: IMID patients on immunosuppressive medication enrolled in the prospective observational Nor-vaC study were included. Participants received two-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Serum collected at two time points following vaccination (first assessment within 6-48 days, second within 49-123 days) were analyzed for antibodies binding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. Multivariable regression models estimated percent reduction in anti-RBD over 30 days and factors associated with reduction. RESULTS: A total of 1108 patients (403 rheumatoid arthritis, 195 psoriatic arthritis, 195 spondyloarthritis, 124 ulcerative colitis, 191 Crohn's disease) and 134 controls provided blood samples within the defined intervals (median 19 days [IQR 15-24] and 97 days [87-105] after second vaccine dose). Antibody levels were lower in patients compared to controls at both time points, with median anti-RBD 2806 BAU/ml [IQR 1018-6068] in patients and 6187 BAU/ml [4105-7496] in controls (p<0.001) at first assessment, and 608 BAU/ml [IQR 58-1053] in patients and 1520 BAU/ml [979-3766] in controls (p<0.001) at second assessment. At second assessment, low anti-RBD antibody levels (defined as <200 BAU/ml) were found in 449 (41%) patients, and 6 (5%) controls (p<0.001). The change was - 83% in patients and - 66% in controls (p<0.001). Patients had a greater estimated 30 days percent reduction in anti-RBD levels compared to controls - 4.9 (95% CI - 7.4 to - 2.4), (p<0.05). Among therapies, mono- or combination treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors was associated with the greatest decline. CONCLUSIONS: Within 4 months after vaccination, antibody levels declined considerably in both IMID patients and controls. Patients had lower initial antibody levels and a more pronounced decline compared to healthy controls and were therefore more likely to decline to low antibody levels. These results support that IMID patients need additional vaccine doses at an earlier stage than healthy individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Vaccination
6.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 28(11): 784.e1-784.e9, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007886

ABSTRACT

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and its management with immunosuppressive therapies increase the susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, as well as progression to severe Coronavirus 19 disease (COVID-19). Vaccination against COVID-19 is strongly recommended, but efficacy data are limited in this patient population. In this study, responses to COVID-19 vaccination were measured at 3 time points-after the initial vaccine series, before the third dose, and after the third dose-in adults with cGVHD receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Humoral response was measured by quantitative anti-spike antibody and neutralizing antibody levels. Anti-nucleocapsid antibody levels were measured to detect natural infection. T cell response was evaluated by a novel immunosequencing technique combined with immune repertoire profiling from cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. Present or absent T cell responses were determined by the relative proportion of unique SARS-CoV-2-associated T cell receptor sequences ("breadth") plus clonal expansion of the response ("depth") compared with those in a reference population. Based on both neutralizing antibody and T cell responses, patients were categorized as vaccine responders (both detected), nonresponders (neither detected), or mixed (one but not both detected). Thirty-two patients were enrolled for the initial series, including 17 (53%) positive responders, 7 (22%) mixed responders, and 8 (25%) nonresponders. All but one patient categorized as mixed responders had humoral responses while lacking T cell responses. No statistical differences were observed in patient characteristics among the 3 groups of patients categorized by immune response, although sample sizes were limited. Significant positive correlations were observed between the robustness of cellular and humoral responses after the initial series. Among the 20 patients with paired samples (pre- and post-third dose), a third vaccination resulted in increased neutralizing antibody titers. cGVHD worsened in 10 patients (26%; 6 after the initial series and 4 after the third dose), necessitating escalation of immunosuppressive doses in 5 patients, although 4 had been tapering immunosuppression and 5 had already worsening cGVHD at the time of vaccination, and a clear association between COVID-19 vaccination and cGVHD could not be drawn. Among the patients with cGVHD on immunosuppressive therapy, 72% demonstrated a neutralizing antibody response after a 2-dose primary COVID-19 vaccination, two-thirds of whom also developed a T cell response; 25% had neither a humoral nor a T cell response. A third dose further amplified the antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graft vs Host Disease , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Vaccination/methods , Immunity, Cellular , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunosuppression Therapy
7.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(11): 1683-1689, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer and autoimmune diseases are at higher risk of severe COVID-19. They may not develop protective immune responses following vaccination. We investigated patients' cellular and humoral immune response after two COVID-19 vaccine doses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects were stratified into subgroups according to therapy and grade of immunosuppression at time of vaccination. RESULTS: Antibody titers were compared to healthy controls. 32/122 (26%) did not develop detectable antibody titers. Of these, 22 (66.6%) had active therapy. Patients showed significant lower antibody titers compared to controls (median 790 vs. 3923 AU/mL, p = 0.026). Patients with active therapy had significant lower antibody titers compared to those without (median 302 vs. 3952 U/L P < 0.001). B-cell count was lower in the group without antibody titers (median 29.97 vs. 152.8; p = 0.002). 100% of patients under anti-CD20 therapy had no detectable antibody titer, followed by anti-TNF (66%), BTK inhibitors (50%), ruxolitinib (35.5%), TKI (14.2%), and lenalidomide (12.5%). Anti-CD20 therapy, ruxolitinib, BTK inhibitors, and anti-CD38 therapy presented significant lower antibody titers compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing therapy for cancer or autoimmune diseases are at higher risk of insufficient humoral immune response following COVID-19 vaccination. Furthermore, alterations in the B-cell compartment correlate with lower antibody titers.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lenalidomide , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Antibodies, Viral , Immunosuppression Therapy , Neoplasms/therapy
8.
Intern Med ; 61(13): 1953-1958, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993648

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the serum total antibody (immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G) titre against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein receptor-binding domain following BNT162b2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in Japanese rheumatic disease patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. Methods The serum antibody titre against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was analysed in 123 outpatients with rheumatic diseases at Kagawa University Hospital and 43 healthy volunteers who had received 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine with at least 14 days elapsing since the second dose. Results The antibody titre in rheumatic disease patients was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects (p<0.0001). The antibody titres of the 41 patients who received biologics or Janus kinase inhibitors and the 47 patients who received conventional immunosuppressive agents were significantly lower than those of the 35 patients who did not receive immunosuppressive agents (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). In addition, the mean antibody titre of the 43 patients on methotrexate was significantly lower than that of the 80 patients not on methotrexate (p=0.0017). Conclusion Immunogenicity to the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in rheumatic disease patients was found to be reduced under immunosuppressive treatment. In particular, methotrexate seems to be associated with a decreased antibody response.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Rheumatic Diseases , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Neutralization Tests , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
Clin Lab ; 68(7)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening fungal infection mostly occurring in immunosuppressed patients such as organ transplant or diabetic patients. In this paper, we described a case of COVID-19 with rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. METHODS: The nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) from a nasopharyngeal sample for SARS-CoV-2 was done. Demographic data, biochemical tests, paranasal sinuses (PNS) CT scan, brain CT scan, chest CT scan, and palate biopsy were performed. RESULTS: The NAAT was positive for SARS-CoV-2. PNS CT scan revealed mucosal thickening of all paranasal sinuses, brain CT scan showed hypodense area in antero-inferior cortex, and chest CT scan revealed diffuse ground glass opacity in favor of COVID-19 infection. Palate biopsy revealed fibroconnective tissue with broad pauciseptated ribbon-like hyphae. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, a case of COVID-19 with rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis was described. The treatment with immunosuppressive drugs predisposed this patient to secondary fungal infection. Immunosuppression is a double-edged sword in COVID-19 treatment and immunosuppressive drugs should be prescribed only in severely ill patients and for a short period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/pathology , Orbital Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Infection ; 50(4): 1013-1017, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971886

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: SARS-CoV-2 infection produces lymphopenia and CD4+ T-cell decrease, which could lead to a higher risk of bacterial co-infection or impair immunological evolution in people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: We investigated the rate of co-infection and superinfection, and the evolution of CD4+ count and CD4+/CD8+ ratio, in hospitalized PLWH with COVID-19. RESULTS: From March to December 2020, 176 PLWH had symptomatic COVID-19 and 62 required hospitalization (median age, 56 years, 89% males). At admission, 7% and 13% of patients had leukocytosis or increased procalcitonin values and 37 (60%) received empiric antibiotic therapy, but no bacterial co-infection was diagnosed. There were seven cases of superinfection (12%), and one case of P. jiroveci pneumonia during ICU stay. No significant change in CD4+ count or CD4+/CD8+ ratio was observed after discharge. CONCLUSION: Bacterial co-infection is not frequent in PLWH with COVID-19. Immune recovery is observed in most of patients after the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
12.
Am J Transplant ; 22(7): 1884-1892, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956680

ABSTRACT

The development of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) after lung transplantation is common and results in adverse outcomes. In kidney transplantation, Belatacept has been associated with a lower incidence of DSA, but experience with Belatacept in lung transplantation is limited. We conducted a two-center pilot randomized controlled trial of de novo immunosuppression with Belatacept after lung transplantation to assess the feasibility of conducting a pivotal trial. Twenty-seven participants were randomized to Control (Tacrolimus, Mycophenolate Mofetil, and prednisone, n = 14) or Belatacept-based immunosuppression (Tacrolimus, Belatacept, and prednisone until day 89 followed by Belatacept, Mycophenolate Mofetil, and prednisone, n = 13). All participants were treated with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin for induction immunosuppression. We permanently stopped randomization and treatment with Belatacept after three participants in the Belatacept arm died compared to none in the Control arm. Subsequently, two additional participants in the Belatacept arm died for a total of five deaths compared to none in the Control arm (log rank p = .016). We did not detect a significant difference in DSA development, acute cellular rejection, or infection between the two groups. We conclude that the investigational regimen used in this study is associated with increased mortality after lung transplantation.


Subject(s)
Lung Transplantation , Tacrolimus , Abatacept/therapeutic use , Antilymphocyte Serum/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Graft Rejection/etiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Graft Survival , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Prednisone
13.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 535, 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of COVID-19 pandemic period on the epidemiology of fracture-related infection (FRI). The present study summarizes the changes in the prevalence, microbiology, and risk factors of FRI during this period. METHODS: A prospective single-center cohort study assessed in the setting of COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2021), clinical, microbiological aspects, and independent risk factors (RF) of FRI. RFs were estimated by bivariate and multivariable analyses using prevalence ratio (PR) with significance at P < 0.05. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate treatment outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 132 patients were analyzed, with patients with age over 65 years accounting 65.1%. FRI was diagnosed in 21(15.9%) patients. Independent RFs for FRI were recent and preoperative use of systemic antibiotics (PR: 7.0, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.2 - 22.4, p = 0.001) and cancer (PR: 9.8, 95% CI: 2.0 - 48.8, p = 0.005). Cultures yielded Gram-negative bacteria in 77.8%, 33.3% were MDR. CONCLUSIONS: We found higher rates of FRI, predominating in the elderly with closed femoral fractures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior use of antibiotics and immunosuppression conditions were independent factor for FRI. Our outcomes provide evidence to avoid the empirical use of antibiotics prior to surgery for fracture stabilization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fractures, Bone , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 77: 100075, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914256

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Despite ambulation capacity being associated with a decreased level of physical activity and survival may be influenced by the functional capacity, studies have not addressed the association between ambulation capacity and death in patients hospitalized by COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To verify the functional, clinical, and sociodemographic risk factors associated with in-hospital death in individuals with severe COVID-19. METHODS: It is a cohort retrospective study performed at a large tertiary hospital. Patients 18 years of age or more, of both sexes, hospitalized due to severe COVID-19 were included. Cases with dubious medical records and/or missing essential data were excluded. Patients were classified according to their ambulation capacity before the COVID-19 infection. Information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, in-hospital death, total hospital stays, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stays, and the necessity of Mechanical Ventilation (MV) were collected from medical records and registered in a RedCap database. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify possible factors associated with the in-hospital death rate. RESULTS: Data from 1110 participants were included in the statistical analysis. The median age of the patients was 57 (46‒66) years, 58.42% (n = 590) were male, and 61.73% (n = 602) were brown or black. The case fatality rate during hospitalization was 36.0% (n = 363). In-hospital death was associated with ambulation capacity; dependent ambulators (OR = 2.3; CI 95% = 1.2-4.4) and non-functional ambulation (OR = 1.9; CI 95% = 1.1-3.3), age [older adults (OR = 3.0; CI 95% = 1.9‒4.), ICU stays (OR = 1.4; CI 95% = 1.2‒1.4), immunosuppression (OR = 5.5 CI 95% = 2.3‒13.5) and mechanical ventilation (OR = 27.5; CI 95% = 12.0-62.9). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Decreased ambulation capacity, age, length of ICU stay, immunosuppression, and mechanical ventilation was associated with a high risk of in-hospital death due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Walking
18.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(8): 1321-1332, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905792

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Immunogenicity and safety following receipt of the standard SARS-CoV-2 vaccination regimen in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are poorly characterized, and data after receipt of the third vaccine dose are lacking. The aim of the study was to evaluate serologic responses and adverse events following the standard 2-dose regimen and a third dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in IMID patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: Adult patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy for rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis, as well as healthy adult controls, who received the standard 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination regimen were included in this prospective observational study. Analyses of antibodies to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were performed prior to and 2-4 weeks after vaccination. Patients with a weak serologic response, defined as an IgG antibody titer of ≤100 arbitrary units per milliliter (AU/ml) against the receptor-binding domain of the full-length SARS-Cov-2 spike protein, were allotted a third vaccine dose. RESULTS: A total of 1,505 patients (91%) and 1,096 healthy controls (98%) had a serologic response to the standard regimen (P < 0.001). Anti-RBD antibody levels were lower in patients (median 619 AU/ml interquartile range [IQR] 192-4,191) than in controls (median 3,355 AU/ml [IQR 896-7,849]) (P < 0.001). The proportion of responders was lowest among patients receiving tumor necrosis factor inhibitor combination therapy, JAK inhibitors, or abatacept. Younger age and receipt of messenger RNA-1273 vaccine were predictors of serologic response. Of 153 patients who had a weak response to the standard regimen and received a third dose, 129 (84%) became responders. The vaccine safety profile among patients and controls was comparable. CONCLUSION: IMID patients had an attenuated response to the standard vaccination regimen as compared to healthy controls. A third vaccine dose was safe and resulted in serologic response in most patients. These data facilitate identification of patient groups at risk of an attenuated vaccine response, and they support administering a third vaccine dose to IMID patients with a weak serologic response to the standard regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunosuppression Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(11): 1492-1498, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 available vaccines among people living with HIV (PLWH) after a complete vaccination scheme, and determine predictors of seroconversion. METHODS: This multicentre prospective cohort study included 420 PLWH who had received a standard immunization, either with mRNA or adenoviral-vectored COVID-19 vaccines. Antibody response was evaluated within 1 to 2 months after the last dose of the vaccine with a quantitative determination of antitrimeric spike protein-specific IgG antibodies and IgG neutralizing antibodies. RESULTS: Overall, 384 of 420 PLWH (91%) showed antibody response to vaccination. Seroconversion was observed in 308 of 326 individuals with cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) counts ≥350 cells/mm3 (95%), 55 of 61 PLWH with 200 to 349 cells/mm3 (90%), and 21 of 33 PLWH with CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3 (64%; p < 0.001). The median log10 IgG neutralization levels were 2.4 IU/mL (Q1-Q3, 1.0-3.1) among PLWH with CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3, 3.1 IU/mL (Q1-Q3, 2.8-3.4) for the 200 to 349 cells/mm3 group, and 3.1 IU/mL (Q1-Q3, 2.7-3.4) for PLWH with CD4 counts ≥350 cells/mm3 (p = 0.016). In the multivariate analysis, CD4 counts ≥350 cells/mm3 (OR: 7.10; 95% CI, 1.91-26.46; p = 0.004) and receiving mRNA-vectored COVID-19 vaccines (OR: 8.19; 95% CI, 3.24-20.70; p ≤ 0.001) were independently associated with a higher probability of response to vaccination. DISCUSSION: HIV-related immunosuppression impairs the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Specific vaccination schemes should be urgently tailored in this setting, particularly in patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µL. Adenoviral-vectored vaccines should be avoided in PLWH whenever possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G , Immunosuppression Therapy , Vaccination , RNA, Messenger
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