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1.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A descriptive analysis of COVID-19 infection in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving fingolimod or siponimod. METHODS: We reviewed the cases of COVID-19 from postmarketing or ongoing clinical trials reported to Novartis through December 27, 2020. RESULTS: As of December 27, 2020, 283 cases had been reported in fingolimod-treated patients. The mean age was 44 years (from n = 224; range 11-69 years), and 190 were women. Of 161 cases with available information, 138 were asymptomatic (6), mild (100), or moderate (32); 50 cases required hospitalization. At the last follow-up, 140 patients were reported as recovered/recovering, condition was unchanged in 22, and deteriorated in 3 patients; 4 patients had a fatal outcome. Information was not available for 114 patients. Of the 54 cases of COVID-19 reported in siponimod-treated patients, 45 were from the postmarketing setting and 9 from an ongoing open-label clinical trial. The mean age was 54 years (from n = 45; range 31-70), and 30 were women. Of 28 cases with available information, 24 were asymptomatic (2), mild (17), or moderate (5); 9 cases required hospitalization. At the last follow-up, 27 patients were reported as recovered/recovering, condition remained unchanged for 1, and 3 patients had a fatal outcome. Information was not available for 23 patients. DISCUSSION: Based on a review of available information, the risk of more severe COVID-19 in patients receiving fingolimod or siponimod seems to be similar to that reported in the general population and the MS population with COVID-19. However, limitations of spontaneous reporting, especially missing data, should be considered in the interpretation of these observations.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/administration & dosage , Benzyl Compounds/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Clinical Trials as Topic , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
3.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the spontaneous clinical course of patients with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)-proven lymphocytic myocarditis and cardiac human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) DNA presence, and the effectiveness of steroid-based intervention in HHV6-positive patients. RESULTS: 756 heart failure (HF) patients underwent an EMB procedure to determine the underlying cause of unexplained HF. Low levels of HHV6 DNA, detectable by nested PCR only, were found in 10.4% of the cases (n = 79) of which 62% (n = 49) showed myocardial inflammation. The spontaneous course of patients with EMB-proven HHV6 DNA-associated lymphocytic myocarditis (n = 26) showed significant improvements in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and clinical symptoms, respectively, in 15/26 (60%) patients, 3-12 months after disease onset. EMB mRNA expression of components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and protein analysis of cardiac remodeling markers, analyzed by real-time PCR and MALDI mass spectrometry, respectively, did not differ between HHV6-positive and -negative patients. In another cohort of patients with ongoing symptoms related to lymphocytic myocarditis associated with cardiac levels of HHV6-DNA copy numbers <500 copies/µg cardiac DNA, quantified by real-time PCR, the efficacy and safety of steroid-based immunosuppression for six months was investigated. Steroid-based immunosuppression improved the LVEF (≥5%) in 8/10 patients and reduced cardiac inflammation in 7/10 patients, without an increase in cardiac HHV6 DNA levels in follow-up EMBs. CONCLUSION: Low HHV6 DNA levels are frequently detected in the myocardium, independent of inflammation. In patients with lymphocytic myocarditis with low levels of HHV6 DNA, the spontaneous clinical improvement is nearby 60%. In selected symptomatic patients with cardiac HHV6 DNA copy numbers less than 500 copies/µg cardiac DNA and without signs of an active systemic HHV6 infection, steroid-based therapy was found to be effective and safe. This finding needs to be further confirmed in large, randomized trials.


Subject(s)
Herpesvirus 6, Human/physiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Steroids/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Biopsy , Cohort Studies , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Gene Dosage , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/physiopathology , Stroke Volume
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 382, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547778

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is a major concern and a new threat to immunocompromised patients. Patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are at increased risk of infections, in particular when they have active disease and are on immunosuppressive treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and radiological features of three patients with COVID-19 associated with chronic IBD as well as their management and outcomes. The study was conducted at the Hassan II University Teaching Hospital in Fes, Morocco over a 3-month period. We assessed all patients with disease onset. All patients had mild symptoms or were asymptomatic. No changes or delays in treatment regimens occurred and none of patients developed severe COVID-19. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results were positive in all patients. Radiological examinations were conducted. Chest scanner showed ground-glass opacities in one case. Treatment was based on hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin. Outcome was good in all cases. This preliminary report suggests that patients with chronic IBD aren't at higher risk of developing COVID-19 compared to the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Morocco
7.
Transplantation ; 105(11): e234-e243, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data about SARS-CoV-2 vaccines efficacy in renal transplant recipients (RTR) are lacking. METHODS: To reveal predictors for humoral response to BNT162b2 vaccine among RTR, patients were divided into positive (N = 42) and negative (N = 78) response groups based on receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) ≥1.1 and neutralizing antibodies (NA) ≥16 dilution versus RBD IgG <1.1 or NA <16, respectively. NA were detected using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-virus. RESULTS: NA were detected in only 42 of 120 (35%) of RTR versus 197 of 202 (97.5%) immunocompetent controls (P < 0.001). NA geometric mean titers in RTR were significantly lower versus the control group {83.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.5-138.8) versus 482 (95% CI, 411-566), P < 0.001}. In a multivariable analysis, mycophenolic acid (MPA) dose and hemoglobin level were found to be independent predictors for antibody response in RTR. A positive response rate of 27% versus 63% was observed in patients on and off MPA, respectively. An increase in MPA dose by 1 mg/kg weight reduced the odds for a positive response by 17% (odds ratio = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.92; P < 0.001). Geometric mean titers for RBD IgG were significantly reduced as MPA daily dose increased. Hemoglobin blood level <13 g/dL reduced the antibody response by 63% (P = 0.04). Pain at the injection site after the second vaccine dose was significantly higher in the responders versus nonresponders (20.5% versus 5.5%, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Only 35% of RTR develop NA to the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. MPA is a major suppressor of antibody response in RTR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Mucosal Immunol ; 15(2): 198-210, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493071

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing, and considering the lack of efficacy of antiviral strategies to this date, and the reactive hyperinflammation leading to tissue lesions and pneumonia, effective treatments targeting the dysregulated immune response are more than ever required. Immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive drugs have been repurposed in severe COVID-19 with contrasting results. The heterogeneity in the timing of treatments administrations could be accountable for these discrepancies. Indeed, many studies included patients at different timepoints of infection, potentially hiding the beneficial effects of a time-adapted intervention. We aim to review the available data on the kinetics of the immune response in beta-coronaviruses infections, from animal models and longitudinal human studies, and propose a four-step model of severe COVID-19 timeline. Then, we discuss the results of the clinical trials of immune interventions with regards to the timing of administration, and finally suggest a time frame in order to delineate the best timepoint for each treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulating Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunomodulating Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1273-1276, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478140

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has occurred in different parts of the world. Although a large piece of information regarding the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of COVID-19 has been reported in the general population, there is very limited data regarding organ transplant recipients, particularly regarding the management of maintenance immunosuppressive agents during infection. METHODOLOGY: We described a case of kidney transplant recipient from Thailand who had COVID-19 pneumonia and severe acute kidney injury. RESULTS: The patient's serum creatinine peaked at 7.0 mg/dL on day 15 of illness and returned to baseline value of 2.0 mg/dL on day 26 of illness. We have shown how we modified tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and steroids in the patient who had received favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavir for COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In this case, successful modification of this immunosuppressive regimen was accomplished to reduce drug interaction complications, aiming to avoid calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity while maintaining appropriate levels of immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection and to promote the patient's recovery from infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Adult , Amides/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Steroids/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Thailand , Transplant Recipients
11.
Transplantation ; 105(11): e226-e233, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Initial reports in adult kidney transplant recipients (KTR) indicate low immunogenicity after 2 doses of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. We describe the immunogenicity of this vaccine compared to the serologic response in naturally infected COVID-19 positive adolescent and young adult KTR. METHODS: For this prospective observational study, the study group included 38 KTR who received 2 doses of the tested vaccine, and the control group included 14 KTR who had a previous polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: The mean age was 18 ± 3 y. Positive serologic responses were observed in 63% and 100% of the study and control groups, respectively (P = 0.01). Antibody titers were almost 30-fold higher in the control than the study group (median [interquartile range (IQR)]: 2782 [1908-11 000] versus 100.3 [4.7-1744] AU/mL, P < 0.001), despite the longer time from the COVID-19 infection to serologic testing compared to time from vaccination (median [IQR]: 157.5 [60-216] versus 37 [20.5-53] d, P = 0.011). Among vaccinated patients, higher proportions of those seronegative than seropositive were previously treated with rituximab (50% versus 8%, P = 0.01). Time from the second vaccine dose to serologic testing was longer in seropositive than seronegative patients (median [IQR]: 24.5 [15-40] versus 46 [27-56] d, P = 0.05). No patient developed symptomatic COVID-19 disease postvaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine yielded higher positive antibody response in adolescent and young adult KTR than previously reported for adult KTR. Antibody titers after vaccination were significantly lower than following COVID-19 infection. Longer time may be required to mount appropriate humoral immunity to vaccination in KTR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
12.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(12): 1539-1545, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260397

ABSTRACT

Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently requires administration of immunosuppressive therapies, which increases susceptibility to a number of infectious pathogens. However, many infections can be prevented by correct and appropriate utilization of vaccinations. While several guidelines have been published on vaccination schedules in patients with IBD, vaccination rates remain suboptimal and even lower than those in the general population. This is due to many factors including poor awareness of the importance of vaccines by gastroenterologists and general practitioners as well as potential prejudices of patients regarding the safety and benefits of vaccines. With the aim of increasing awareness about the key role of immunization in the management of patients with IBD, the present review examines the existing literature relating to the main vaccinations and their application in these patients. We also summarize current evidence in order to provide clinicians with an easy source of reference for the principal recommendations for prevention of infectious diseases in patients with IBD. In addition, the recommendations about traveling for IBD patients are briefly explored. Lastly, since it is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of recommendations on vaccination, we recommend implementing educational programs to ensure compliance with current guidelines.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Vaccination/standards , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Gastroenterology/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunocompetence , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage
14.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(8): 1142-1149, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303315

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Immunocompromised patients have been excluded from studies of SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccines. The immune response to vaccines against other infectious agents has been shown to be blunted in such patients. We aimed to analyse the humoral and cellular response to prime-boost vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) in cardiothoracic transplant recipients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 50 transplant patients [1-3 years post heart (42), lung (7), or heart-lung (1) transplant, mean age 55 ± 10 years] and a control group of 50 healthy staff members were included. Blood samples were analysed 21 days after the prime and the boosting dose, respectively, to quantify anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) immunoglobulin titres (tested by Abbott, Euroimmun and RocheElecsys Immunoassays, each) and the functional inhibitory capacity of neutralizing antibodies (Genscript). To test for a specific T-cell response, heparinized whole blood was stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 specific peptides, covering domains of the viral spike, nucleocapsid and membrane protein, and the interferon-γ release was measured (QuantiFERON Monitor ELISA, Qiagen). The vast majority of transplant patients (90%) showed neither a detectable humoral nor a T-cell response three weeks after the completed two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination; these results are in sharp contrast to the robust immunogenicity seen in the control group: 98% exhibited seroconversion after the prime dose already, with a further significant increase of IgG titres after the booster dose (average > tenfold increase), a more than 90% inhibition capability of neutralizing antibodies as well as evidence of a T-cell responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of poor immune responses to a two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination in cardiothoracic transplant patients have a significant impact for organ transplant recipients specifically and possibly for immunocompromised patients in general. It urges for a review of future vaccine strategies in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart-Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination , Young Adult
15.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(5)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand COVID-19 characteristics in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and identify high-risk individuals due to their immunocompromised state resulting from the use of disease-modifying treatments. METHODS: Retrospective and multicenter registry in patients with MS with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis and available disease course (mild = ambulatory; severe = hospitalization; and critical = intensive care unit/death). Cases were analyzed for associations between MS characteristics and COVID-19 course and for identifying risk factors for a fatal outcome. RESULTS: Of the 326 patients analyzed, 120 were cases confirmed by real-time PCR, 34 by a serologic test, and 205 were suspected. Sixty-nine patients (21.3%) developed severe infection, 10 (3%) critical, and 7 (2.1%) died. Ambulatory patients were higher in relapsing MS forms, treated with injectables and oral first-line agents, whereas more severe cases were observed in patients on pulsed immunosuppressors and critical cases among patients with no therapy. Severe and critical infections were more likely to affect older males with comorbidities, with progressive MS forms, a longer disease course, and higher disability. Fifteen of 33 patients treated with rituximab were hospitalized. Four deceased patients have progressive MS, 5 were not receiving MS therapy, and 2 were treated (natalizumab and rituximab). Multivariate analysis showed age (OR 1.09, 95% CI, 1.04-1.17) as the only independent risk factor for a fatal outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This study has not demonstrated the presumed critical role of MS therapy in the course of COVID-19 but evidenced that people with MS with advanced age and disease, in progressive course, and those who are more disabled have a higher probability of severe and even fatal disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Registries , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/epidemiology , Neurology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Societies, Medical , Spain
16.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 48, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially fatal complication of systemic inflammation. HMGB1 is a nuclear protein released extracellularly during proinflammatory lytic cell death or secreted by activated macrophages, NK cells, and additional cell types during infection or sterile injury. Extracellular HMGB1 orchestrates central events in inflammation as a prototype alarmin. TLR4 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products operate as key HMGB1 receptors to mediate inflammation. METHODS: Standard ELISA and cytometric bead array-based methods were used to examine the kinetic pattern for systemic release of HMGB1, ferritin, IL-18, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 before and during treatment of four children with critical MAS. Three of the patients with severe underlying systemic rheumatic diseases were treated with biologics including tocilizumab or anakinra when MAS developed. All patients required intensive care therapy due to life-threatening illness. Add-on etoposide therapy was administered due to insufficient clinical response with standard treatment. Etoposide promotes apoptotic rather than proinflammatory lytic cell death, conceivably ameliorating subsequent systemic inflammation. RESULTS: This therapeutic intervention brought disease control coinciding with a decline of the increased systemic HMGB1, IFN-γ, IL-18, and ferritin levels whereas MCP-1 levels evolved independently. CONCLUSION: Systemic HMGB1 levels in MAS have not been reported before. Our results suggest that the molecule is not merely a biomarker of inflammation, but most likely also contributes to the pathogenesis of MAS. These observations encourage further studies of HMGB1 antagonists. They also advocate therapeutic etoposide administration in severe MAS and provide a possible biological explanation for its mode of action.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Etoposide/administration & dosage , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Male , Treatment Outcome
17.
Muscle Nerve ; 64(2): 206-211, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241577

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has become a global pandemic. Patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), often treated with immunosuppressants, might be at higher risk of developing COVID-19 and of demonstrating a severe disease course. We aimed to study prevalence and describe features of COVID-19 in MG patients. METHODS: In May 2020, we conducted telephonic interviews with MG patients followed at our referral center. We collected structured data regarding MG and COVID-19, which was diagnosed as probable or confirmed according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control case definition. We compared confirmed-COVID-19 prevalence calculated from the beginning of the pandemic in MG patients with that of the overall Pavia district. RESULTS: We interviewed 162 MG patients (median age, 66 y; interquartile range 41-77; males 59.9%), 88 from the Pavia district. Three patients had SARS-CoV-2-confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and eight had probable-COVID-19. In the Pavia district, the prevalence of confirmed-COVID-19 among MG patients (1/88, 1.14%) and overall population (4777/546 515, 0.87%) did not differ (P = .538). Higher Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America clinicalclass and the need for recent rescue treatment, but not ongoing immunosuppressive treatments, were associated with COVID-19 risk. Of 11 MG patients with probable/confirmed-COVID-19, 3 required ventilator support, and 2 elderly patients died of COVID-19 respiratory insufficiency. Only 1 of11 patients experienced worsening MG symptoms, which improved after increasing their steroid dose. DISCUSSION: The risk of COVID-19 in MG patients seems to be no higher than that of the general population, regardless of immunosuppressive therapies. In our cohort, COVID-19 barely affected MG course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Myasthenia Gravis/diagnosis , Myasthenia Gravis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy
19.
Lancet ; 397(10286): 1749, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219082
20.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 17(6): 619-627, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191660

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the medical community has faced major challenges that affect disease management in all areas. Dermatologists and immunologists have to choose appropriate treatment strategy taking into consideration the risk of infection and possible exacerbation of the course of the disease in patients with confirmed infection. Management of atopic dermatitis (AD) in moderate to severe cases is based on systemic therapy such as cyclosporine, azathioprine, methotrexate and dupilumab.Areas covered: A literature search in PubMed database was performed until 6 March 2021. In this review, the authors discuss non-biologic and biologic systemic medications for AD and provide an overview of therapeutic recommendations during COVID-19 pandemic.Expert opinion: In case of an active COVID-19 infection, conventional systemic treatment and biological treatment needs to be stopped until clinical recovery. Noninfected patients with systemic treatment of AD should continue their therapy via self-application. The authors can conclude that understanding of dupilumab therapy is better recognized in context AD treatment during COVID-19 pandemic in comparison to cyclosporine, azathioprine and methotrexate. However, this systemic immunosuppressants still require further investigation and literature complementation.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Biological Products/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
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