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2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 382, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547778

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is a major concern and a new threat to immunocompromised patients. Patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are at increased risk of infections, in particular when they have active disease and are on immunosuppressive treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and radiological features of three patients with COVID-19 associated with chronic IBD as well as their management and outcomes. The study was conducted at the Hassan II University Teaching Hospital in Fes, Morocco over a 3-month period. We assessed all patients with disease onset. All patients had mild symptoms or were asymptomatic. No changes or delays in treatment regimens occurred and none of patients developed severe COVID-19. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results were positive in all patients. Radiological examinations were conducted. Chest scanner showed ground-glass opacities in one case. Treatment was based on hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin. Outcome was good in all cases. This preliminary report suggests that patients with chronic IBD aren't at higher risk of developing COVID-19 compared to the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Morocco
4.
Transplantation ; 105(11): e234-e243, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data about SARS-CoV-2 vaccines efficacy in renal transplant recipients (RTR) are lacking. METHODS: To reveal predictors for humoral response to BNT162b2 vaccine among RTR, patients were divided into positive (N = 42) and negative (N = 78) response groups based on receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) ≥1.1 and neutralizing antibodies (NA) ≥16 dilution versus RBD IgG <1.1 or NA <16, respectively. NA were detected using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-virus. RESULTS: NA were detected in only 42 of 120 (35%) of RTR versus 197 of 202 (97.5%) immunocompetent controls (P < 0.001). NA geometric mean titers in RTR were significantly lower versus the control group {83.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.5-138.8) versus 482 (95% CI, 411-566), P < 0.001}. In a multivariable analysis, mycophenolic acid (MPA) dose and hemoglobin level were found to be independent predictors for antibody response in RTR. A positive response rate of 27% versus 63% was observed in patients on and off MPA, respectively. An increase in MPA dose by 1 mg/kg weight reduced the odds for a positive response by 17% (odds ratio = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.92; P < 0.001). Geometric mean titers for RBD IgG were significantly reduced as MPA daily dose increased. Hemoglobin blood level <13 g/dL reduced the antibody response by 63% (P = 0.04). Pain at the injection site after the second vaccine dose was significantly higher in the responders versus nonresponders (20.5% versus 5.5%, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Only 35% of RTR develop NA to the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. MPA is a major suppressor of antibody response in RTR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1273-1276, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478140

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has occurred in different parts of the world. Although a large piece of information regarding the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of COVID-19 has been reported in the general population, there is very limited data regarding organ transplant recipients, particularly regarding the management of maintenance immunosuppressive agents during infection. METHODOLOGY: We described a case of kidney transplant recipient from Thailand who had COVID-19 pneumonia and severe acute kidney injury. RESULTS: The patient's serum creatinine peaked at 7.0 mg/dL on day 15 of illness and returned to baseline value of 2.0 mg/dL on day 26 of illness. We have shown how we modified tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and steroids in the patient who had received favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavir for COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In this case, successful modification of this immunosuppressive regimen was accomplished to reduce drug interaction complications, aiming to avoid calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity while maintaining appropriate levels of immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection and to promote the patient's recovery from infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Adult , Amides/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Steroids/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Thailand , Transplant Recipients
6.
Transplantation ; 105(11): e226-e233, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Initial reports in adult kidney transplant recipients (KTR) indicate low immunogenicity after 2 doses of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. We describe the immunogenicity of this vaccine compared to the serologic response in naturally infected COVID-19 positive adolescent and young adult KTR. METHODS: For this prospective observational study, the study group included 38 KTR who received 2 doses of the tested vaccine, and the control group included 14 KTR who had a previous polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: The mean age was 18 ± 3 y. Positive serologic responses were observed in 63% and 100% of the study and control groups, respectively (P = 0.01). Antibody titers were almost 30-fold higher in the control than the study group (median [interquartile range (IQR)]: 2782 [1908-11 000] versus 100.3 [4.7-1744] AU/mL, P < 0.001), despite the longer time from the COVID-19 infection to serologic testing compared to time from vaccination (median [IQR]: 157.5 [60-216] versus 37 [20.5-53] d, P = 0.011). Among vaccinated patients, higher proportions of those seronegative than seropositive were previously treated with rituximab (50% versus 8%, P = 0.01). Time from the second vaccine dose to serologic testing was longer in seropositive than seronegative patients (median [IQR]: 24.5 [15-40] versus 46 [27-56] d, P = 0.05). No patient developed symptomatic COVID-19 disease postvaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine yielded higher positive antibody response in adolescent and young adult KTR than previously reported for adult KTR. Antibody titers after vaccination were significantly lower than following COVID-19 infection. Longer time may be required to mount appropriate humoral immunity to vaccination in KTR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(8): 1142-1149, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303315

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Immunocompromised patients have been excluded from studies of SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccines. The immune response to vaccines against other infectious agents has been shown to be blunted in such patients. We aimed to analyse the humoral and cellular response to prime-boost vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) in cardiothoracic transplant recipients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 50 transplant patients [1-3 years post heart (42), lung (7), or heart-lung (1) transplant, mean age 55 ± 10 years] and a control group of 50 healthy staff members were included. Blood samples were analysed 21 days after the prime and the boosting dose, respectively, to quantify anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) immunoglobulin titres (tested by Abbott, Euroimmun and RocheElecsys Immunoassays, each) and the functional inhibitory capacity of neutralizing antibodies (Genscript). To test for a specific T-cell response, heparinized whole blood was stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 specific peptides, covering domains of the viral spike, nucleocapsid and membrane protein, and the interferon-γ release was measured (QuantiFERON Monitor ELISA, Qiagen). The vast majority of transplant patients (90%) showed neither a detectable humoral nor a T-cell response three weeks after the completed two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination; these results are in sharp contrast to the robust immunogenicity seen in the control group: 98% exhibited seroconversion after the prime dose already, with a further significant increase of IgG titres after the booster dose (average > tenfold increase), a more than 90% inhibition capability of neutralizing antibodies as well as evidence of a T-cell responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of poor immune responses to a two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination in cardiothoracic transplant patients have a significant impact for organ transplant recipients specifically and possibly for immunocompromised patients in general. It urges for a review of future vaccine strategies in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart-Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination , Young Adult
10.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(5)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand COVID-19 characteristics in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and identify high-risk individuals due to their immunocompromised state resulting from the use of disease-modifying treatments. METHODS: Retrospective and multicenter registry in patients with MS with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis and available disease course (mild = ambulatory; severe = hospitalization; and critical = intensive care unit/death). Cases were analyzed for associations between MS characteristics and COVID-19 course and for identifying risk factors for a fatal outcome. RESULTS: Of the 326 patients analyzed, 120 were cases confirmed by real-time PCR, 34 by a serologic test, and 205 were suspected. Sixty-nine patients (21.3%) developed severe infection, 10 (3%) critical, and 7 (2.1%) died. Ambulatory patients were higher in relapsing MS forms, treated with injectables and oral first-line agents, whereas more severe cases were observed in patients on pulsed immunosuppressors and critical cases among patients with no therapy. Severe and critical infections were more likely to affect older males with comorbidities, with progressive MS forms, a longer disease course, and higher disability. Fifteen of 33 patients treated with rituximab were hospitalized. Four deceased patients have progressive MS, 5 were not receiving MS therapy, and 2 were treated (natalizumab and rituximab). Multivariate analysis showed age (OR 1.09, 95% CI, 1.04-1.17) as the only independent risk factor for a fatal outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This study has not demonstrated the presumed critical role of MS therapy in the course of COVID-19 but evidenced that people with MS with advanced age and disease, in progressive course, and those who are more disabled have a higher probability of severe and even fatal disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Registries , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/epidemiology , Neurology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Societies, Medical , Spain
11.
Muscle Nerve ; 64(2): 206-211, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241577

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has become a global pandemic. Patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), often treated with immunosuppressants, might be at higher risk of developing COVID-19 and of demonstrating a severe disease course. We aimed to study prevalence and describe features of COVID-19 in MG patients. METHODS: In May 2020, we conducted telephonic interviews with MG patients followed at our referral center. We collected structured data regarding MG and COVID-19, which was diagnosed as probable or confirmed according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control case definition. We compared confirmed-COVID-19 prevalence calculated from the beginning of the pandemic in MG patients with that of the overall Pavia district. RESULTS: We interviewed 162 MG patients (median age, 66 y; interquartile range 41-77; males 59.9%), 88 from the Pavia district. Three patients had SARS-CoV-2-confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and eight had probable-COVID-19. In the Pavia district, the prevalence of confirmed-COVID-19 among MG patients (1/88, 1.14%) and overall population (4777/546 515, 0.87%) did not differ (P = .538). Higher Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America clinicalclass and the need for recent rescue treatment, but not ongoing immunosuppressive treatments, were associated with COVID-19 risk. Of 11 MG patients with probable/confirmed-COVID-19, 3 required ventilator support, and 2 elderly patients died of COVID-19 respiratory insufficiency. Only 1 of11 patients experienced worsening MG symptoms, which improved after increasing their steroid dose. DISCUSSION: The risk of COVID-19 in MG patients seems to be no higher than that of the general population, regardless of immunosuppressive therapies. In our cohort, COVID-19 barely affected MG course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Myasthenia Gravis/diagnosis , Myasthenia Gravis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy
13.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 17(6): 619-627, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191660

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the medical community has faced major challenges that affect disease management in all areas. Dermatologists and immunologists have to choose appropriate treatment strategy taking into consideration the risk of infection and possible exacerbation of the course of the disease in patients with confirmed infection. Management of atopic dermatitis (AD) in moderate to severe cases is based on systemic therapy such as cyclosporine, azathioprine, methotrexate and dupilumab.Areas covered: A literature search in PubMed database was performed until 6 March 2021. In this review, the authors discuss non-biologic and biologic systemic medications for AD and provide an overview of therapeutic recommendations during COVID-19 pandemic.Expert opinion: In case of an active COVID-19 infection, conventional systemic treatment and biological treatment needs to be stopped until clinical recovery. Noninfected patients with systemic treatment of AD should continue their therapy via self-application. The authors can conclude that understanding of dupilumab therapy is better recognized in context AD treatment during COVID-19 pandemic in comparison to cyclosporine, azathioprine and methotrexate. However, this systemic immunosuppressants still require further investigation and literature complementation.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Biological Products/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Cir Cir ; 89(2): 269-274, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158505

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: En diciembre de 2019 se identificó en la ciudad de Wuhan, China, un nuevo beta coronavirus, el SARS-CoV-2, como agente causal de neumonía grave, conocida como COVID-19, lo cual ha provocado medidas estrictas de aislamiento, cierre de programas de trasplante hepático y la necesidad de modificar los protocolos de tratamiento. OBJETIVO: Documentar la información publicada sobre el impacto de la COVID-19 en la población con antecedente de trasplante hepático y establecer un protocolo de tratamiento. MÉTODO: Se buscaron en PubMed los términos MeSH "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "trasplante hepático" y "tratamiento". RESULTADOS: Hasta el momento se ha demostrado en la población con trasplante hepático una mayor facilidad para adquirir el virus, sin una diferencia en la mortalidad al compararla con la población general. La inmunosupresión debe continuar, sin suspender los inhibidores de la calcineurina. Del tratamiento específico, los esteroides son los que han demostrado el mayor beneficio clínico y una disminución de la mortalidad. CONCLUSIÓN: El trasplante hepático no se asocia de manera independiente a una mayor mortalidad. Otros factores, además del trasplante, deben tomarse en cuenta al momento de establecer la gravedad. BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a new beta coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was identified in the city of Wuhan, China, as a causative agent of severe pneumonia, known as COVID-19, which has led to strict isolation measures, closure of liver transplantation programs and the need to modify treatment protocols. OBJECTIVE: Document the information published so far on the impact of COVID-19 in the population with a history of liver transplantation and establish a treatment protocol. METHOD: MeSH terms were searched for "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "liver transplantation" and "treatment". RESULTS: Up to now, a greater ease in acquiring the virus has been shown in the liver transplant population, without a difference in mortality when compared to the general population. Immunosuppression should continue at the minimum tolerated levels, without suspending calcineurin inhibitors. Of the specific treatment, steroids are those that have shown the greatest clinical benefit and decreased mortality. CONCLUSION: Liver transplantation is not independently associated with higher mortality. Factors other than transplantation must be taken into account when considering the risk of severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Transplantation , Pandemics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/mortality , Waiting Lists , Withholding Treatment
16.
Chest ; 159(3): e151-e154, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108122

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old previously healthy man presented with 8 weeks of progressive dyspnea on exertion and cough. Prior to presentation, the patient was able to bicycle > 60 miles per week and work full-time in a home improvement store. He was up-to-date with age-appropriate cancer screening and immunizations, and home medications included famotidine for reflux and nonsteroidal antiinflammatories for osteoarthritis, both as-needed. He had no significant respiratory exposure, aside from previous work as an electrician. His symptoms began in mid-February 2020 amid the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, although he had no known exposure to the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase/blood , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Myositis , Plasma Exchange/methods , Rituximab/administration & dosage , Threonine-tRNA Ligase/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Myositis/blood , Myositis/diagnosis , Myositis/physiopathology , Myositis/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
17.
Am J Transplant ; 20(7): 1925-1929, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096663

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection can be seen as a single disease, but it also affects patients with relevant comorbidities who may have an increased risk of a severe course of infection. In this report, we present a 77-year-old patient with a heart transplant receiving relevant immunosuppressive therapy who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after several days of dyspnea, dry cough, and light general symptoms. Computed tomography confirmed interstitial pneumonia. The patient received antiviral therapy with hydroxychloroquine and showed no further deterioration of the clinical state. After 12 days of hospitalization, the patient was released; he was SARS-CoV-2 negative and completely asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Transplantation , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Heart Failure/surgery , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Male , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
J Autoimmun ; 118: 102613, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist regarding the disease course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its relationship with immunosuppressants among patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association between COVID-19, frequent rheumatological, dermatological, gastrointestinal, and neurological IMIDs and immunosuppressants. METHODS: We conducted a Danish population-based cohort study including all residents living within Capital Region of Denmark and Region Zealand from January 28th, 2020 until September 15th, 2020 with the only eligibility criterion being a test for SARS-CoV-2 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain-reaction. Main outcomes included development of COVID-19, COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality. RESULTS: COVID-19 was less common among patients with IMIDs than the background population (n = 328/20,513 (1.60%) and n = 10,792/583,788(1.85%), p < 0.01, respectively). However, those with IMIDs had a significantly higher risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization (31.1% and 18.6%, p < 0.01, respectively) and mortality (9.8% and 4.3%, p < 0.01, respectively), which were associated with patients older than 65 years, and presence of comorbidities. Furthermore, systemic steroids were independently associated with a severe course of COVID-19 (Odds ratio (OR) = 3.56 (95%CI 1.83-7.10), p < 0.01), while biologic therapies were associated with a reduced risk hereof (OR = 0.47 (95%CI 0.22-0.95), p = 0.04). Patients suspending immunosuppressants due to COVID-19 had an increased risk of subsequent hospitalization (OR = 3.59 (95%CI 1.31-10.78), p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: This study found a lower occurrence, but a more severe disease course, of COVID-19 among patients with IMIDs, which was associated with the use of systemic steroids for IMIDs and suspension of other immunosuppressants. This study emphasizes the importance of weighing risks before suspending immunosuppressants during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 426-432, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The lack of effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has mandated the repurposing of several drugs, including antiretrovirals and remdesivir (RDV). These compounds may induce acute kidney injury and are not recommended in patients with poor renal function, such as kidney transplant (KTx) recipients. METHODS: The records of 42 KTx recipients with COVID-19 were reviewed. Some of them were receiving antiretrovirals (n = 10) or RDV (n = 8) as part of COVID-19 management. Most patients were male (71%) and their median age was 52 years. The median glomerular filtration rate in these patients was 56 ml/min. Regarding disease severity, 36% had mild disease, 19% had moderate disease, 31% had severe disease, and 12% had critical disease. Subgroups, i.e., patients receiving antiretrovirals, RDV, or no antivirals, were comparable in terms of patient age, comorbidities, and immunosuppression. RESULTS: Seven patients (16.6%) died during hospitalization. Acute kidney injury was found in 24% of KTx recipients at admission. Upon discharge, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) increased in 32% and decreased in 39% of the KTx recipients compared with the admission rate. The decrease was more prevalent in the RDV group (80%) compared with KTx recipients without any antiviral treatment (29%) (p < 0.05). Most patients (62%) returned to baseline eGFR values within 1 month of discharge. The proportion was similar between the patients receiving antiviral treatment and those not receiving this treatment. CONCLUSIONS: KTx recipients run a high risk of COVID-19-related renal impairment. Antivirals appear to be safe for use without major risks for kidney injury.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney Transplantation , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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