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1.
Ther Drug Monit ; 42(3): 360-368, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory distress (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several therapeutic options are currently emerging but none with universal consensus or proven efficacy. Solid organ transplant recipients are perceived to be at increased risk of severe COVID-19 because of their immunosuppressed conditions due to chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs). It is therefore likely that solid organ transplant recipients will be treated with these experimental antivirals. METHODS: This article is not intended to provide a systematic literature review on investigational treatments tested against COVID-19; rather, the authors aim to provide recommendations for therapeutic drug monitoring of ISDs in transplant recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2 based on a review of existing data in the literature. RESULTS: Management of drug-drug interactions between investigational anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs and immunosuppressants is a complex task for the clinician. Adequate immunosuppression is necessary to prevent graft rejection while, if critically ill, the patient may benefit from pharmacotherapeutic interventions directed at limiting SARS-CoV-2 viral replication. Maintaining ISD concentrations within the desired therapeutic range requires a highly individualized approach that is complicated by the pandemic context and lack of hindsight. CONCLUSIONS: With this article, the authors inform the clinician about the potential interactions of experimental COVID-19 treatments with ISDs used in transplantation. Recommendations regarding therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustments in the context of COVID-19 are provided.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Transplant Recipients , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Interactions , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 28(8): 381-389, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135822

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the immunogenicity and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with RD. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus to identify observational studies that examined the immunogenicity and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in RD patients. Information on disease, immunosuppressant, vaccine type, and proportion of patients with serologic response was obtained from each study. RESULTS: There were 25 eligible studies. The pooled rate of seroconversion was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-0.86). Compared with control subjects, the odds of seroconversion were significantly lower (odds ratio, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.24). Users of rituximab showed the lowest rate of seroconversion (0.39; 95% CI, 0.29-0.51) followed by mycophenolate (0.56; 95% CI, 0.40-71). On the other hand, users of interleukin 17 (0.94; 95% CI, 0.78-0.98) and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (0.94; 95% CI, 0.84-0.98) showed high seroconversion rate. Regarding safety of COVID-19 vaccine, approximately 2% of patients reported severe adverse events and 7% reported diseases flares following the first or second dose. CONCLUSION: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 appears to be safe. Most RD patients developed humoral immune response following vaccination. However, the odds of seroconversion were significantly lower in RD patients compared with controls. This is likely driven by certain immunosuppressants including rituximab and mycophenolate. Future studies need to identify strategies to improve vaccine response in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Rituximab , COVID-19/prevention & control , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Vaccination , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
4.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 43(8): 464-471, 2020 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095369

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is leading to high mortality and a global health crisis. The primary involvement is respiratory; however, the virus can also affect other organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract and liver. The most common symptoms are anorexia and diarrhea. In about half of the cases, viral RNA could be detected in the stool, which is another line of transmission and diagnosis. covid19 has a worse prognosis in patients with comorbidities, although there is not enough evidence in case of previous digestive diseases. Digestive endoscopies may give rise to aerosols, which make them techniques with a high risk of infection. Experts and scientific organizations worldwide have developed guidelines for preventive measures. The available evidence on gastrointestinal and hepatic involvement, the impact on patients with previous digestive diseases and operating guidelines for Endoscopy Units during the pandemic are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Digestive System/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aerosols , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anorexia/etiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diarrhea/etiology , Digestive System Diseases/virology , Endoscopy, Digestive System/adverse effects , Feces/virology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Intestines/chemistry , Intestines/virology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/analysis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Receptors, Virus/analysis , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Universal Precautions
5.
Hematology ; 27(1): 1191-1195, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087622

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Various hematologic side effects of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has been reported, and most of them are thought to be related to autoimmune pathways. To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of post-COVID-19 vaccination aplastic anemia (AA) have been reported and there is no reported Korean case of COVID-19 vaccine-induced AA yet. We present a case of severe immune-mediated AA that developed after the administration of a messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) gene-based spike protein vaccine against COVID-19, which responded well to immunosuppressive therapy, and discuss the probable pathogenesis of AA and the implication of vaccination along with a comparison of previous cases reported. METHODS: A 53-year-old Korean man developed sudden pancytopenia three months after COVID-19 vaccination. To evaluate the cause of pancytopenia, a bone marrow study was performed. RESULTS: A diagnosis of AA was made through the bone marrow study and he received triple immunosuppressive therapy (IST). After triple IST for five months, his blood cell count was improved and maintained without transfusion and his follow-up bone marrow examination showed improved cellularity. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine might be associated with the development of immune-mediated AA. Prompt hematologic evaluation should be performed when there are symptoms or signs suggestive of cytopenia after COVID-19 vaccination. Although the clinical outcome of post-vaccination AA varies, a good prognosis can be possible for patients with COVID-19 vaccination-induced AA.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pancytopenia , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anemia, Aplastic/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Pancytopenia/chemically induced , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 988004, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080152

ABSTRACT

The antibody and B cell responses after inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination have not been well documented in patients with autoimmune liver disease (AILD). Therefore, we conducted a prospective observational study that included AILD patients and healthy participants as controls between July 1, 2021, and September 30, 2021, at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. All adverse events (AEs) after the COVID-19 vaccination were recorded and graded. Immunoglobulin (Ig)-G antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-RBD-IgG) and neutralizicadng antibodies (NAbs) were tested following full-course vaccination (BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac). In addition, SARS-CoV-2-specific B cells were detected by flow cytometry. In total, 76 AILD patients and 136 healthy controls (HCs) were included. All AEs were mild and self-limiting, and the incidences were similar between the AILD and HCs. The seropositivity rates of anti-RBD-IgG and NAbs in AILD were 97.4% (100% in HCs, p = 0.13) and 63.2% (84.6% in HCs, p < 0.001), respectively. The titers of anti-RBD-IgG and NAbs were significantly lower in AILD patients than those in HCs. After adjusting for confounders, immunosuppressive therapy was an independent risk factor for low-level anti-RBD-IgG (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-15.2; p = 0.01) and a reduced probability of NAbs seropositivity (aOR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0-8.9; p = 0.04) in AILD patients. However, regardless of immunosuppressants, the SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B cells responses were comparable between the AILD and HC groups. Our results suggest that inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac) are safe, but their immunogenicity is compromised in patients with AILD. Moreover, immunosuppressants are significantly associated with poor antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. These results could inform physicians and policymakers about decisions on screening the populations at higher risk of poor antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and providing additional vaccinations in patients with AILD.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Antibody Formation , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G
7.
Transplantation ; 106(10): e441-e451, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs is a key risk factor of death because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), although no evident association between the class of immunosuppressive and outcomes has been observed. Thus, we aimed to compare COVID-19-associated outcomes among KTRs receiving 3 different immunosuppressive maintenance regimes. METHODS: This study included data from 1833 KTRs with COVID-19 diagnosed between March 20 and April 21 extracted from the national registry before immunization. All patients were taking calcineurin inhibitor associated with mycophenolate acid (MPA, n = 1258), azathioprine (AZA, n = 389), or mammalian targets of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi, n = 186). Outcomes within 30 and 90 d were assessed. RESULTS: Compared with patients receiving MPA, the 30-d (79.9% versus 87.9% versus 89.2%; P < 0.0001) and 90-d (75% versus 83.5% versus 88.2%; P < 0.0001) unadjusted patient survivals were higher in those receiving AZA or mTORi, respectively. Using adjusted multivariable Cox regression, compared with patients receiving AZA, the use of MPA was associated with a higher risk of death within 30 d (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-2.40; P = 0.003), which was not observed in patients using mTORi (aHR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.45-1.35; P = 0.365). At 90 d, although higher risk of death was confirmed in patients receiving MPA (aHR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.09-1.98; P = 0.013), a reduced risk was observed in patients receiving mTORi (aHR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.35-0.97; P = 0.04) compared with AZA. CONCLUSIONS: This national cohort data suggest that, in KTRs receiving calcineurin inhibitor and diagnosed with COVID-19, the use of MPA was associated with higher risk of death, whereas mTORi use was associated with lower risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Azathioprine , Calcineurin Inhibitors/adverse effects , Enzyme Inhibitors , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , Sirolimus/adverse effects , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
8.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 27(6): 530-534, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051719

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adequately managing a complex medical regimen is paramount to the success of organ transplants. When patients stray from their prescribed medical regimen posttransplant, graft rejection, and death can occur. Predictors of adherence have been studied for many years, and various factors have been identified as contributing to adequate or poor adherence. Both demographic and personal characteristics have been associated with adherence behavior. However, recent developments, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, increased use of mobile health interventions, and use of medical biomarkers have affected the way adherence is measured and applied. RECENT FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic affected patients' comfort with accessing outpatient care and created a wider use of telehealth services. Measurement of adherence through serum lab levels continues to be reviewed as a potential objective assessment of adherence. Psychosocial factors continue to be identified as major contributors to nonadherence. SUMMARY: Adherence to antirejection medication, lab work, appointments, and exercise and dietary instructions remains critical to the health of the transplant patient. It is critical that providers involved in the selection process and posttransplant treatment of these patients remain well informed of potential new factors affecting adherence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunosuppressive Agents , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Medication Adherence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Graft Rejection/prevention & control
9.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(9): e15665, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032368

ABSTRACT

Most patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have a good response to topical treatment. However, some need systemic therapy in order to satisfactorily control the disease. Azathioprine is an accessible drug for patients in many countries, including underdeveloped countries, and therefore it is used by many dermatologists in moderate and severe AD. It is important to have a deep knowledge and understanding about this drug since it is an alternative therapy as a steroid-sparing agent and an affordable one. However, when it comes to systemic therapy for AD, it is not always clear its indications and it is necessary to have a closer follow-up of the patient. In this paper, we describe thoroughly its indications in AD, the mechanism of action of the drug, as well as the interactions, adverse effects, adequate monitoring, and precautions in special population that must be considered when prescribing azathioprine. This review will help dermatologists prescribe it safely to all patients who require it.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Atopic , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Atopic/therapy , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
10.
Clin Drug Investig ; 42(10): 807-812, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The enduring presence of COVID-19 and subsequent increasing incidence of COVID-19 reinfection has prompted evaluation of associated risk factors, particularly the role of immunosuppression. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize cases indicative of COVID-19 reinfection with respect to their reported use of immunosuppressant/immunomodulating agents. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study leveraged the Pfizer global safety database (SDB) containing adverse event data collected in association with use of Pfizer products between 1 October 2019, and 30 June 2022. Selected Medical Dictionary for Drug Regulatory Activities (MedDRA®) Preferred Terms were used to identify COVID-19 cases; the search was further refined to comprise cases that subsequently reported events potentially indicative of COVID-19 reinfection. RESULTS: Of the cumulative total of 218,242 COVID-19 cases reported into the SDB, 4590 cases (2.1%) involving potential COVID-19 reinfection were identified. Of these 4590 cases of potential Covid-19 reinfection, a total of 134 cases reported COVID-19 specifically during treatment with pharmaceutical products, of which approximately 16% (21/134) of cases reported use of immunosuppressant/immunomodulating agents. Likewise, in the overall dataset (213,652 cases; excluding the 4590 cases involving potential COVID-19 recurrence), the percentage of reported immunosuppressant/immunomodulating agents was low (12%). In applying similar parameters to a dataset that excludes COVID-19 vaccine cases, 18% of cases reported use of immunosuppressant/immunomodulating agents (similar to the aforementioned 16% of cases reported from the overall total dataset that was inclusive of vaccine cases). CONCLUSION: This pharmacovigilance study provides a characterization of cases indicative of COVID-19 reinfection with respect to reported use of immunosuppressant/immunomodulating agents. The observations generated from this cross-sectional observational analysis may prompt further research into the role of immunosuppression in COVID-19 reinfection, in an effort to better inform clinical practice and patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Immunomodulating Agents , Immunosuppressive Agents , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunomodulating Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Reinfection/epidemiology
11.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 66: 104072, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interferon-ß, a disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for MS, may be associated with less severe COVID-19 in people with MS. RESULTS: Among 5,568 patients (83.4% confirmed COVID-19), interferon-treated patients had lower risk of severe COVID-19 compared to untreated, but not to glatiramer-acetate, dimethyl-fumarate, or pooled other DMTs. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to other DMTs, we did not find evidence of protective effects of interferon-ß on the severity of COVID-19, though compared to the untreated, the course of COVID19 was milder among those on interferon-ß. This study does not support the use of interferon-ß as a treatment to reduce COVID-19 severity in MS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Acetates , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Glatiramer Acetate/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/chemically induced , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/chemically induced
12.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 7(11): 1005-1015, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine-induced antibody responses are reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) taking anti-TNF or tofacitinib after two vaccine doses. We sought to assess whether immunosuppressive treatments were associated with reduced antibody and T-cell responses in patients with IBD after a third vaccine dose. METHODS: VIP was a multicentre, prospective, case-control study done in nine centres in the UK. We recruited immunosuppressed patients with IBD and non-immunosuppressed healthy individuals. All participants were aged 18 years or older. The healthy control group had no diagnosis of IBD and no current treatment with systemic immunosuppressive therapy for any other indication. The immunosuppressed patients with IBD had an established diagnosis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, or unclassified IBD using standard definitions of IBD, and were receiving established treatment with one of six immunosuppressive regimens for at least 12 weeks at the time of first dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. All participants had to have received three doses of an approved COVID-19 vaccine. SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody binding and T-cell responses were measured in all participant groups. The primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1 receptor binding domain [RBD]) antibody concentration 28-49 days after the third vaccine dose, adjusted by age, homologous versus heterologous vaccine schedule, and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary outcome was assessed in all participants with available data. FINDINGS: Between Oct 18, 2021, and March 29, 2022, 352 participants were included in the study (thiopurine n=65, infliximab n=46, thiopurine plus infliximab combination therapy n=49, ustekinumab n=44, vedolizumab n=50, tofacitinib n=26, and healthy controls n=72). Geometric mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 RBD antibody concentrations increased in all groups following a third vaccine dose, but were significantly lower in patients treated with infliximab (2736·8 U/mL [geometric SD 4·3]; p<0·0001), infliximab plus thiopurine (1818·3 U/mL [6·7]; p<0·0001), and tofacitinib (8071·5 U/mL [3·1]; p=0·0018) compared with the healthy control group (16 774·2 U/mL [2·6]). There were no significant differences in anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 RBD antibody concentrations between the healthy control group and patients treated with thiopurine (12 019·7 U/mL [2·2]; p=0·099), ustekinumab (11 089·3 U/mL [2·8]; p=0·060), or vedolizumab (13 564·9 U/mL [2·4]; p=0·27). In multivariable modelling, lower anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 RBD antibody concentrations were independently associated with infliximab (geometric mean ratio 0·15 [95% CI 0·11-0·21]; p<0·0001), tofacitinib (0·52 [CI 0·31-0·87]; p=0·012), and thiopurine (0·69 [0·51-0·95]; p=0·021), but not with ustekinumab (0·64 [0·39-1·06]; p=0·083), or vedolizumab (0·84 [0·54-1·30]; p=0·43). Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (1·58 [1·22-2·05]; p=0·0006) was independently associated with higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 RBD antibody concentrations and older age (0·88 [0·80-0·97]; p=0·0073) was independently associated with lower anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 RBD antibody concentrations. Antigen-specific T-cell responses were similar in all groups, except for recipients of tofacitinib without evidence of previous infection, where T-cell responses were significantly reduced relative to healthy controls (p=0·021). INTERPRETATION: A third dose of COVID-19 vaccine induced a boost in antibody binding in immunosuppressed patients with IBD, but these responses were reduced in patients taking infliximab, infliximab plus thiopurine, and tofacitinib. Tofacitinib was also associated with reduced T-cell responses. These findings support continued prioritisation of immunosuppressed groups for further vaccine booster dosing, particularly patients on anti-TNF and JAK inhibitors. FUNDING: Pfizer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Ustekinumab
14.
Transplantation ; 106(11): 2200-2204, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, different therapeutic lines have been tried in the initial stage of the disease of COVID-19, including remdesivir and molnupiravir. There is scarce evidence on the efficacy and safety of molnupiravir in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). METHODS: ingle-center prospective cohort study' all adult KTRs diagnosed with COVID-19 and treated with molnupiravir or remdesivir from January to April 2022 were included. RESULTS: Nine KTRs with SARS-CoV-2 (Omicron variant) infection and mild symptoms received molnupiravir in an outpatient basis and were compared with a cohort of similar patients treated with remdesivir (n = 7). Three patients in the molnupiravir cohort were in the early posttransplant period and received a basiliximab (n = 2) or antithymocite globulin-based induction (n = 1). One of the patients had been treated with methylprednisolone bolus and antithymocite globulin for an episode of acute rejection in the previous months. They were all vaccinated with mRNA vaccines' and all but 1 had serological response. Only one of the patients experienced clinical worsening despite molnupiravir treatment and developed pneumonia requiring hospital admission. None of the patients suffered adverse effects attributed to molnupiravir' and no adjustment of tacrolimus dose was needed. None of the patients treated with remdesivir progressed in COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that KTRs with SARS-CoV-2 infection under treatment with molnupiravir have a good clinical evolution with a probable lower risk for hospitalization and no adverse effects. At the renal level, molnupiravir was well tolerated, with no evidence of nephrotoxicity secondary to the drug nor interactions with the immunosuppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Basiliximab , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Transplant Recipients , Methylprednisolone
15.
Transplantation ; 106(10): 2063-2067, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk for fatal forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a cohort study among kidney transplant (KT) recipients from the French Solid Organ Transplant COVID-19 Registry to investigate the association between maintenance immunosuppressive drugs and 60-d mortality. METHODS: Data from all KT recipients with COVID-19 included in the French Solid Organ Transplant COVID-19 Registry between February 28, 2020, and December 30, 2020, were retrieved. We evaluated associations between immunosuppressive drugs and death within 60 d using logistic regression, with all baseline characteristics considered to influence outcome or immunosuppressive regimen. The Benjamini-Hochberg correction was used for controlling false positive rate; 40 multiple imputations were performed. Adjusted P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There were 1451 KT recipients included. Median age was 58 y, and 66.4% were men. Most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (81.9%), diabetes (34.5%), and cardiovascular disease (29.5%). Median time since transplant was 71 mo. Maintenance immunosuppression regimens included calcineurin inhibitors (1295, 89.2%), antimetabolites (1205, 83%), corticosteroids (1094, 75.4%), mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (144, 9.9%), and belatacept (58, 4.0%). Among 1451 transplant recipients, 201 (13.9%) died within 60 d. Older age and higher baseline serum creatinine were associated with mortality (odds ratios, 1.09 [1.07-1.11] and 1.01 [1.005-1.009], P < 0.001). Corticosteroid-free regimens were associated with a significantly lower risk of death (odds ratio, 0.48 [0.31-0.76]; P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroid-free regimens were associated with a lower risk of death in KT recipients with COVID-19. Long-term exposure to corticosteroids impairs immune functions and may predispose solid organ transplant recipients to severe forms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Abatacept , Antimetabolites , COVID-19/mortality , Calcineurin Inhibitors , Cohort Studies , Creatinine , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Mycophenolic Acid , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Transplant Recipients
16.
Brain Nerve ; 74(7): 899-904, 2022 Jul.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954945

ABSTRACT

More than 2 years have passed since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but there is still no sign that the COVID-19 pandemic has ended. Although vaccines have shown high efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, a risk of adverse reactions and thrombosis has also been reported. Here we review the current knowledge regarding vaccination in patients with neuroimmunological diseases and those receiving immunosuppressive drugs or disease-modifying therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Transplantation ; 106(10): e452-e460, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are less likely to mount an antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. Understanding risk factors for impaired vaccine response can guide strategies for antibody testing and additional vaccine dose recommendations. METHODS: Using a nationwide observational cohort of 1031 SOTRs, we created a machine learning model to explore, identify, rank, and quantify the association of 19 clinical factors with antibody responses to 2 doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. External validation of the model was performed using a cohort of 512 SOTRs at Houston Methodist Hospital. RESULTS: Mycophenolate mofetil use, a shorter time since transplant, and older age were the strongest predictors of a negative antibody response, collectively contributing to 76% of the model's prediction performance. Other clinical factors, including transplanted organ, vaccine type (mRNA-1273 versus BNT162b2), sex, race, and other immunosuppressants, showed comparatively weaker associations with an antibody response. This model showed moderate prediction performance, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.79 in our cohort and 0.67 in the external validation cohort. An online calculator based on our prediction model is available at http://transplantmodels.com/covidvaccine/ . CONCLUSIONS: Our machine learning model helps understand which transplant patients need closer follow-up and additional doses of vaccine to achieve protective immunity. The online calculator based on this model can be incorporated into transplant providers' practice to facilitate patient-centric, precision risk stratification and inform vaccination strategies among SOTRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Transplant Recipients , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Machine Learning , Mycophenolic Acid , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
18.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 172(15-16): 365-372, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941901

ABSTRACT

Cladribine (CLAD) is a purine nucleoside analog approved in tablet form to treat highly active multiple sclerosis (MS). CLAD tablets are the first oral therapy with an infrequent dosing schedule, administered in two annual treatment courses, each divided into two treatment cycles comprising 4-5 days of treatment. The efficacy and safety of CLAD tablets have been verified in randomized controlled clinical trials. Clinical observational studies are performed in more representative populations and over more extended periods, and thus provide valuable complementary insights. Here, we summarize the available evidence for CLAD tablets from post-marketing trials, including two observational, four long-term extensions, and two comparative studies. The patients in the post-marketing setting differed from the cohort recruited in the pivotal phase III trials regarding demographics and MS-related disability. The limited number of studies with small cohorts corroborate the disease-modifying capacity of oral CLAD and report on a durable benefit after active treatment periods. Skin-related adverse events were common in the studies focusing on safety aspects. In addition, single cases of CLAD-associated autoimmune events have been reported. Lastly, CLAD tablets appear safe regarding COVID-19 concerns, and patients mount a robust humoral immune response to SARS-CoV­2 vaccination. We conclude that the current real-world evidence for CLAD tablets as immune reconstitution therapy for treatment of MS is based on a small number of studies and a population distinct from the cohorts randomized in the pivotal phase III trials. Further research should advance the understanding of long-term disease control after active treatment periods and the mitigation of adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Cladribine/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/chemically induced , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/chemically induced , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Nucleosides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Tablets/therapeutic use
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 903012, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938620

ABSTRACT

Mycophenolate rapidly substituted azathioprine (AZA) in transplant immunosuppression regimens since the 1990s, when early clinical trials indicated better outcomes, although opposite results were also observed. However, none of these trials used the well-established optimization methods for AZA dosing, namely, thiopurine methyltransferase pharmacogenetics combined with monitoring of the thiopurine metabolites 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP). Resistance to optimize AZA therapy remains today in transplant therapy, despite the fact that thiopurine metabolite testing is being used by other medical disciplines with evident improvement in clinical results. In a previous analysis, we found that active 6-TGN metabolites were not detectable in about 30% of kidney transplant patients under continuous use of apparently adequate azathioprine dosage, which demonstrates the need to monitor these metabolites for therapeutic optimization. Two of four case studies presented here exemplifies this fact. On the other hand, some patients have toxic 6-TGN levels with a theoretically appropriate dose, as seen in the other two case studies in this presentation, constituting one more important reason to monitor the AZA dose administered by its metabolites. This analysis is not intended to prove the superiority of one immunosuppressant over another, but to draw attention to a fact: there are thousands of patients around the world receiving an inadequate dose of azathioprine and, therefore, with inappropriate immunosuppression. This report is also intended to draw attention, to clinicians using thiopurines, that allopurinol co-therapy with AZA is a useful therapeutic pathway for those patients who do not adequately form active thioguanine metabolites.


Subject(s)
Azathioprine , Kidney Transplantation , Enzyme Inhibitors , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Thioguanine/therapeutic use
20.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10369, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933952

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are at increased risk for a more severe course of COVID-19, due to their pre-existing comorbidity and immunosuppression. Consensus protocols recommend lowering immunosuppression in KTRs with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but the optimal combination remains unclear. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are cornerstone immunosuppressants used in KTRs and some have been reported to possess antiviral activity against RNA viruses, including coronaviruses. Here, we evaluated the effect of the CNIs tacrolimus, cyclosporin A, and voclosporin (VCS), as well as other immunosuppressants, on SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell-based assays. Unexpected, loss of compound due to plastic binding and interference of excipients in pharmaceutical formulations (false-positive results) complicated the determination of EC50 values of cyclophilin-dependent CNI's in our antiviral assays. Some issues could be circumvented by using exclusively glass lab ware with pure compounds. In these experiments, VCS reduced viral progeny yields in human Calu-3 cells at low micromolar concentrations and did so more effectively than cyclosporin A, tacrolimus or other immunosuppressants. Although, we cannot recommend a particular immunosuppressive regimen in KTRs with COVID-19, our data suggest a potential benefit of cyclophilin-dependent CNIs, in particular VCS in reducing viral progeny, which warrants further clinical evaluation in SARS-CoV-2-infected KTRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cell Culture Techniques , Cyclophilins , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Tacrolimus/pharmacology
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