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1.
Ther Drug Monit ; 42(3): 360-368, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory distress (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several therapeutic options are currently emerging but none with universal consensus or proven efficacy. Solid organ transplant recipients are perceived to be at increased risk of severe COVID-19 because of their immunosuppressed conditions due to chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs). It is therefore likely that solid organ transplant recipients will be treated with these experimental antivirals. METHODS: This article is not intended to provide a systematic literature review on investigational treatments tested against COVID-19; rather, the authors aim to provide recommendations for therapeutic drug monitoring of ISDs in transplant recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2 based on a review of existing data in the literature. RESULTS: Management of drug-drug interactions between investigational anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs and immunosuppressants is a complex task for the clinician. Adequate immunosuppression is necessary to prevent graft rejection while, if critically ill, the patient may benefit from pharmacotherapeutic interventions directed at limiting SARS-CoV-2 viral replication. Maintaining ISD concentrations within the desired therapeutic range requires a highly individualized approach that is complicated by the pandemic context and lack of hindsight. CONCLUSIONS: With this article, the authors inform the clinician about the potential interactions of experimental COVID-19 treatments with ISDs used in transplantation. Recommendations regarding therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustments in the context of COVID-19 are provided.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Transplant Recipients , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Interactions , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Transplantation ; 105(1): 177-186, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A concern about the susceptibility of immunocompromised patients to the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been raised. We aimed at describing COVID-19 infections in the French cohort of lung transplant (LT) patients. METHODS: Multicenter nationwide cohort study of all LT recipients with COVID-19 diagnosed from March 1 to May 19, 2020. Recipient main characteristics and their management were retrieved. Hospitalization characteristics, occurrence of complications and survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-five LT patients with a COVID-19 infection were included. Median age was 50.4 (40.6-62.9) years, 16 (45.7%) were female, and 80% were double-LT recipients. Infection was community-acquired in 25 (71.4%). Thirty-one (88.6%) required hospitalization, including 13 (41.9%) in the intensive care unit. The main symptoms of COVID-19 were fever, cough, and diarrhea, present in 71.4%, 54.3%, and 31.4% of cases, respectively. Extension of pneumonia on chest CT was moderate to severe in 51.4% of cases. Among the 13 critically ill patients, 7 (53.9%) received invasive mechanical ventilation. Thrombotic events occurred in 4 patients. Overall survival rate was 85.7% after a median follow-up of 50 days (41.0-56.5). Four of 5 nonsurvivors had had bronchial complications or intensification of immunosuppression in the previous weeks. On univariate analysis, overweight was significantly associated with risk of death (odds ratio, 16.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-170.6; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: For the 35 LT recipients with COVID-19, the presentation was severe, requiring hospitalization in most cases, with a survival rate of 85.7%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients
3.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 16: 3915-3927, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114469

ABSTRACT

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) and subsequent adherence are crucial for preventing reversible episodes of neurological dysfunction and delayed onset of progressive accumulation of irreversible deficits. Yet, side effects may limit their usage in clinical practice. Gastrointestinal (GI) side effects are a significant limitation of the use of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), the most frequently prescribed oral DMD in MS worldwide. Diroximel fumarate (DRF) is a second-generation oral fumaric acid ester (FAE) that was developed as a formulation with better GI tolerability. The improved tolerability is assumed to be related to a lower synthesis of gut-irritating methanol. Other explanations for DRF's lower extent of GI irritation include a more modest off-target activity due to its chemical structure. The superior GI tolerability of DRF compared to DMF could be proven in clinical trials and lead to approval of DRF for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS/relapsing-remitting MS (United States Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency, respectively). Here, we summarize the mode of action of oral FAE and compare the chemical and physiological characteristics of DMF and DRF. Moreover, we discuss the adverse effects of FAE and introduce the emerging preclinical and trial data leading to the approval of DRF in MS. This article additionally reviews our current understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the efficacy of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination in people treated with FAE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Multiple Sclerosis , United States , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Dimethyl Fumarate/adverse effects , Fumarates/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/drug therapy
4.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e15331, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We conducted a prospective study of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination in children and adolescents who were taking immunosuppressive agents. METHODS: Two doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine were administered to patients taking immunosuppressive agents. Titers of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain antibodies were measured before and after vaccination. Vaccine failure was defined as a postvaccination antibody titer of <0.8 U/mL. Seroconversion rates, factors associated with antibody titers after vaccination, clinical effectiveness against breakthrough infection, and adverse events were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients (median age, 18.1 years) were enrolled. Immunogenicity was measured in 34 patients. The median SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody titer was 329 U/mL (interquartile range [IQR] 50-812 U/mL). Seroconversion (≥0.8 U/mL) was achieved in 29 patients (85%), whereas vaccine failure was diagnosed in five (15%). All patients with vaccine failure were recipients of solid organ transplants (SOTs) and were taking two immunosuppressants. The median antibody titer in SOT recipients (57 U/mL) was significantly lower than that in non-recipients (653 U/mL, P = 0.0002); that of patients taking two immunosuppressive agents (93 U/mL) was lower than that of patients taking one (506 U/mL, P = 0.003). Breakthrough infection occurred in three patients (7%). Adverse events were non-specific, and no flares of primary disease or acute rejection in SOT recipients occurred. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine was immunogenic in children and adolescents taking immunosuppressive agents, although SOT recipients and patients taking two immunosuppressive agents tended to show lower postvaccination antibody titers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Child , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(12): 1757-1766, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117833

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the cumulative incidence and disease severity of reported SARS-CoV-2 omicron breakthrough infections between patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) on immunosuppressants and controls, and to investigate determinants for breakthrough infections. METHODS: Data were used from an ongoing national prospective multicentre cohort study on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination responses in patients with IMID in the Netherlands (Target-to-B! (T2B!) study). Patients wih IMID on immunosuppressants and controls (patients with IMID not on immunosuppressants and healthy controls) who completed primary immunisation were included. The observation period was between 1 January 2022 and 1 April 2022, during which the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (BA.1 and BA.2 subvariant) was dominant. A SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection was defined as a reported positive PCR and/or antigen test at least 14 days after primary immunisation. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to investigate determinants. RESULTS: 1593 patients with IMID on immunosuppressants and 579 controls were included. The cumulative incidence of breakthrough infections was 472/1593 (29.6%; 95% CI 27% to 32%) in patients with IMID on immunosuppressants and 181/579 (31.3%; 95% CI 28% to 35%) in controls (p=0.42). Three (0.5%) participants had severe disease. Seroconversion after primary immunisation (relative risk, RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.52 to 0.96), additional vaccinations (RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.49 to 0.76) and a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.75) were associated with decreased risk of breakthrough infection. CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative incidence of reported SARS-CoV-2 omicron breakthrough infections was high, but similar between patients with IMID on immunosuppressants and controls, and disease severity was mostly mild. Additional vaccinations and prior SARS-CoV-2 infections may reduce the incidence of breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
6.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 28(11): 1213-1218, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns were raised that the use of psoriasis treatments, particularly biologic therapies because of their immunosuppressant effects, could be associated with a poor prognosis in the case of COVID-19 infection. OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in adherence to systematic biologic therapies for psoriasis after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using IQVIA medical and pharmacy claims data from January 1, 2018, to October 31, 2020, we identified patients aged 18 years or older who had a diagnosis of plaque psoriasis in 2018 and who received systemic biologic therapies for psoriasis, including both provider-administered and pharmacy-dispensed therapies. We calculated the incidence of 14-day gaps without therapy per 1,000 study participants for each 30-day interval. We constructed interrupted time series analyses to test changes in the incidence of outcomes after the pandemic declaration. RESULTS: The sample included 15,890 study participants: 45.4% were female and 15.2% were aged 65 years or older. For patients using biologic therapies dispensed from the pharmacy, there was a 13.1% decrease in the incidence of 14-day gaps without biologic therapy immediately after pandemic declaration, from 92.4 gaps per 1,000 patients to 80.2 gaps per 1,000 patients, but this decrease was not statistically significant. However, for patients using provider-administered therapies, the incidence of 14-day gaps without biologic therapy increased by 55.1% after pandemic declaration, from 29.0 gaps per 1,000 patients to 44.9 gaps per 1,000 patients (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, we found an increased incidence of gaps in biologic therapy for psoriasis among users of provider-administered treatments but not among users of pharmacy-dispensed therapies. DISCLOSURES: Dr Hernandez reports personal fees from Bristol Myers Squibb and personal fees from Pfizer outside the submitted work. Dr Hernandez is funded by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (grant K01HL142847). The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. The statements, findings, conclusions, views, and opinions expressed in this publication are based on data obtained under license from IQVIA as part of the IQVIA Institute's Human Data Science Research Collaborative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacy , Psoriasis , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Biological Therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(42): e31288, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087900

ABSTRACT

We investigated serum total antibody titers against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein receptor-binding domain after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japanese patients taking various immunosuppressive medications for rheumatic disease. In 212 outpatients with rheumatic diseases at Kagawa University Hospital and 43 healthy volunteers (controls), all of whom had received 2 doses of BNT162b2 vaccine, serum antibody titers of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were analyzed at least 14 days after the second dose. Many of the patients were taking immunosuppressive agents to manage their rheumatic disease. The antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in these patients were significantly lower than those in controls. The analysis of therapeutic agents revealed that the antibody titers in patients treated with rituximab were much lower than those in controls. In patients treated with tacrolimus, baricitinib, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, abatacept, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, cyclosporine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, methotrexate, or glucocorticoids, antibody titers were moderately lower than those of controls. Interleukin-17 and interleukin-23 inhibitors did not impair the humoral response. In addition, the combination of methotrexate with various immunosuppressive agents reduced titers, although not significantly. In Japanese patients with rheumatic disease, many immunosuppressants impaired the immune response to the BNT162b2 vaccine. The degree of decline in antibody titers differed according to immunosuppressant. When used concomitantly with other immunosuppressants, methotrexate may impair the immune response to the BNT162b2 vaccine. However, immunomodulatory treatments such as interleukin-17 and -23 inhibitors may not attenuate this response in patients with rheumatic disease.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Immunosuppression Therapy , Rheumatic Diseases , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Japan , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17978, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087300

ABSTRACT

In the general population with COVID-19, the male sex is an established risk factor for mortality, in part due to a more robust immune response to COVID-19 in women. Because patients on kidney function replacement therapy (KFRT) have an impaired immune response, especially kidney transplant recipients due to their use of immunosuppressants, we examined whether the male sex is still a risk factor for mortality among patients on KFRT with COVID-19. From the European Renal Association COVID-19 Database (ERACODA), we examined patients on KFRT with COVID-19 who presented between February 1st, 2020, and April 30th, 2021. 1204 kidney transplant recipients (male 62.0%, mean age 56.4 years) and 3206 dialysis patients (male 61.8%, mean age 67.7 years) were examined. Three-month mortality in kidney transplant recipients was 16.9% in males and 18.6% in females (p = 0.31) and in dialysis patients 27.1% in males and 21.9% in females (p = 0.001). The adjusted HR for the risk of 3-month mortality in males (vs females) was 0.89 (95% CI 65, 1.23, p = 0.49) in kidney transplant recipients and 1.33 (95% CI 1.13, 1.56, p = 0.001) in dialysis patients (pinteraction = 0.02). In a fully adjusted model, the aHR for the risk of 3-month mortality in kidney transplant recipients (vs. dialysis patients) was 1.39 (95% CI 1.02, 1.89, p = 0.04) in males and 2.04 (95% CI 1.40, 2.97, p < 0.001) in females (pinteraction = 0.02). In patients on KFRT with COVID-19, the male sex is not a risk factor for mortality among kidney transplant recipients but remains a risk factor among dialysis patients. The use of immunosuppressants in kidney transplant recipients, among other factors, may have narrowed the difference in the immune response to COVID-19 between men and women, and therefore reduced the sex difference in COVID-19 mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Renal Dialysis , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Sex Characteristics , Risk Factors , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney
9.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(15): 5849-5857, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056217

ABSTRACT

Solid organ transplant recipients generally show reduced immunogenicity to various vaccines. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity of the immune response among orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. A systematic search was performed to evaluate immunogenicity or adverse events reported after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The pooled analysis of 20 studies showed a humoral immune response rate of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.77) after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among OLT recipients. The immunogenicity among OLT recipients was significantly lower compared to the overall population and healthy controls, with odds ratios (ORs) of 0.80 and 0.69. However, it was significantly higher than that of patients receiving other organ transplants, especially kidneys, with an OR of 1.50. Male sex, old age, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and multiple or high immunosuppressant doses significantly increased the risk of unresponsiveness in patients with OLT. The overall incidence of any adverse event after vaccination was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.55-0.81), similar to that of control. OLT recipients had an overall humoral immune response rate of 70% after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, which is lower than that of healthy controls but favourable compared to those of other solid organ transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Clin Lab ; 68(9)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proper identification of patients at risk of developing serious disease in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the initiation of early treatment, is one of the fundamental elements for successful management of COVID-19. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of serum biomarkers (neutrophils, lymphocytes, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, ferritin, and interleukin-6) to predict the early response to immunosuppressant therapy in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a case-control study nested in a retrospective cohort, which included hospitalized patients with interstitial pneumonia and with elevation of some proinflammatory parameters. Each of the individuals who died during the 28-day follow-up was defined as a case. For each case, 4 controls were selected, matched by age, gender, and comorbidities. RESULTS: The initial cohort included 856 patients. The incidence of therapeutic failure in the cohort was 14%, thus we identified a total of 120 cases. After the application of a Cox regression model, high serum concentrations of LDH (> 451 IU/L), ferritin (> 1,014 ng/mL) and D-Dimer (> 1,300 ng/mL) were identified as predictors of poor response to treatment. Highly-specific cut-off points could not be established for any of these biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Some inflammatory biomarkers, such as LDH, ferritin, and D-dimer, may be helpful in identifying patients for whom an early immunomodulatory therapeutic intervention should be considered in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Ferritins , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6 , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 33(9): 751-759, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the clinical features, predictive factors associated with severe disease, and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and report data on the comparison of coronavirus disease 2019 between patients with inflammatory bowel disease and spondyloarthropathies. METHODS: A total of 101 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and spondyloarthropathies who had confirmed diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographics, comorbidities, immunosuppressive treatments, and the impact of immunosuppression on negative outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47 (38-57) years. The most common rheumatologic diagnosis was ankylosing spondylitis (n = 24), psoriatic arthritis (n = 17), and reactive arthritis (n = 1). In the inflammatory bowel disease group, 47 patients had ulcerative colitis, 11 Crohn's disease, and 1 unclassified. The most commonly used treatments were biologics (55%) in the spondyloarthropathies group and aminosalicylates (66.1%) in the inflammatory bowel disease group. Overall, 18.8% of the patients required hospitalization, 5% developed severe complications, and 2% died. There were no significant differences in coronavirus disease 2019-related negative outcomes between spondyloarthropathies and inflammatory bowel disease patients. The median age was higher in the patients who required hospitalization [57 (46-66) vs 47 (38-57) years, P=.008]. Bilateral opacities on chest radiographs were more common in the patients who required hospitalization in the spondyloarthropathies group [88.9% vs 14.3%, P=.016]. Comorbidity was significantly associated with hospitalization in the inflammatory bowel disease group (P ≤ .05). Baseline therapy with biologics or immunosuppressives was not associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes. CONCLUSION: Older age, comorbidities, and bilateral ground-glass opacities were associated with adverse outcomes, whereas specific immune-mediated inflammatory disease diagnoses or immunosuppressive treatments were not.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Spondylarthropathies , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Spondylarthropathies/drug therapy
12.
Br J Haematol ; 199(5): 679-687, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037915

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) are often not vaccinated against viruses due to concerns of ineffective protective antibody response and potential for pathogenic global immune system activation, leading to relapse. We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on haematological indices and disease status and characterized the humoural and cellular responses to vaccination in 50 SAA patients, who were previously treated with immunosuppressive therapy (IST). There was no significant difference in haemoglobin (p = 0.52), platelet count (p = 0.67), absolute lymphocyte (p = 0.42) and neutrophil (p = 0.98) counts prior to and after completion of vaccination series. Relapse after vaccination, defined as a progressive decline in counts requiring treatment, occurred in three patients (6%). Humoural response was detectable in 90% (28/31) of cases by reduction in an in-vitro Angiotensin II Converting Enzyme (ACE2) binding and neutralization assay, even in patients receiving ciclosporin (10/11, 90.1%). Comparison of spike-specific T-cell responses in 27 SAA patients and 10 control subjects revealed qualitatively similar CD4+ Th1-dominant responses to vaccination. There was no difference in CD4+ (p = 0.77) or CD8+ (p = 0.74) T-cell responses between patients on or off ciclosporin therapy at the time of vaccination. Our data highlight appropriate humoural and cellular responses in SAA previously treated with IST and true relapse after vaccination is rare.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Aplastic , COVID-19 , Humans , Anemia, Aplastic/drug therapy , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Recurrence , Immunity , Vaccination
13.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 20(10): 1811-1815, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029871

ABSTRACT

COVID 19 pandemic and mass vaccination campaigns have revealed the situation of the most vulnerable patients. In this work, we focused our attention to patients who have Multiple Sclerosis (MS), particularly in treatment with cladribine tablets, trying to understand if and when it is possible to administer the vaccine successfully. In light of the novel topic, we studied the existing literature and analysed experiences with previous vaccinations, such as influenza and VZV, as well as data from countries where vaccination campaigns had already begun. Overall, we have taken into account the mechanism of action, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic of cladribine, and the changes in the immune system after its administration, together with the preliminary data about the humoral response to influenza, VZV, and SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in cladribine treated patients. In conclusion, data showed that the use of cladribine tablets seems to permit flexibility regarding vaccination timing and we suggest that vaccination in those patients should be safe and effective. The current COVID 19 pandemic has re-ignited the interest in vaccines and vaccination procedures. The importance of including fragile individuals has increased as a result of mass vaccination. Millions of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) around the world are debating whether they can safely receive their vaccine shot with the same efficacy despite receiving immune-modulating or immune-suppressive treatments. In the absence of conclusive empirical data, we will review and discuss the available evidence and the reasonable conclusions for one specific treatment, namely cladribine tablets (Mavenclad).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Multiple Sclerosis , Cladribine/adverse effects , Cladribine/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/chemically induced , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tablets , Vaccination
14.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(11): 2108-2122, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among patients with COVID-19, kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) have poor outcomes compared with non-KTRs. To provide insight into management of immunosuppression during acute illness, we studied immune signatures from the peripheral blood during and after COVID-19 infection from a multicenter KTR cohort. METHODS: We ascertained clinical data by chart review. A single sample of blood was collected for transcriptome analysis. Total RNA was poly-A selected and RNA was sequenced to evaluate transcriptome changes. We also measured cytokines and chemokines of serum samples collected during acute infection. RESULTS: A total of 64 patients with COVID-19 in KTRs were enrolled, including 31 with acute COVID-19 (<4 weeks from diagnosis) and 33 with post-acute COVID-19 (>4 weeks postdiagnosis). In the blood transcriptome of acute cases, we identified genes in positive or negative association with COVID-19 severity scores. Functional enrichment analyses showed upregulation of neutrophil and innate immune pathways but downregulation of T cell and adaptive immune activation pathways. This finding was independent of lymphocyte count, despite reduced immunosuppressant use in most KTRs. Compared with acute cases, post-acute cases showed "normalization" of these enriched pathways after 4 weeks, suggesting recovery of adaptive immune system activation despite reinstitution of immunosuppression. Analysis of the non-KTR cohort with COVID-19 showed significant overlap with KTRs in these functions. Serum inflammatory cytokines followed an opposite trend (i.e., increased with disease severity), indicating that blood lymphocytes are not the primary source. CONCLUSIONS: The blood transcriptome of KTRs affected by COVID-19 shows decreases in T cell and adaptive immune activation pathways during acute disease that, despite reduced immunosuppressant use, associate with severity. These pathways show recovery after acute illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , Transcriptome , Acute Disease , Transplant Recipients , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokines , RNA
15.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273720, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021940

ABSTRACT

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common autoimmune neuromuscular disorder, and is more common in women than in men. Anemia is also more common in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with anemia and the negative impact of anemia in female MG patients. We investigated factors related to MG and anemia in 215 female patients with MG, who were attending the MG clinic of Keio Hospital between January and December 2021. We statistically evaluated clinical factors related to anemia in patients with and without anemia. Eighty-five patients (40%) had anemia in the past, and 130 patients did not have anemia in the past. There were no significant differences in age at study, age at MG onset, body mass index, or frequency of autoantibodies between the anemia and non-anemia groups. MG severity evaluated by the MG Foundation of America classification was greater in the anemia group than in the non-anemia group. History of anemia was associated with immunosuppressive treatment, such as prednisolone and calcineurin inhibitor treatment. There was a correlation between hemoglobin levels and the MG-quality of life score. Long term immunosuppressive therapy can cause anemia in female MG patients. Anemia may negatively affect the quality of life of female MG patients.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Myasthenia Gravis , Anemia/complications , Anemia/drug therapy , Autoantibodies , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy , Quality of Life
16.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(6)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Certain demographic and clinical characteristics, including the use of some disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), are associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection severity in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Comprehensive exploration of these relationships in large international samples is needed. METHODS: Clinician-reported demographic/clinical data from 27 countries were aggregated into a data set of 5,648 patients with suspected/confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 severity outcomes (hospitalization, admission to intensive care unit [ICU], requiring artificial ventilation, and death) were assessed using multilevel mixed-effects ordered probit and logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, disability, and MS phenotype. DMTs were individually compared with glatiramer acetate, and anti-CD20 DMTs with pooled other DMTs and with natalizumab. RESULTS: Of 5,648 patients, 922 (16.6%) with suspected and 4,646 (83.4%) with confirmed COVID-19 were included. Male sex, older age, progressive MS, and higher disability were associated with more severe COVID-19. Compared with glatiramer acetate, ocrelizumab and rituximab were associated with higher probabilities of hospitalization (4% [95% CI 1-7] and 7% [95% CI 4-11]), ICU/artificial ventilation (2% [95% CI 0-4] and 4% [95% CI 2-6]), and death (1% [95% CI 0-2] and 2% [95% CI 1-4]) (predicted marginal effects). Untreated patients had 5% (95% CI 2-8), 3% (95% CI 1-5), and 1% (95% CI 0-3) higher probabilities of the 3 respective levels of COVID-19 severity than glatiramer acetate. Compared with pooled other DMTs and with natalizumab, the associations of ocrelizumab and rituximab with COVID-19 severity were also more pronounced. All associations persisted/enhanced on restriction to confirmed COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Analyzing the largest international real-world data set of people with MS with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 confirms that the use of anti-CD20 medication (both ocrelizumab and rituximab), as well as male sex, older age, progressive MS, and higher disability are associated with more severe course of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive , Multiple Sclerosis , Antigens, CD20 , Glatiramer Acetate/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Information Dissemination , Male , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/drug therapy , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Rituximab/therapeutic use
17.
Muscle Nerve ; 66(5): 612-617, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013696

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Data on safety and tolerability of the vaccines against severe acute respiratory virus coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2, or coronavirus disease-2019 [COVID-19]) in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) are currently limited. In this study we investigated the safety of mRNA-based two-dose vaccination in a cohort of patients with MG. METHODS: This investigation was a prospective observational study of messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines administered to patients with MG with stable disease. Local and systemic reactogenicity after injection was monitored for each dose administered. The patients were categorized and clinically assessed following the recommendations of the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. RESULTS: Thirty-six males and 55 females (mean age at first vaccine dose, 58.8 years; standard deviation, = 17.1 years) received vaccines. Seventy-two patients (79.1%) were taking one or more immunosuppressant(s). The most frequent adverse effects were injection-site pain, fatigue, myalgia, chills, fever, and headache. Local and systemic reactions were transient; 58.2% of the patients developed one or more reaction(s). There were no anaphylactic reactions. None of the patients had a myasthenic crisis, and two developed a mild deterioration compared with their Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis baseline score. The clinical outcome scores showed no exacerbation of MG symptoms. Patients over 65 years of age developed fewer adverse effects. COVID-19 vaccination did not induce clinical exacerbation in stable patients with MG, regardless of their age, sex, history of myasthenic crisis, or whether they were taking immunosuppressants. DISCUSSION: Our data are consistent with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine being well tolerated in patients with well-controlled MG. The findings may contribute to decisions in vaccination campaigns in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines/therapeutic use
18.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010311

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against SARS-CoV2 represents a key weapon to prevent COVID-19, but lower response rates to vaccination have frequently been reported in solid organ transplant recipients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the rate of seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients and the potential role of the different immunosuppressive regimens. We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study in kidney transplant patients vaccinated for COVID-19. For each patient, we evaluated IgG anti-S-RBD SARS-CoV-2 titers immediately before the administration of first COVID-19 vaccination dose, 20 days after the first dose and 40 days after the second dose. Moreover, we evaluated the type of immunosuppressive treatment and the incidence of vaccine breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection. We enrolled 121 kidney transplant patients vaccinated for COVID-19. At the time of administration of the first vaccine dose, all patients had a negative antibody titer; only 4.1% had positive antibody titers 20 days after the first dose. More than half patients 62 (51%) had protective antibody titers 40 days after the second dose. A total of 18 Solid Organ Transplant Recipients (SOTRs) (14.9%) got a SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection during the study period. With regard to immunosuppressive regimen, patients on mycophenolate-based regimen (48.7%) showed the lowest antibody response rates (27.5%) compared to other regimens. Our study confirms that kidney transplant patients show a poor response to two doses of COVID-19 vaccination. Moreover, in our study the use of mycophenolate is significantly associated with a non-response to COVID-19 m-RNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination
20.
Intern Med ; 61(13): 1953-1958, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993648

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the serum total antibody (immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G) titre against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein receptor-binding domain following BNT162b2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in Japanese rheumatic disease patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. Methods The serum antibody titre against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was analysed in 123 outpatients with rheumatic diseases at Kagawa University Hospital and 43 healthy volunteers who had received 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine with at least 14 days elapsing since the second dose. Results The antibody titre in rheumatic disease patients was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects (p<0.0001). The antibody titres of the 41 patients who received biologics or Janus kinase inhibitors and the 47 patients who received conventional immunosuppressive agents were significantly lower than those of the 35 patients who did not receive immunosuppressive agents (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). In addition, the mean antibody titre of the 43 patients on methotrexate was significantly lower than that of the 80 patients not on methotrexate (p=0.0017). Conclusion Immunogenicity to the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in rheumatic disease patients was found to be reduced under immunosuppressive treatment. In particular, methotrexate seems to be associated with a decreased antibody response.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Rheumatic Diseases , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Neutralization Tests , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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