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1.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3334, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241659

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients at risk of severe disease may be treated with neutralising monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). To minimise virus escape from neutralisation these are administered as combinations e.g. casirivimab+imdevimab or, for antibodies targeting relatively conserved regions, individually e.g. sotrovimab. Unprecedented genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in the UK has enabled a genome-first approach to detect emerging drug resistance in Delta and Omicron cases treated with casirivimab+imdevimab and sotrovimab respectively. Mutations occur within the antibody epitopes and for casirivimab+imdevimab multiple mutations are present on contiguous raw reads, simultaneously affecting both components. Using surface plasmon resonance and pseudoviral neutralisation assays we demonstrate these mutations reduce or completely abrogate antibody affinity and neutralising activity, suggesting they are driven by immune evasion. In addition, we show that some mutations also reduce the neutralising activity of vaccine-induced serum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Mutation , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
2.
J Immunother Cancer ; 11(5)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of cancer. However, only a portion of patients respond to such treatments. Therefore, it remains a prevailing clinical need to identify factors associated with acquired resistance or lack of response to ICIs. We hypothesized that the immunosuppressive CD71+ erythroid cells (CECs) within the tumor and/or distant 'out-of-field' may impair antitumor response. METHODS: We studied 38 patients with cancer through a phase II clinical trial investigating the effects of oral valproate combined with avelumab (anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)) in virus-associated solid tumors (VASTs). We quantified the frequency/functionality of CECs in blood and biopsies of patients. Also, we established an animal model of melanoma (B16-F10) to investigate the possible effects of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment on anti-PD-L1 therapy. RESULTS: We found a substantial expansion of CECs in the blood of patients with VAST compared with healthy controls. We noted that the frequency of CECs in circulation was significantly higher at the baseline and throughout the study in non-responders versus responders to PD-L1 therapy. Moreover, we observed that CECs in a dose-dependent manner suppress effector functions of autologous T cells in vitro. The subpopulation of CD45+CECs appears to have a more robust immunosuppressive property compared with their CD45- counterparts. This was illustrated by a stronger expression of reactive oxygen species, PD-L1/PD-L2, and V-domain Ig suppressor of T-cell activation in this subpopulation. Lastly, we found a higher frequency of CECs in the blood circulation at the later cancer stage and their abundance was associated with anemia, and a poor response to immunotherapy. Finally, we report the expansion of CECs in the spleen and tumor microenvironment of mice with melanoma. We found that although CECs in tumor-bearing mice secret artemin, this was not the case for VAST-derived CECs in humans. Notably, our results imply that EPO, a frequently used drug for anemia treatment in patients with cancer, may promote the generation of CECs and subsequently abrogates the therapeutic effects of ICIs (eg, anti-PD-L1). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that anemia by the expansion of CECs may enhance cancer progression. Notably, measuring the frequency of CECs may serve as a valuable biomarker to predict immunotherapy outcomes.


Subject(s)
Melanoma , T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Animals , Mice , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Immunotherapy/methods , Erythroid Cells/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Tumor Microenvironment
3.
Cells ; 12(11)2023 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245425

ABSTRACT

Since their formal discovery in 1975, natural killer (NK) cells have always been proposed in the literature as a potential treatment for cancer and viral infections [...].


Subject(s)
Killer Cells, Natural , Neoplasms , Humans , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/therapy
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(23): e2303509120, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243539

ABSTRACT

Vectored immunoprophylaxis was first developed as a means of establishing engineered immunity to HIV using an adenoassociated viral vector expressing a broadly neutralizing antibody. We applied this concept to establish long-term prophylaxis against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a mouse model using adenoassociated virus and lentiviral vectors expressing a high-affinity angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) decoy. Administration of decoy-expressing (adenoassociated virus) AAV2.retro and AAV6.2 vectors by intranasal instillation or intramuscular injection protected mice against high-titered SARS-CoV-2 infection. AAV and lentiviral vectored immunoprophylaxis was durable and was active against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants. The AAV vectors were also effective therapeutically when administered postinfection. Vectored immunoprophylaxis could be of value for immunocompromised individuals for whom vaccination is not practical and as a means to rapidly establish protection from infection. Unlike monoclonal antibody therapy, the approach is expected to remain active despite continued evolution viral variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Mice , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Immunization , Immunotherapy , Vaccination , Dependovirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321664

ABSTRACT

GCSF prophylaxis is recommended in patients on chemotherapy with a >20% risk of febrile neutropenia and is to be considered if there is an intermediate risk of 10−20%. GCSF has been suggested as a possible adjunct to immunotherapy due to increased peripheral neutrophil recruitment and PD-L1 expression on neutrophils with GCSF use and greater tumour volume decrease with higher tumour GCSF expression. However, its potential to increase neutrophil counts and, thus, NLR values, could subsequently confer poorer prognoses on patients with advanced NSCLC. This analysis follows on from the retrospective multicentre observational cohort Spinnaker study on advanced NSCLC patients. The primary endpoints were OS and PFS. The secondary endpoints were the frequency and severity of AEs and irAEs. Patient information, including GCSF use and NLR values, was collected. A secondary comparison with matched follow-up duration was also undertaken. Three hundred and eight patients were included. Median OS was 13.4 months in patients given GCSF and 12.6 months in those not (p = 0.948). Median PFS was 7.3 months in patients given GCSF and 8.4 months in those not (p = 0.369). A total of 56% of patients receiving GCSF had Grade 1−2 AEs compared to 35% who did not receive GCSF (p = 0.004). Following an assessment with matched follow-up, 41% of patients given GCSF experienced Grade 1−2 irAEs compared to 23% of those not given GCSF (p = 0.023). GCSF prophylaxis use did not significantly affect overall or progression-free survival. Patients given GCSF prophylaxis were more likely to experience Grade 1−2 adverse effects and Grade 1−2 immunotherapy-related adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Progression-Free Survival , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
7.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ; 368: 61-108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322260

ABSTRACT

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are one of the most abundant immune components in the tumor microenvironment and play a plethora of roles in regulating tumorigenesis. Therefore, the therapeutic targeting of TAMs has emerged as a new paradigm for immunotherapy of cancer. Herein, the review summarizes the origin, polarization, and function of TAMs in the progression of malignant diseases. The understanding of such knowledge leads to several distinct therapeutic strategies to manipulate TAMs to battle cancer, which include those to reduce TAM abundance, such as depleting TAMs or inhibiting their recruitment and differentiation, and those to harness or boost the anti-tumor activities of TAMs such as blocking phagocytosis checkpoints, inducing antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, and reprogramming TAM polarization. In addition, modulation of TAMs may reshape the tumor microenvironment and therefore synergize with other cancer therapeutics. Therefore, the rational combination of TAM-targeting therapeutics with conventional therapies including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and other immunotherapies is also reviewed. Overall, targeting TAMs presents itself as a promising strategy to add to the growing repertoire of treatment approaches in the fight against cancer, and it is hopeful that these approaches currently being pioneered will serve to vastly improve patient outcomes and quality of life.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Tumor-Associated Macrophages , Humans , Immunotherapy , Macrophages , Neoplasms/pathology , Quality of Life , Tumor Microenvironment
8.
Nature ; 618(7963): 144-150, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318679

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is lethal in 88% of patients1, yet harbours mutation-derived T cell neoantigens that are suitable for vaccines 2,3. Here in a phase I trial of adjuvant autogene cevumeran, an individualized neoantigen vaccine based on uridine mRNA-lipoplex nanoparticles, we synthesized mRNA neoantigen vaccines in real time from surgically resected PDAC tumours. After surgery, we sequentially administered atezolizumab (an anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy), autogene cevumeran (a maximum of 20 neoantigens per patient) and a modified version of a four-drug chemotherapy regimen (mFOLFIRINOX, comprising folinic acid, fluorouracil, irinotecan and oxaliplatin). The end points included vaccine-induced neoantigen-specific T cells by high-threshold assays, 18-month recurrence-free survival and oncologic feasibility. We treated 16 patients with atezolizumab and autogene cevumeran, then 15 patients with mFOLFIRINOX. Autogene cevumeran was administered within 3 days of benchmarked times, was tolerable and induced de novo high-magnitude neoantigen-specific T cells in 8 out of 16 patients, with half targeting more than one vaccine neoantigen. Using a new mathematical strategy to track T cell clones (CloneTrack) and functional assays, we found that vaccine-expanded T cells comprised up to 10% of all blood T cells, re-expanded with a vaccine booster and included long-lived polyfunctional neoantigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells. At 18-month median follow-up, patients with vaccine-expanded T cells (responders) had a longer median recurrence-free survival (not reached) compared with patients without vaccine-expanded T cells (non-responders; 13.4 months, P = 0.003). Differences in the immune fitness of the patients did not confound this correlation, as responders and non-responders mounted equivalent immunity to a concurrent unrelated mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, adjuvant atezolizumab, autogene cevumeran and mFOLFIRINOX induces substantial T cell activity that may correlate with delayed PDAC recurrence.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Neoplasm , Cancer Vaccines , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal , Lymphocyte Activation , Pancreatic Neoplasms , T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/genetics , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/immunology , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/therapy , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunotherapy , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/genetics , Pancreatic Neoplasms/immunology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/therapy , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
9.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 63(3): 145-151, 2023 Mar 29.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315854

ABSTRACT

The post-vaccination antibody response in patients with immune-mediated neuromuscular diseases under immuno-suppressive therapy has not been sufficiently verified. The Japanese Society of Neurology has stated that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination should be given priority in patients with immunotherapy-associated neuromuscular diseases; however, data on antibody production to a novel mRNA vaccine are scarce in these patients. In this study, we aimed to measure residual antibody titers after the second dose and produced antibodies after the third dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in 25 patients with neuromuscular diseases under immuno-suppressive therapy (disease group). We compared the disease group antibody titers with those of 829 healthy employees in our hospital (control group). The disease group included 17 patients with myasthenia gravis, 4 with multiple sclerosis, 3 with inflammatory muscle disease, and 1 with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies. Seven cases of the disease group showed negative antibody levels (<15.0 s/co) before the third vaccination, and antibody titers in the positive cases ranged from 16.9 to 4,589.0 s/co. Three of the seven antibody-negative cases turned positive after the third vaccination, and all but one of the antibody-positive cases showed a booster effect, with antibody titers after the third dose ranging from 245.1 to 85,374.0 s/co (1.0 to 885.0 times higher than those before vaccination). Although the immune response in the disease group was modest compared to the control group, in which antibody titers after the third vaccination ranged from 67.8 to 150,000 s/co (0.9 to 5,402.1 times higher than those before vaccination), the result indicated that a constant immune response was achieved under immuno-suppressive therapy. Even in the control group, three participants tested negative for residual antibody before the third inoculation, and four of the antibody-positive participants (27.7-24,054.0 s/co) lacked a booster effect after the third vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuromuscular Diseases , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunotherapy , Antibodies , Antibodies, Viral
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(5): e1011308, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320731

ABSTRACT

The global spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has resulted in emergence of lineages which impact the effectiveness of immunotherapies and vaccines that are based on the early Wuhan isolate. All currently approved vaccines employ the spike protein S, as it is the target for neutralizing antibodies. Here we describe two SARS-CoV-2 isolates with unusually large deletions in the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike. Cryo-EM structural analysis shows that the deletions result in complete reshaping of the NTD supersite, an antigenically important region of the NTD. For both spike variants the remodeling of the NTD negatively affects binding of all tested NTD-specific antibodies in and outside of the NTD supersite. For one of the variants, we observed a P9L mediated shift of the signal peptide cleavage site resulting in the loss of a disulfide-bridge; a unique escape mechanism with high antigenic impact. Although the observed deletions and disulfide mutations are rare, similar modifications have become independently established in several other lineages, indicating a possibility to become more dominant in the future. The observed plasticity of the NTD foreshadows its broad potential for immune escape with the continued spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Disulfides , Immunotherapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Viral
11.
Sci Transl Med ; 15(677): eabl5278, 2023 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319413

ABSTRACT

Natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy is being explored for treating infectious diseases, including viral infections. Here, we discuss evidence of NK cell responses to different viruses, ongoing clinical efforts to treat such infections with NK cell products, and review platforms to generate NK cell products.


Subject(s)
Immunotherapy , Killer Cells, Natural , Antiviral Agents
12.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 23(5): 322-332, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295380

ABSTRACT

Although chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a malignancy characterized by accumulation of tumor cells in the blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes and secondary lymphoid tissues, the hallmark of the disease and the major cause of death for patients with CLL is actually immune dysfunction and associated infections. Despite improvement in treatment based on combination chemoimmunotherapy and targeted treatment with BTK and BCL-2 inhibitors leading to longer overall survival for patients with CLL, the mortality due to infections have not improved over the last 4 decades. Thus, infections are now the main cause of death for patients with CLL, posing threats to the patient whether during the premalignant state of monoclonal B lymphocytosis (MBL), during the watch & wait phase for treatment naïve patients, or upon treatment in terms of chemoimmunotherapy or targeted treatment. To test whether the natural history of immune dysfunction and infections in CLL can be changed, we have developed the machine learning based algorithm CLL-TIM.org to identify these patients. The CLL-TIM algorithm is currently being used for selection of patients for the clinical trial PreVent-ACaLL (NCT03868722), testing whether short-term treatment with the BTK inhibitor acalabrutinib and the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax can improve immune function and decrease the risk of infections for this high-risk patient population. We here review the background for and management of infectious risks in CLL.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
13.
Blood Rev ; 60: 101077, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294920

ABSTRACT

Novel targeting agents for hematologic diseases often exert on- or off-target immunomodulatory effects, possibly impacting on response to anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations and other vaccines. Agents that primarily affect B cells, particularly anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and anti-CD19 chimeric antigen T-cells, have the strongest impact on seroconversion. JAK2, BCL-2 inhibitors and hypomethylating agents may hamper immunity but show a less prominent effect on humoral response to vaccines. Conversely, vaccine efficacy seems not impaired by anti-myeloma agents such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory agents, although lower seroconversion rates are observed with anti-CD38 and anti-BCMA MoAbs. Complement inhibitors for complement-mediated hematologic diseases and immunosuppressants used in aplastic anemia do not generally affect seroconversion rate, but the extent of the immune response is reduced under steroids or anti-thymocyte globulin. Vaccination is recommended prior to treatment or as far as possible from anti-CD20 MoAb (at least 6 months). No clearcut indications for interrupting continuous treatment emerged, and booster doses significantly improved seroconversion. Cellular immune response appeared preserved in several settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Immunotherapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antigens, CD19
14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2200636, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294671
15.
Math Med Biol ; 40(2): 199-221, 2023 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304641

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for a terrible health devastation with profoundly harmful consequences for the economic, social and political activities of communities on a global scale. Extraordinary efforts have been made by the world scientific community, who, in solidarity, shared knowledge so that effective vaccines could be produced quickly. However, it is still important to study therapies that can reduce the risk, until group immunity is reached, which, globally, will take a time that is still difficult to predict. On the other hand, the immunity time guaranteed by already approved vaccines is still uncertain. The current study proposes a therapy whose foundation lies in the important role that innate immunity may have, by preventing the disease from progressing to the acute phase that may eventually lead to the patient's death. Our focus is on natural killer (NK) cells and their relevant role. NKs are considered the primary defence lymphocytes against virus-infected cells. They play a critical role in modulating the immune system. Preliminary studies in COVID-19 patients with severe disease suggest a reduction in the number and function of NK cells, resulting in decreased clearance of infected and activated cells and unchecked elevation of inflammation markers that damage tissue. SARS-CoV-2 infection distorts the immune response towards a highly inflammatory phenotype. Restoring the effector functions of NK cells has the potential to correct the delicate immune balance needed to effectively overcome SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Innate , Immunotherapy , Models, Theoretical
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 119: 110210, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299449

ABSTRACT

Substance Use Disorder (SUD) is one of the major mental illnesses that is terrifically intensifying worldwide. It is becoming overwhelming due to limited options for treatment. The complexity of addiction disorders is the main impediment to understanding the pathophysiology of the illness. Hence, unveiling the complexity of the brain through basic research, identification of novel signaling pathways, the discovery of new drug targets, and advancement in cutting-edge technologies will help control this disorder. Additionally, there is a great hope of controlling the SUDs through immunotherapeutic measures like therapeutic antibodies and vaccines. Vaccines have played a cardinal role in eliminating many diseases like polio, measles, and smallpox. Further, vaccines have controlled many diseases like cholera, dengue, diphtheria, Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib), human papillomavirus, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, etc. Recently, COVID-19 was controlled in many countries by vaccination. Currently, continuous effort is done to develop vaccines against nicotine, cocaine, morphine, methamphetamine, and heroin. Antibody therapy against SUDs is another important area where serious attention is required. Antibodies have contributed substantially against many serious diseases like diphtheria, rabies, Crohn's disease, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and bladder cancer. Antibody therapy is gaining immense momentum due to its success rate in cancer treatment. Furthermore, enormous advancement has been made in antibody therapy due to the generation of high-efficiency humanized antibodies with a long half-life. The advantage of antibody therapy is its instant outcome. This article's main highlight is discussing the drug targets of SUDs and their associated mechanisms. Importantly, we have also discussed the scope of prophylactic measures to eliminate drug dependence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diphtheria , Influenza, Human , Substance-Related Disorders , Vaccines , Humans , Diphtheria/drug therapy , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy
20.
J Med Toxicol ; 19(2): 205-218, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254370

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 emerged in December 2019 and led to the COVID-19 pandemic. Efforts to develop therapeutics have led to innovations such as mRNA vaccines and oral antivirals. Here we provide a narrative review of the biologic therapeutics used or proposed to treat COVID-19 during the last 3 years. This paper, along with its companion that covers xenobiotics and alternative remedies, is an update to our 2020 paper. Monoclonal antibodies prevent progression to severe disease, are not equally effective across variants, and are associated with minimal and self-limited reactions. Convalescent plasma has side effects like monoclonal antibodies, but with more infusion reactions and less efficacy. Vaccines prevent progression for a larger part of the population. DNA and mRNA vaccines are more effective than protein or inactivated virus vaccines. After mRNA vaccines, young men are more likely to have myocarditis in the subsequent 7 days. After DNA vaccines, those aged 30-50 are very slightly more likely to have thrombotic disease. To all vaccines we discuss, women are slightly more likely to have an anaphylactic reaction than men, but the absolute risk is small.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 Serotherapy , COVID-19 , Immunotherapy , Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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