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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(5): 2062-2080, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there are growing concerns about the safety of administering immunotherapy in cancer patients with COVID-19. However, current clinical guidelines provided no clear recommendation. METHODS: Studies were searched and retrieved from electronic databases. The meta-analysis was performed by employing the generic inverse-variance method. A random-effects model was used to calculate the unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted ORs with the corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 20 articles with 6,042 cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19. According to the univariate analysis, the acceptance of immunotherapy within 30 days before COVID-19 diagnosis did not increase the mortality of cancer patients (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.68-1.25; P=0.61). Moreover, after adjusting for confounders, the adjusted OR for mortality was 0.51, with borderline significance (95% CI: 0.25-1.01; P=0.053). Similarly, the univariate analysis showed that the acceptance of immunotherapy within 30 days before COVID-19 diagnosis did not increase the risk of severe/critical disease in cancer patients (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.78-1.47; P=0.66). No significant between-study heterogeneity was found in these analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Accepting immunotherapy within 30 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 was not significantly associated with a higher risk of mortality or severe/critical disease of infected cancer patients. Further prospectively designed studies with large sample sizes are required to evaluate the present results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunotherapy, Active , Neoplasms/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy, Active/adverse effects , Immunotherapy, Active/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112385, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565522

ABSTRACT

Chemically modified mRNA represents a unique, efficient, and straightforward approach to produce a class of biopharmaceutical agents. It has been already approved as a vaccination-based method for targeting SARS-CoV-2 virus. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the prospect of synthetic modified mRNA to efficiently and safely combat various diseases. Recently, various optimization advances have been adopted to overcome the limitations associated with conventional gene therapeutics leading to wide-ranging applications in different disease conditions. This review sheds light on emerging directions of chemically modified mRNAs to prevent and treat widespread chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders, cancer vaccination and immunotherapy, musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory conditions, cardiovascular diseases, and liver diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/therapy , Genetic Therapy/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic , Biological Availability , Drug Carriers , Forecasting , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunotherapy, Active , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
3.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(4)2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178485

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the greatest achievements of public health. Vaccination programs have contributed to the decline in mortality and morbidity of various infectious diseases. This review aims to investigate the impact of sex/gender on the vaccine acceptance, responses, and outcomes. The studies were identified by using PubMed, until 30th June 2020. The search was performed by using the following keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, gender, sex, vaccine, adverse reaction. Clinical trials, retrospective and prospective studies were included. Studies written in languages other than English were excluded. Studies were included if gender differences in response to vaccination trials were reported. All selected studies were qualitatively analyzed. Innate recognition and response to viruses, as well as, adaptive immune responses during viral infections, differ between females and males. Unfortunately, a majority of vaccine trials have focused on healthy people, with ages between 18 to 65 years, excluding the elderly, pregnant women, post-menopausal female and children. In conclusion, it is apparent that the design of vaccines and vaccine strategies should be sex-specific, to reduce adverse reactions in females and increase immunogenicity in males. It should be mandatory to examine sex-related variables in pre-clinical and clinical vaccine trials, such as their crucial role for successful prevention of pandemic COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy, Active , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Young Adult
5.
Med Hypotheses ; 141: 109779, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101927

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus Covid-19 follows transmission route and clinical presentation of all community-acquired coronaviruses. Instead, the rate of transmission is significative higher, with a faster spread of the virus responsible of the worldwide outbreak and a significative higher mortality rate due to the development of a severe lung injury. Most noteworthy is the distribution of death rate among age groups. Children and younger people are almost protected from severe clinical presentation. Possible explanation of this phenomenon could be the ability of past vaccinations (especially tetanic, diphtheria toxoids and inactivated bacteria as pertussis) to stimulate immune system and to generate a scattered immunity against non-self antigens in transit, as coronaviruses and other community-circulating viruses and make immune system readier to develop specific immunity against Covid-19. The first support to this hypothesis is the distribution of mortality rate during historical pandemics ("Spanish flu" 1918, "Asian flu" 1956 and "the Hong Kong flu" 1968) among age groups before and after the introduction of vaccines. The immunological support to the hypothesis derives from recent studies about immunotherapy for malignancies, which propose the use of oncolytic vaccines combined with toxoids in order to exploit CD4 + memory T cell recall in supporting the ongoing anti-tumour response. According to this hypothesis vaccine formulations (tetanus, diphtheria, Bordetella pertussis) could be re-administrate after the first contact with Covid-19, better before the development of respiratory severe illness and of course before full-blown ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome). The CD4 + memory exploiting could help immune system to recall immunity of already know antigens against coronaviruses, avoiding or limiting "lung crash" until virus specific immunity develops and making it faster and prolonged. Finally, this administration could be helpful not only in already infected patients, but also before infection. In fact, people could have an immune system more ready when the contact with the Covid-19 will occur.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Clostridium tetani/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Immunotherapy, Active , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Middle Aged , Models, Immunological , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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