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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765735

ABSTRACT

B-cell lymphoma and lymphoproliferative diseases represent a heterogeneous and complex group of neoplasms that are accompanied by a broad range of immune regulatory disorder phenotypes. Clinical features of autoimmunity, hyperinflammation, immunodeficiency and infection can variously dominate, depending on the immune pathway most involved. Immunological imbalance can play a role in lymphomagenesis, also supporting the progression of the disease, while on the other hand, lymphoma acts on the immune system to weaken immunosurveillance and facilitate immunoevasion. Therefore, the modulation of immunity can have a profound effect on disease progression or resolution, which makes the immune system a critical target for new therapies. In the current therapeutic scenario enriched by chemo-free regimens, it is important to establish the effect of various drugs on the disease, as well as on the restoration of immune functions. In fact, treatment of B-cell lymphoma with passive immunotherapy that targets tumor cells or targets the tumor microenvironment, together with adoptive immunotherapy, is becoming more frequent. The aim of this review is to report relevant data on the evolution of the immune system during and after treatment with targeted therapy of B-cell lymphomas.


Subject(s)
Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , Humans , Immune System/pathology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Lymphoma/drug therapy , Lymphoma, B-Cell/therapy , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010339, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686116

ABSTRACT

Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy has provided promising results in the treatment of viral complications in humans, particularly in the context of immunocompromised patients who have exhausted all other clinical options. The capacity to expand T cells from healthy immune individuals is providing a new approach to anti-viral immunotherapy, offering rapid off-the-shelf treatment with tailor-made human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched T cells. While most of this research has focused on the treatment of latent viral infections, emerging evidence that SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells play an important role in protection against COVID-19 suggests that the transfer of HLA-matched allogeneic off-the-shelf virus-specific T cells could provide a treatment option for patients with active COVID-19 or at risk of developing COVID-19. We initially screened 60 convalescent individuals and based on HLA typing and T-cell response profile, 12 individuals were selected for the development of a SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell bank. We demonstrate that these T cells are specific for up to four SARS-CoV-2 antigens presented by a broad range of both HLA class I and class II alleles. These T cells show consistent functional and phenotypic properties, display cytotoxic potential against HLA-matched targets and can recognize HLA-matched cells infected with different SARS-CoV-2 variants. These observations demonstrate a robust approach for the production of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells and provide the impetus for the development of a T-cell repository for clinical assessment.


Subject(s)
HLA Antigens/immunology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
3.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 24(2): e13773, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666343

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to assess the current clinical practice and the attitude toward deferral of HCT/chemotherapy in patients with hematological diseases in cases of asymptomatic patients with a positive assay for SARS-CoV-2. In August 2021, we performed a survey among EBMT centers regarding their attitude toward deferral of HCT/chemotherapy in patients with a positive PCR result. Centers were willing to defer the planned cellular therapy for patients with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection without previous COVID-19 disease, and patients who became asymptomatic after a previous COVID19 disease but persistently shed the virus, respectively, in case of high-risk allo-HCT (90.2%/76.9%), low-risk allo-HCT for malignant diseases (88.2%/83.7%), allo-HCT for nonmalignant diseases (91.0%/91.0%), auto-HCT (88.0%/79.8%), and CAR-T therapy (83.1%/81.4%). The respective rates toward deferral of noncellular therapy patients was lower for both groups of patients, and varied with the primary diagnosis and anti-malignant treatment. There is a relatively high rate of willingness to defer treatment in asymptomatic patients being positive for SARS-CoV-2, planned for cellular therapy, regardless of previous history of vaccination or COVID-19. The same approach is presented for most of patients before noncellular therapy. Nevertheless, each patient should be considered individually weighting risks and benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Asymptomatic Infections , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Hematol Oncol ; 40(2): 287-291, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568070

ABSTRACT

Evolving data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses are blunted in allogeneic hematopoeitic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Responses to the vaccine in chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy are unknown and are likely to be even more diminished. We manually searched vital databases and identified 5 studies that have so far reported COVID-19 vaccine response in a total of 70 CAR-T recipients. The cumulative humoral response rate across all 5 studies was 31%. However, the results are not generalizable due to non-standardized units of humoral response measurement and a lack of external validation. Heterogeneity existed in studies regarding the timing of vaccination post-CAR-T, intervals between the vaccine doses, platforms of response assessment, vaccine platforms, and pre-vaccine immune status. CAR-T-related factors that independently impact vaccine response to prevent COVID-19 have further been reviewed. We conclude that the results must be interpreted with caution given the limitations of small sample sizes, differences in immunoassays, lack of standard definitions and clinical correlates of SARS-CoV-2 immune response, and lack of cellular responses. Until large-scale, homogenous prospective data become available, these preliminary observations will help transplant and infectious disease clinicians with their decision-making while providing care to this profoundly immunosuppressed cohort of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2073-2082, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic poses an urgent need for the development of effective therapies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We first tested SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell (CοV-2-ST) immunity and expansion in unexposed donors, COVID-19-infected individuals (convalescent), asymptomatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive subjects, vaccinated individuals, non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalized patients, and ICU patients who either recovered and were discharged (ICU recovered) or had a prolonged stay and/or died (ICU critical). CoV-2-STs were generated from all types of donors and underwent phenotypic and functional assessment. RESULTS: We demonstrate causal relationship between the expansion of endogenous CoV-2-STs and the disease outcome; insufficient expansion of circulating CoV-2-STs identified hospitalized patients at high risk for an adverse outcome. CoV-2-STs with a similarly functional and non-alloreactive, albeit highly cytotoxic, profile against SARS-CoV-2 could be expanded from both convalescent and vaccinated donors generating clinical-scale, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell products with functional activity against both the unmutated virus and its B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants. In contrast, critical COVID-19 patient-originating CoV-2-STs failed to expand, recapitulating the in vivo failure of CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity to control the infection. CoV-2-STs generated from asymptomatic PCR-positive individuals presented only weak responses, whereas their counterparts originating from exposed to other seasonal coronaviruses subjects failed to kill the virus, thus disempowering the hypothesis of protective cross-immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we provide evidence on risk stratification of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and the feasibility of generating powerful CoV-2-ST products from both convalescent and vaccinated donors as an "off-the shelf" T-cell immunotherapy for high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , T-Lymphocytes
8.
Bull Cancer ; 108(12S): S90-S97, 2021 Dec.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559003

ABSTRACT

Infections occurring after CAR T-cells are a common complication. At the acute phase of treatment following CAR T-cell infusion, the exact incidence of infections is unknown given the overlapping symptoms with cytokine release syndrome. The risk factors for infection include the malignant underlying disease and its multiple treatments, and an immunosuppressive state induced by CAR-T cells themselves and the treatment of their complications. During the twelfth edition of practice harmonization workshops of the Francophone society of bone marrow transplantation and cellular therapy (SFGM-TC), a working group focused its work on the management of post-CAR infectious complications. In this review we discuss anti-infection prophylaxis and vaccination of patients undergoing CAR T-cell therapy as well as a special chapter for the specific case of COVID-19. These recommendations apply to commercial CAR-T cells, in order to guide strategies for the management and prevention of infectious complications associated with this new therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Mycoses/prevention & control , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Bone Marrow Transplantation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Transplantation , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Immunization , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumocystis , Risk Factors
9.
EBioMedicine ; 74: 103705, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with immunocompromised disorders have mainly been excluded from clinical trials of vaccination against COVID-19. Thus, the aim of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate safety and efficacy of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in five selected groups of immunocompromised patients and healthy controls. METHODS: 539 study subjects (449 patients and 90 controls) were included. The patients had either primary (n=90), or secondary immunodeficiency disorders due to human immunodeficiency virus infection (n=90), allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation/CAR T cell therapy (n=90), solid organ transplantation (SOT) (n=89), or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (n=90). The primary endpoint was seroconversion rate two weeks after the second dose. The secondary endpoints were safety and documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. FINDINGS: Adverse events were generally mild, but one case of fatal suspected unexpected serious adverse reaction occurred. 72.2% of the immunocompromised patients seroconverted compared to 100% of the controls (p=0.004). Lowest seroconversion rates were found in the SOT (43.4%) and CLL (63.3%) patient groups with observed negative impact of treatment with mycophenolate mofetil and ibrutinib, respectively. INTERPRETATION: The results showed that the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine was safe in immunocompromised patients. Rate of seroconversion was substantially lower than in healthy controls, with a wide range of rates and antibody titres among predefined patient groups and subgroups. This clinical trial highlights the need for additional vaccine doses in certain immunocompromised patient groups to improve immunity. FUNDING: Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, Nordstjernan AB, Region Stockholm, Karolinska Institutet, and organizations for PID/CLL-patients in Sweden.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenine/adverse effects , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Male , Middle Aged , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Organ Transplantation , Piperidines/adverse effects , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Prospective Studies , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
Blood Cancer Discov ; 2(6): 577-585, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518190

ABSTRACT

Cellular therapies including allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) and autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (auto-HCT) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy render patients severely immunocompromised for extended periods after therapy, and data on responses to COVID-19 vaccines are limited. We analyzed anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG Ab (spike Ab) titers and neutralizing Ab among 217 recipients of cellular treatments (allo-HCT, n = 149; auto-HCT, n = 61; CAR T-cell therapy, n = 7). At 3 months after vaccination, 188 patients (87%) had positive spike Ab levels and 139 (77%) had positive neutralization activity compared with 100% for both in 54 concurrent healthy controls. Time from cellular therapy to vaccination and immune recovery post-cellular therapy were associated with response. Vaccination against COVID-19 is an important component of post-cellular therapy care, and predictors of quantitative and qualitative response are critical in informing clinical decisions about optimal timing of vaccines and the requirement for booster doses. Significance: Identifying predictors of response to vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in patients following cellular therapy is critical to managing this highly vulnerable patient population. To date, this is the most comprehensive study evaluating quantitative and qualitative responses to vaccination, providing parameters most predictive of response and potentially informing booster vaccination strategies.See related article by Chung et al., p. 568. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 549.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 367, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475287

ABSTRACT

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) embodies a mixture of clinical manifestations, including elevated circulating cytokine levels, acute systemic inflammatory symptoms and secondary organ dysfunction, which was first described in the context of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and was later observed in pandemics of influenza, SARS-CoV and COVID-19, immunotherapy of tumor, after chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) therapy, and in monogenic disorders and autoimmune diseases. Particularly, severe CRS is a very significant and life-threatening complication, which is clinically characterized by persistent high fever, hyperinflammation, and severe organ dysfunction. However, CRS is a double-edged sword, which may be both helpful in controlling tumors/viruses/infections and harmful to the host. Although a high incidence and high levels of cytokines are features of CRS, the detailed kinetics and specific mechanisms of CRS in human diseases and intervention therapy remain unclear. In the present review, we have summarized the most recent advances related to the clinical features and management of CRS as well as cutting-edge technologies to elucidate the mechanisms of CRS. Considering that CRS is the major adverse event in human diseases and intervention therapy, our review delineates the characteristics, kinetics, signaling pathways, and potential mechanisms of CRS, which shows its clinical relevance for achieving both favorable efficacy and low toxicity.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Release Syndrome , Signal Transduction/immunology , Acute Disease , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Graft vs Host Disease/complications , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Graft vs Host Disease/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/immunology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy
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