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1.
Biomedica ; 42(Sp. 2): 73-77, 2021 10 31.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100342

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: More than 90% of children infected with COVID-19 worldwide developed mild to moderate disease. In Colombia, during 2020, COVID-19 infections in children stayed below 9.2% of the total cases, with no trends for age group or sex. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of acute respiratory symptoms and COVID-19 in children from public schools in Bogotá, Colombia during the second semester of 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A telephone survey was conducted in over 5,000 scholar children. Antecedents and use of health services were informed. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: A total of 151.470 persons per day accounting for an IR of 157,8 per 100,000 people; almost three times the rate reported by the official surveillance system in the city. CONCLUSION: A lack of diagnosis and consultation in children was found compared to the general population. Further research is needed to elucidate the true burden of the disease in children.


Introducción. Más del 90% de los niños infectados con COVID-19 en el mundo, desarrollaron enfermedad leve a moderada. En Colombia, durante el 2020, la infección del COVID-19 en niños se mantuvo por debajo de 9,2 % del total de los casos sin tendencias por grupo de edad o sexo. Objetivo. Estimar la incidencia de síntomas respiratorios agudos y COVID19 en niños de escuelas públicas en Bogotá (Colombia) durante el segundo semestre de 2020. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo una encuesta telefónica en más de 5.000 escolares. Se recolectó información de antecedentes médicos y uso de servicios de salud. La información obtenida se describió mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados. Se contabilizó un total de 151.470 personas al día para una tasa de incidencia de 157,8 en 100.000 personas, casi tres veces la tasa reportada por el sistema de vigilancia oficial de la ciudad. Conclusión. Se encontraron deficiencias en el diagnóstico y consulta de los niños, al compararlos con la población general. Se necesita más investigación para dilucidar la verdadera carga de la enfermedad en la población infantil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Colombia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Schools
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 808, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, the Japanese government implemented first of two Go To Travel campaigns to promote the tourism sector as well as eating and drinking establishments, especially in remote areas. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between enhanced travel and geographic propagation of COVID-19 across Japan, focusing on the second campaign with nationwide large-scale economic boost in 2020. METHODS: We carried out an interrupted time-series analysis to identify the possible cause-outcome relationship between the Go To Travel campaign and the spread of infection to nonurban areas in Japan. Specifically, we counted the number of prefectures that experienced a weekly incidence of three, five, and seven COVID-19 cases or more per 100,000 population, and we compared the rate of change before and after the campaign. RESULTS: Three threshold values and three different models identified an increasing number of prefectures above the threshold, indicating that the inter-prefectural spread intensified following the launch of the second Go To Travel campaign from October 1st, 2020. The simplest model that accounted for an increase in the rate of change only provided the best fit. We estimated that 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.34) additional prefectures newly exceeded five COVID-19 cases per 100,000 population per week during the second campaign. CONCLUSIONS: The enhanced movement resulting from the Go To Travel campaign facilitated spatial spread of COVID-19 from urban to nonurban locations, where health-care capacity may have been limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Travel , Hospital Bed Capacity , Incidence
3.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 7828131, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098058

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world's deadliest infectious disease killers today, and despite China's increasing efforts to prevent and control TB, the TB epidemic is still very serious. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, if reliable forecasts of TB epidemic trends can be made, they can help policymakers with early warning and contribute to the prevention and control of TB. In this study, we collected monthly reports of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Guiyang, China, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2020, and monthly meteorological data for the same period, and used LASSO regression to screen four meteorological factors that had an influence on the monthly reports of PTB in Guiyang, including sunshine hours, relative humidity, average atmospheric pressure, and annual highest temperature, of which relative humidity (6-month lag) and average atmospheric pressure (7-month lag) have a lagging effect with the number of TB reports in Guiyang. Based on these data, we constructed ARIMA, Holt-Winters (additive and multiplicative), ARIMAX (with meteorological factors), LSTM, and multivariable LSTM (with meteorological factors). We found that the addition of meteorological factors significantly improved the performance of the time series prediction model, which, after comprehensive consideration, included the ARIMAX (1,1,1) (0,1,2)12 model with a lag of 7 months at the average atmospheric pressure, outperforms the other models in terms of both fit (RMSE = 37.570, MAPE = 10.164%, MAE = 28.511) and forecast sensitivity (RMSE = 20.724, MAPE = 6.901%, MAE = 17.306), so the ARIMAX (1,1,1) (0,1,2)12 model with a lag of 7 months can be used as a predictor tool for predicting the number of monthly reports of PTB in Guiyang, China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Humans , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Time Factors , Pandemics , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
4.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(6): 653-658, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pressures exerted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic pose an unprecedented demand on healthcare services. Hospitals become rapidly overwhelmed when patients requiring life-saving support outpace available capacities. OBJECTIVE: We describe methods used by a university hospital to forecast case loads and time to peak incidence. METHODS: We developed a set of models to forecast incidence among the hospital catchment population and to describe the COVID-19 patient hospital-care pathway. The first forecast utilized data from antecedent allopatric epidemics and parameterized the care-pathway model according to expert opinion (ie, the static model). Once sufficient local data were available, trends for the time-dependent effective reproduction number were fitted, and the care pathway was reparameterized using hazards for real patient admission, referrals, and discharge (ie, the dynamic model). RESULTS: The static model, deployed before the epidemic, exaggerated the bed occupancy for general wards (116 forecasted vs 66 observed), ICUs (47 forecasted vs 34 observed), and predicted the peak too late: general ward forecast April 9 and observed April 8 and ICU forecast April 19 and observed April 8. After April 5, the dynamic model could be run daily, and its precision improved with increasing availability of empirical local data. CONCLUSIONS: The models provided data-based guidance for the preparation and allocation of critical resources of a university hospital well in advance of the epidemic surge, despite overestimating the service demand. Overestimates should resolve when the population contact pattern before and during restrictions can be taken into account, but for now they may provide an acceptable safety margin for preparing during times of uncertainty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Bed Capacity , Hospitals, University/organization & administration , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Forecasting , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Models, Statistical , Patient Safety
5.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(9): 1011-1015, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological variables are associated with daily COVID-19 incidence. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort from January 25 to February 29, 2020. SETTING: Cities of Wuhan, Xiaogan, and Huanggang, China. PATIENTS: The COVID-19 cases detected each day. METHODS: We collected daily data of COVID-19 incidence, 8 ambient air pollutants (particulate matter of ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5], particulate matter ≤10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and maximum 8-h moving average concentrations for ozone [O3-8h]) and 3 meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, and wind) in China's 3 worst COVID-19-stricken cities during the study period. The multivariate Poisson regression was performed to understand their correlation. RESULTS: Daily COVID-19 incidence was positively associated with PM2.5 and humidity in all cities. Specifically, the relative risk (RR) of PM2.5 for daily COVID-19 incidences were 1.036 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.032-1.039) in Wuhan, 1.059 (95% CI, 1.046-1.072) in Xiaogan, and 1.144 (95% CI, 1.12-1.169) in Huanggang. The RR of humidity for daily COVID-19 incidence was consistently lower than that of PM2.5, and this difference ranged from 0.027 to 0.111. Moreover, PM10 and temperature also exhibited a notable correlation with daily COVID-19 incidence, but in a negative pattern The RR of PM10 for daily COVID-19 incidence ranged from 0.915 (95% CI, 0.896-0.934) to 0.961 (95% CI, 0.95-0.972, while that of temperature ranged from 0.738 (95% CI, 0.717-0.759) to 0.969 (95% CI, 0.966-0.973). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that PM2.5 and humidity are substantially associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 and that PM10 and temperature are substantially associated with a decreased risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Weather , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Poisson Distribution , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(43): 1353-1358, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091065

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected influenza virus transmission, with historically low activity, atypical timing, or altered duration of influenza seasons during 2020-22 (1,2). Community mitigation measures implemented since 2020, including physical distancing and face mask use, have, in part, been credited for low influenza detections globally during the pandemic, compared with those during prepandemic seasons (1). Reduced population exposure to natural influenza infections during 2020-21 and relaxed community mitigation measures after introduction of COVID-19 vaccines could increase the possibility of severe influenza epidemics. Partners in Chile and the United States assessed Southern Hemisphere influenza activity and estimated age-group-specific rates of influenza-attributable hospitalizations and vaccine effectiveness (VE) in Chile in 2022. Chile's most recent influenza season began in January 2022, which was earlier than during prepandemic seasons and was associated predominantly with influenza A(H3N2) virus, clade 3C.2a1b.2a.2. The cumulative incidence of influenza-attributable pneumonia and influenza (P&I) hospitalizations was 5.1 per 100,000 person-years during 2022, which was higher than that during 2020-21 but lower than incidence during the 2017-19 influenza seasons. Adjusted VE against influenza A(H3N2)-associated hospitalization was 49%. These findings indicate that influenza activity continues to be disrupted after emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in 2020. Northern Hemisphere countries might benefit from preparing for an atypical influenza season, which could include early influenza activity with potentially severe disease during the 2022-23 season, especially in the absence of prevention measures, including vaccination. Health authorities should encourage all eligible persons to seek influenza vaccination and take precautions to reduce transmission of influenza (e.g., avoiding close contact with persons who are ill).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , United States , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Seasons , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Incidence , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chile/epidemiology , Vaccine Efficacy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Influenza B virus
8.
JAMA ; 328(14): 1427-1437, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084928

ABSTRACT

Importance: Evidence describing the incidence of severe COVID-19 illness following vaccination and booster with BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines is needed, particularly for high-risk populations. Objective: To describe the incidence of severe COVID-19 illness among a cohort that received vaccination plus a booster vaccine dose. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of adults receiving care at Veterans Health Administration facilities across the US who received a vaccination series plus 1 booster against SARS-CoV-2, conducted from July 1, 2021, to May 30, 2022. Patients were eligible if they had received a primary care visit in the prior 2 years and had documented receipt of all US Food and Drug Administration-authorized doses of the initial mRNA vaccine or viral vector vaccination series after December 11, 2020, and a subsequent documented booster dose between July 1, 2021, and April 29, 2022. The analytic cohort consisted of 1 610 719 participants. Exposures: Receipt of any combination of mRNA-1273 (Moderna), BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) primary vaccination series and a booster dose. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were breakthrough COVID-19 (symptomatic infection), hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia and/or death, and hospitalization with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and/or death. A subgroup analysis of nonoverlapping populations included those aged 65 years or older, those with high-risk comorbid conditions, and those with immunocompromising conditions. Results: Of 1 610 719 participants, 1 100 280 (68.4%) were aged 65 years or older and 132 243 (8.2%) were female; 1 133 785 (70.4%) had high-risk comorbid conditions, 155 995 (9.6%) had immunocompromising conditions, and 1 467 879 (91.1%) received the same type of mRNA vaccine (initial series and booster). Over 24 weeks, 125.0 (95% CI, 123.3-126.8) per 10 000 persons had breakthrough COVID-19, 8.9 (95% CI, 8.5-9.4) per 10 000 persons were hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia or died, and 3.4 (95% CI, 3.1-3.7) per 10 000 persons were hospitalized with severe pneumonia or died. For high-risk populations, incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia or death was as follows: aged 65 years or older, 1.9 (95% CI, 1.4-2.6) per 10 000 persons; high-risk comorbid conditions, 6.7 (95% CI, 6.2-7.2) per 10 000 persons; and immunocompromising conditions, 39.6 (95% CI, 36.6-42.9) per 10 000 persons. Subgroup analyses of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia or death by time after booster demonstrated similar incidence estimates among those aged 65 years or older and with high-risk comorbid conditions but not among those with immunocompromising conditions. Conclusions and Relevance: In a US cohort of patients receiving care at Veterans Health Administration facilities during a period of Delta and Omicron variant predominance, there was a low incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia or death following vaccination and booster with any of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or Ad26.COV2.S vaccines.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Ad26COVS1/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Male , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Veterans Health Services/statistics & numerical data
9.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 8491628, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083052

ABSTRACT

In order to explore the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of COVID-19 in Chongqing from January 22 to February 25, 2010, and provide a series of suggestions for scientific prevention and control of epidemic situation, we will mainly analyze the epidemic situation data of Chongqing Municipal Health Committee members and improve the descriptive analysis. Regional distribution and spatiotemporal scans were analyzed for COVID-19 outbreaks using ArcGIS10.2 and SaTScan9. 5 software. After the analysis, a total of 576 novel coronavirus pneumonia patients were confirmed in Chongqing. The incidence trend increased rapidly from January 22 to January 31, then decreased gradually, and there were no new cases until February 25. The purely spatial scanning results were consistent with spatiotemporal scanning, and a first-level accumulation area was detected by spatiotemporal scanning in the east and northeast of Chongqing from January 22 to February 10. From January 22 to February 25, 2020,COVID-19 occurred in the eastern and northeast regions of Chongqing. It is recommended to strengthen the detection of cluster areas to prevent another outbreak of COVID-19 risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Humans , Incidence , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(3): 535-543, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a myriad of challenges to healthcare systems and public health policies across the globe. Individuals with alcohol use disorders are at peaked risk due to mental, socio-demographic, and economic factors leading to hindered mental health service access, misinformation and adherence. METHODS: Keywords including "alcohol use", "death", "hand sanitizer", "overdose" and "COVID-19" were used to obtain 8 media reports for case analysis. A review of 34 manually extracted records were also conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Embase database with no time and language restrictions. RESULTS: A total of 2,517 individuals with alcohol overdose across the United States, India, Canada, and Iran were presented. The majority of cases were male, ages 21-65. Common contributors were linked to socio-economic changes, disruption to mental health services, and physical isolation. CONCLUSION: While original studies are essential to evaluate the etiologies of alcohol use and misuse during pandemics, the dissemination of misinformation must be curbed by directing vulnerable individuals towards accurate information and access to mental health services.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , United States , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics , Alcoholism/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Incidence
11.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 20(Suppl 4): 74-79, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080822

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has hit the world in an almost unprecedented way. Patients with endstage chronic renal failure, who are on hemodialysis, with glomerulonephritis and complicated pyelonephritis and other nephrological diseases, were under constant close supervision of specialists, despite the existing difficulties for face-to-face contact between the patient and the doctor at our hospital in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, where primary detection and treatment of these patients were also actively conducted. Here, we report the features of the course of treatment for COVID-19 infection in patients who underwent kidney transplant living related donors during the global pandemic in Uzbekistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After a decree from the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan in October 2017 for approval and regulations for related kidney and (or) liver lobe procedures, our center performed 609 kidney transplants from living related donors between 2017 and 2022, with 320 procedures during the pandemic. There were 228 transplant recipients with COVID-19 infections and COVID-19-associated pneumonia. RESULTS: Of total cases with COVID-19, 71% had moderate disease severity. Of patients who under went kidney transplant, 42% had pneumonia associated with COVID-19 infection. After lung damage was confirmed by multislice computed tomography of the lungs, patients were sent to the intensive care unit for appropriate treatment to ensure a quick recovery without possible complications to the graft. CONCLUSIONS: The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan indicated the possibility of treatment of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 disease with monoclonal antibodies that block interleukin 6 receptors (tocilizumab and sarilumab). With timely detection of symptoms of COVID-19infection, treatment, and the use of prevention methods, kidney transplant recipients of living related donors had fewer complications of the disease than expected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome , Uzbekistan
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 970092, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080291

ABSTRACT

Socio-economic conditions and social attitudes are known to represent epidemiological determinants. Credible knowledge on socio-economic driving factors of the COVID-19 epidemic is still incomplete. Based on linear random effects regression, an ecological model is derived to estimate COVID-19 incidence in German rural/urban districts from local socio-economic factors and popularity of political parties in terms of their share of vote. Thereby, records provided by Germany's public health institute (Robert Koch Institute) of weekly notified 7-day incidences per 100,000 inhabitants per district from the outset of the epidemic in 2020 up to December 1, 2021, are used to construct the dependent variable. Local socio-economic conditions including share of votes, retrieved from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, have been used as potential risk factors. Socio-economic parameters like per capita income, proportions of protection seekers and social benefit claimants, and educational level have negligible impact on incidence. To the contrary, incidence significantly increases with population density and we observe a strong association with vote shares. Popularity of the right-wing party Alternative for Germany (AfD) bears a considerable risk of increasing COVID-19 incidence both in terms of predicting the maximum incidences during three epidemic periods (alternatively, cumulative incidences over the periods are used to quantify the dependent variable) and in a time-continuous sense. Thus, districts with high AfD popularity rank on top in the time-average regarding COVID-19 incidence. The impact of the popularity of the Free Democrats (FDP) is markedly intermittent in the course of time showing two pronounced peaks in incidence but also occasional drops. A moderate risk emanates from popularities of the Green Party (GRÜNE) and the Christian Democratic Union (CDU/CSU) compared to the other parties with lowest risk level. In order to effectively combat the COVID-19 epidemic, public health policymakers are well-advised to account for social attitudes and behavioral patterns reflected in local popularities of political parties, which are conceived as proper surrogates for these attitudes. Whilst causal relations between social attitudes and the presence of parties remain obscure, the political landscape in terms of share of votes constitutes at least viable predictive "markers" relevant for public health policy making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276507, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079771

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate associations between COVID-19 incidence and mortality with neighbourhood-level immigration, race, housing, and socio-economic characteristics. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study of 28,808 COVID-19 cases in the provincial reportable infectious disease surveillance systems (Public Health Case and Contact Management System) which includes all known COVID-19 infections and deaths from Ontario, Canada reported between January 23, 2020 and July 28, 2020. Residents of congregate settings, Indigenous communities living on reserves or small neighbourhoods with populations <1,000 were excluded. Comparing neighbourhoods in the 90th to the 10th percentiles of socio-demographic characteristics, we estimated the associations between 18 neighbourhood-level measures of immigration, race, housing and socio-economic characteristics and COVID-19 incidence and mortality using Poisson generalized linear mixed models. RESULTS: Neighbourhoods with the highest proportion of immigrants (relative risk (RR): 4.0, 95%CI:3.5-4.5) and visible minority residents (RR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.9-3.7) showed the strongest association with COVID-19 incidence in adjusted models. Among individual race groups, COVID-19 incidence was highest among neighbourhoods with the high proportions of Black (RR: 2.4, 95%CI:2.2-2.6), South Asian (RR: 1.9, 95%CI:1.8-2.1), Latin American (RR: 1.8, 95%CI:1.6-2.0) and Middle Eastern (RR: 1.2, 95%CI:1.1-1.3) residents. Neighbourhoods with the highest average household size (RR: 1.9, 95%CI:1.7-2.1), proportion of multigenerational families (RR: 1.8, 95%CI:1.7-2.0) and unsuitably crowded housing (RR: 2.1, 95%CI:2.0-2.3) were associated with COVID-19 incidence. Neighbourhoods with the highest proportion of residents with less than high school education (RR: 1.6, 95%CI:1.4-1.8), low income (RR: 1.4, 95%CI:1.2-1.5) and unaffordable housing (RR: 1.6, 95%CI:1.4-1.8) were associated with COVID-19 incidence. Similar inequities were observed across neighbourhood-level sociodemographic characteristics and COVID-19 mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Neighbourhood-level inequities in COVID-19 incidence and mortality were observed in Ontario, with excess burden experienced in neighbourhoods with a higher proportion of immigrants, racialized populations, large households and low socio-economic status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Ontario/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Family Characteristics , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271964, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumothorax has been increasingly observed among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, specifically in those patients who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this study, we sought to determine the incidence and potential risk factors of pneumothorax in critically ill adults with COVID-19. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to one of the adult intensive care units of a tertiary, academic teaching hospital from May 2020 through May 2021. RESULTS: Among 334 COVID-19 cases requiring ICU admission, the incidence of pneumothorax was 10% (33 patients). Patients who experienced pneumothorax more frequently required vasopressor support (28/33 [84%] vs. 191/301 [63%] P = 0.04), were more likely to be proned (25/33 [75%] vs. 111/301 [36%], P<0.001), and the presence of pneumothorax was associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation; 21 (1-97) versus 7 (1-79) days, p<0.001 as well as prolonged hospital length of stay (29 [9-133] vs. 15 [1-90] days, P<0.001), but mortality was not significantly different between groups. Importantly, when we performed a Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) model of multivariate parameters, we found that administration of tocilizumab significantly increased the risk of developing pneumothorax (HR = 10.7; CI [3.6-32], P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Among 334 critically ill patients with COVID-19, the incidence of pneumothorax was 10%. Presence of pneumothorax was associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay. Strikingly, receipt of tocilizumab was associated with an increased risk of developing pneumothorax.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 193, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The locations where children get exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and their contribution in spreading the infection are still not fully understood. Aim of the article is to verify the most frequent reasons for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and their role in the secondary transmission of the infection. METHODS: A case-control study was performed in all SARS-CoV-2 positive children (n = 81) and an equal number of age- and sex- matched controls who were referred to the S. Camillo-Forlanini Pediatric Walk-in Center of Rome. The results of all SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swabs performed in children aged < 18 years from October 16 to December 19, 2020 were analyzed. RESULTS: School contacts were more frequent in controls than in cases (OR 0.49; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9), while household contacts were higher in cases (OR 5.09; 95% CI: 2.2-12.0). In both cases and controls, school contacts were significantly less frequent, while on the contrary household contacts seemed to be more frequent in nursery school children compared to primary school or middle/high school children. A multivariate logistic regression showed that the probability of being positive to SARS-CoV-2 was significantly lower in children who had school contacts or who had flu symptoms compared to children who had household contacts. Results showed a 30.6% secondary attack rate for household contacts. CONCLUSION: In our study population, the two most frequent reasons for SARS-CoV-2 infection were school and home contacts. The risk of being positive was 5 times lower in children who had school contacts than in children who had household contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Age Factors , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2236278, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074851

ABSTRACT

This cohort study assesses the incidence of emergency department (ED) visits in Hong Kong, China, for sexual abuse among youth before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sex Offenses , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Incidence , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital
17.
MSMR ; 29(6): 17-24, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072759

ABSTRACT

In 2021, the overall numbers and rates of active component service member ambulatory care visits were the highest of any of the last 10 years. Most categories of illness and injury showed modest increases in numbers and rates. The proportions of ambulatory care visits that were accomplished via telehealth encounters fell to under 15% in 2021, compared to 19% in 2020. Although the response to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 may have been associated with decreases in the incidence of disease and injury diagnoses in the service member population receiving ambulatory care, the data for 2021 show a return to pre-pandemic levels. Moreover, the proportions of health care encounters delivered through telehealth have similarly reverted to the lower levels seen in the pre-pandemic period. Lessons learned may guide future steps in reducing disease and injury incidence in the postpandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Telemedicine , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
18.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071660

ABSTRACT

A rise in the incidence of infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has sparked the search for protective strategies against the new pathogen. It is known that individual food components can interact with different immune cells, modulating the immune response of the body. The aim of this study was to develop an index assessing the immunomodulatory potential of diet (POLA index) and to test its utility for the prediction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a group of healthy young people following a traditional or vegetarian diet. Data on body composition, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, dietary intake, and gut microbiota were obtained from 95 adults (mean age, 34.66 ± 5.76 years). There was a strong correlation between the dietary inflammatory index and the POLA index (r = 0.90; p < 0.0001). Based on Cohen's kappa statistic, there was a good agreement in qualitative interpretation between the two indices (kappa = 0.61; p < 0.0001). People on a diet with beneficial immunomodulatory effects had a lower risk of COVID-19 of approximately 80%, as compared with those on a diet with highly unbeneficial immunomodulatory effects. In daily practice, the POLA index might serve as a useful tool for dietitians to identify individuals whose diet is deficient in ingredients for optimal immune system function and change their dietary behavior to ensure optimal immune function that reduces the risk of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Diet , Immunity
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071477

ABSTRACT

We modelled the impact of selected meteorological factors on the daily number of new cases of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa in southern Finland from August 2020 until May 2021. We applied a DLNM (distributed lag non-linear model) with and without various environmental and non-environmental confounding factors. The relationship between the daily mean temperature or absolute humidity and COVID-19 morbidity shows a non-linear dependency, with increased incidence of COVID-19 at low temperatures between 0 to -10 °C or at low absolute humidity (AH) values below 6 g/m3. However, the outcomes need to be interpreted with caution, because the associations found may be valid only for the study period in 2020-2021. Longer study periods are needed to investigate whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a seasonal pattern similar such as influenza and other viral respiratory infections. The influence of other non-environmental factors such as various mitigation measures are important to consider in future studies. Knowledge about associations between meteorological factors and COVID-19 can be useful information for policy makers and the education and health sector to predict and prepare for epidemic waves in the coming winters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Incidence , Finland/epidemiology , Meteorological Concepts , Humidity , Temperature , China/epidemiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071421

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the change in the incidence and variance of otorhinolaryngologic diseases during the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. The entire Korean population (~50 million) was evaluated for the monthly incidence of 11 common otorhinolaryngologic diseases of upper respiratory infection (URI), influenza, acute tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscess, acute laryngitis and bronchitis, stomatitis and related lesions, acute sinusitis, rhinitis, otitis media, and dizziness from January 2018 through March 2021 using the International Classification of Disease (ICD)-10 codes with the data of the Korea National Health Insurance Service. The differences in the mean incidence of 11 common otorhinolaryngologic diseases before and during COVID-19 were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The differences in the variance of incidence before and during COVID-19 were compared using Levene's test. The incidence of all 11 otorhinolaryngologic diseases was lower during COVID-19 than before COVID-19 (all p < 0.05). The variations in disease incidence by season were lower during COVID-19 than before COVID-19 for infectious diseases, including URI, influenza, acute tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscess, acute laryngitis and bronchitis, acute sinusitis, and otitis media (all p < 0.05), while it was not in noninfectious diseases, including stomatitis, rhinitis, and dizziness. As expected, the incidences of all otorhinolalryngolgic diseases were decreased. Additionally, we found that seasonal variations in infectious diseases disappeared during the COVID-19 pandemic, while noninfectious diseases did not.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Laryngitis , Noncommunicable Diseases , Otitis Media , Peritonsillar Abscess , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retropharyngeal Abscess , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Stomatitis , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Retropharyngeal Abscess/epidemiology , Pandemics , Laryngitis/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Dizziness , Peritonsillar Abscess/epidemiology , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Otitis Media/epidemiology , Bronchitis/epidemiology , Stomatitis/epidemiology
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