Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 441
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275579, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162563

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Health literacy is a powerful predictor of health outcomes, but remains a global challenge. There is a paucity of published data and limited understanding of the health literacy of patients in the Middle East. The purpose of this study was to assess the patient health literacy levels in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and identify associated demographic characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of adult patients attending public and private hospitals and primary care clinics was conducted across the UAE between January 2019 and May 2020. Chi-square test was used to analyze the association between health literacy and demographic variables. Ordinal regression was adopted to analyze the data for statistically significant independent variables. RESULTS: 2349 of 2971 patients responded (79% response rate). Slightly less than one-quarter (23.9%) of patients surveyed demonstrated adequate health literacy. Over a third of women respondents (31.7%) possessed adequate health literacy, as compared to only 13% of men surveyed (p<0.001). Participant age was significantly (p<0.001) associated with health literacy levels, with approximately 50% of participants above age 50 years (51-75 years) demonstrating inadequate health literacy. Education was also positively correlated with health literacy. Adequate health literacy levels were twofold higher (30.5%, p<0.001) in patients with high school education, as compared to patients without secondary education. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of patients with inadequate health literacy in our study confirms that the health literacy deficit is a challenge in the UAE. Targeted interventions are needed to improve health literacy, particularly for older individuals, to optimize healthcare utilization and improve individual and population health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Adult , Arabs , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Income , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e065031, 2022 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137778

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to understand the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on paediatric cardiac services in critical access centres in low-income and middle-income countries. DESIGN: A mixed-methods approach was used. SETTING: Critical access sites that participate in the International Quality Improvement Collaborative (IQIC) for congenital heart disease (CHD) were identified. PARTICIPANTS: Eight IQIC sites in low-income and middle-income countries agreed to participate. OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in volume and casemix before and during the pandemic were identified, and semistructured interviews were conducted with programme representatives and analysed by two individuals using NVivo software. The qualitative component of this study contributed to a better understanding of the centres' experiences and to identify themes that were common across centres. RESULTS: In aggregate, among the seven critical access sites that reported data in both 2019 and 2020, there was a 20% reduction in case volume, though the reduction varied among programmes. Qualitative analysis identified a universal impact for all programmes related to Access to Care/Clinical Services, Financial Stability and Professional/Personal Issues for healthcare providers. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified and quantified a significant impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on critical access to CHD surgery in low-income and middle-income countries, as well as a significant adverse impact on both the skilled workforce needed to treat CHD and on the institutions in which care is delivered. These findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has been a major threat to access to care for children with CHD in resource-constrained environments and that this effect may be long-lasting beyond the global emergency. Efforts are needed to preserve vulnerable CHD programmes even during unprecedented pandemic situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Defects, Congenital , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Pandemics , Poverty , Income , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery
3.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 59(6): 362-368, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143947

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To create a survey that assesses the economic factors impacting the viability of pediatric ophthalmology between January 2021 and July 2022. METHODS: A 12-question survey was distributed to United States-based pediatric ophthalmologists on the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus discussion board and various social media fora. Demographic, economic, and workforce pattern data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 243 pediatric ophthalmologists completed the survey. One hundred seven (44.0%) respondents reported a surgical revenue decrease between 10% and 25%, 117 (48.1%) a clinical revenue decrease of less than 10%, 111 (45.6%) an overall income decrease of less than 10%, and 127 (52.2%) an overhead cost increase between 10% and 25%. Seventy-two (29.6%) respondents reported subsidizing income with pursuits outside of pediatric ophthalmology, 27 (11.1%) stopped operating due to reimbursement cuts, 75 (30.8%) limited the number of Medicaid or other public funded patients, 16 (6.5%) retired in the past 3 years, and 92 (37.8%) would not recommend a resident pursue a pediatric ophthalmology fellowship. CONCLUSIONS: There is a potential upheaval in the field of pediatric ophthalmology marked by increasing levels of disillusionment among current providers, a progressive decline in the number of trainees pursuing fellowship programs, and workforce issues suggestive of diversification of practice patterns outside of pediatric ophthalmology. The current economic crisis, in conjunction with these complex workforce issues, is and will continue to create a shortage of practicing pediatric ophthalmologists, seriously limiting access to pediatric and adult strabismus eye care. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2022;59(6):362-368.].


Subject(s)
Ophthalmologists , Ophthalmology , Strabismus , United States , Adult , Humans , Child , Economic Factors , Income
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2178, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139236

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted individual physical activity levels. Less is known regarding how factors such as sociodemographic and built environment were associated with physical activity engagement during the pandemic. Understanding these factors is critical to informing future infectious disease mitigation policies that promote, rather than hinder physical activity. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of physical activity levels during the beginning of the pandemic (April-June 2020), including Stay-at-Home length and orders, neighborhood safety, and sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: Data included 517 participants who responded to an anonymous online survey. Physical activity was assessed with a modified Godin Leisure-time exercise questionnaire. We used logistic regression models to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between independent variables (e.g., demographic variables, neighborhood safety, COVID Stay-at-Home order and length of time) and physical activity levels that did not meet (i.e., < 600 metabolic equivalents of task [MET]-minutes/week) or met guidelines (i.e., ≥ 600 MET-minutes/week). We used R-Studio open-source edition to clean and code data and SAS V9.4 for analyses. RESULTS: Most participants were 18-45 years old (58%), female (79%), Hispanic (58%), and college/post-graduates (76%). Most (70%) reported meeting physical activity guidelines. In multivariate-adjusted analyses stratified by income, in the highest income bracket (≥ $70,000) pet ownership was associated with higher odds of meeting physical activity guidelines (aOR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.55), but this association did not persist for other income groups. We also found lower  perceived neighborhood safety was associated with significantly lower odds of meeting physical activity guidelines (aOR = 0.15, 95% CI:0.04-0.61), but only among individuals in the lowest income bracket (< $40,000). Within this lowest income bracket, we also found that a lower level of education was associated with reduced odds of meeting physical activity guidelines. DISCUSSION: We found that perceived neighborhood safety, education and pet ownership were associated with meeting physical activity guidelines during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, but associations differed by income. These findings can inform targeted approaches to promoting physical activity during subsequent waves of COVID-19 or future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Exercise , Built Environment , Income
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7094, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133427

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated important changes in online information access as digital engagement became necessary to meet the demand for health, economic, and educational resources. Our analysis of 55 billion everyday web search interactions during the pandemic across 25,150 US ZIP codes reveals that the extent to which different communities of internet users enlist digital resources varies based on socioeconomic and environmental factors. For example, we find that ZIP codes with lower income intensified their access to health information to a smaller extent than ZIP codes with higher income. We show that ZIP codes with higher proportions of Black or Hispanic residents intensified their access to unemployment resources to a greater extent, while revealing patterns of unemployment site visits unseen by the claims data. Such differences frame important questions on the relationship between differential information search behaviors and the downstream real-world implications on more and less advantaged populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Access to Information , Income
6.
Vaccine ; 40(50): 7288-7304, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132597

ABSTRACT

The sustainable manufacturing of vaccines in developing countries is critical to increasing equitable access to vaccines and pandemic preparedness globally. Sustainable manufacturing requires that organizations engaged in the development, production and supply of vaccines have viable business models and incentives to manufacture vaccine products. The expanding manufacturing capabilities and capacities of developing countries vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs) are increasingly positioning these organizations to meet the national and regional public health needs in developing countries; however, key industry challenges such as regulatory barriers, low prices and demand uncertainty for vaccine products, and limited R&D funding threaten the long-term viability of vaccine manufacturers. This study assesses the technical capabilities, manufacturing capacities, and aspirational plans of DCVMs, exemplifying the business models and strategies undertaken to sustainably manufacture vaccines in developing countries. The public health importance of a healthy vaccine industry which enables manufacturers is discussed throughout. Vaccine manufacturers reported diverse product portfolios and R&D pipelines and utilized an array of vaccine technology platforms. Large manufacturing capacities were reported, a critical factor in manufacturers achieving economies of scale and supplying large volumes of vaccine doses to the world's most populous regions. Partnerships and collaboration within the industry and with international organizations along the vaccine value-chain were cited with high frequency. Manufacturers also reported aspirational plans to enter new markets, acquire new technologies and invest in the development of novel and improved vaccines. As DCVMs aim to have an increasing impact on the global vaccine ecosystem, a coordinated multi-stakeholder approach is required alleviate critical industry barriers to ensure that all efforts produce vaccines are sustainable and enable developing countries to realize the public health benefit of vaccines.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Vaccines , Ecosystem , Income , Commerce
8.
BJU Int ; 130(6): 703-704, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113139
9.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277441, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117825

ABSTRACT

Socioeconomic factors have exacerbated the impact of COVID-19 worldwide. Brazil, already marked by significant economic inequalities, is one of the most affected countries, with one of the highest mortality rates. Understanding how inequality and income segregation contribute to excess mortality by COVID-19 in Brazilian cities is essential for designing public health policies to mitigate the impact of the disease. This paper aims to fill in this gap by analyzing the effect of income inequality and income segregation on COVID-19 mortality in large urban centers in Brazil. We compiled weekly COVID-19 mortality rates from March 2020 to February 2021 in a longitudinal ecological design, aggregating data at the city level for 152 Brazilian cities. Mortality rates from COVID-19 were compared across weeks, cities and states using mixed linear models. We estimated the associations between COVID-19 mortality rates with income inequality and income segregation using mixed negative binomial models including city and week-level random intercepts. We measured income inequality using the Gini index and income segregation using the dissimilarity index using data from the 2010 Brazilian demographic census. We found that 88.2% of COVID-19 mortality rates variability was between weeks, 8.5% between cities, and 3.3% between states. Higher-income inequality and higher-income segregation values were associated with higher COVID-19 mortality rates before and after accounting for all adjustment factors. In our main adjusted model, rate ratios (RR) per 1 SD increases in income inequality and income segregation were associated with 17% (95% CI 9% to 26%) and 11% (95% CI 4% to 19%) higher mortality. Income inequality and income segregation are long-standing hallmarks of large Brazilian cities. Risk factors related to the socioeconomic context affected the course of the pandemic in the country and contributed to high mortality rates. Pre-existing social vulnerabilities were critical factors in the aggravation of COVID-19, as supported by the observed associations in this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Segregation , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Income , Socioeconomic Factors , Mortality
10.
Soc Sci Med ; 313: 115397, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rate of improvement in mortality slowed across many high-income countries after 2010. Following the 2007-08 financial crisis, macroeconomic policy was dominated by austerity as countries attempted to address perceived problems of growing state debt and government budget deficits. This study estimates the impact of austerity on mortality trends for 37 high-income countries between 2000 and 2019. METHODS: We fitted a suite of fixed-effects panel regression models to mortality data (period life expectancy, age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs), age-stratified mortality rates and lifespan variation). Austerity was measured using the Alesina-Ardagna Fiscal Index (AAFI), Cyclically-Adjusted Primary Balance (CAPB), real indexed Government Expenditure, and Public Social Spending as a % of GDP. Sensitivity analyses varied the lag times, and confined the panel to economic downturns and to non-oil-dominated economies. RESULTS: Slower improvements, or deteriorations, in life expectancy and mortality trends were seen in the majority of countries, with the worst trends in England & Wales, Estonia, Iceland, Scotland, Slovenia, and the USA, with generally worse trends for females than males. Austerity was implemented across all countries for at least some time when measured by AAFI and CAPB, and for many countries across all four measures (and particularly after 2010). Austerity adversely impacted life expectancy, ASMR, age-specific mortality and lifespan variation trends when measured with Government Expenditure, Public Social Spending and CAPB, but not with AAFI. However, when the dataset was restricted to periods of economic downturn and in economies not dominated hydrocarbon production, all measures of austerity were found to reduce the rate of mortality improvement. INTERPRETATION: Stalled mortality trends and austerity are widespread phenomena across high-income countries. Austerity is likely to be a cause of stalled mortality trends. Governments should consider alternative economic policy approaches if these harmful population health impacts are to be avoided.


Subject(s)
Income , Life Expectancy , Male , Female , Humans , Developed Countries , England , Scotland , Mortality
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 953752, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121348

ABSTRACT

Population health and wellbeing is both a result, as well as a driver, of economic development and prosperity on global, European, national and sub-national (local) levels. Wales, one of the four United Kingdom (UK) nations, has shown a long-term commitment to sustainable development and achieving prosperity for all, providing a good example of both national and sub-national level, which can be useful for other European countries and regions. In this paper, the economic importance of the healthcare sector to the Welsh economy is explored. We use a large number of data sources for the UK and Welsh economy to derive an economic model for 2017. We estimate output, income, employment, value-added, and import multipliers of the healthcare sector. Results suggest that the healthcare sector has an above average contribution in four explored economic aspects of the Welsh economy (output, income, employment, value-added), according to its impact on the surrounding economic ecosystem. Also, it is below average regarding leaking through imports. The multipliers' values offer empirical evidence when deciding on alternative policy actions. Such actions can be used as a stimulus for encouraging regional development and post-COVID economic recovery. Our study refers to the Welsh healthcare sector's economic impact as a whole. Therefore, we suggest investigating the economic impact of individual healthcare providers in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Care Sector , Humans , Ecosystem , Income , Employment
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e060838, 2022 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119359

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We undertook a systematic review of strategies adopted to scale up COVID-19 testing in countries across income levels to identify successful approaches and facilitate learning. METHODS: Scholarly articles in English from PubMed, Google scholar and Google search engine describing strategies used to increase COVID-19 testing in countries were reviewed. Deductive analysis to allocate relevant text from the reviewed publications/reports to the a priori themes was done. MAIN RESULTS: The review covered 32 countries, including 11 high-income, 2 upper-middle-income, 13 lower-middle-income and 6 low-income countries. Most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) increased the number of laboratories available for testing and deployed sample collection and shipment to the available laboratories. The high-income countries (HICs) that is, South Korea, Germany, Singapore and USA developed molecular diagnostics with accompanying regulatory and legislative framework adjustments to ensure the rapid development and use of the tests. HICs like South Korea leveraged existing manufacturing systems to develop tests, while the LMICs leveraged existing national disease control programmes (HIV, tuberculosis, malaria) to increase testing. Continent-wide, African Centres for Disease Control and Prevention-led collaborations increased testing across most African countries through building capacity by providing testing kits and training. CONCLUSION: Strategies taken appear to reflect the existing systems or economies of scale that a particular country could leverage. LMICs, for example, drew on the infectious disease control programmes already in place to harness expertise and laboratory capacity for COVID-19 testing. There however might have been strategies adopted by other countries but were never published and thus did not appear anywhere in the searched databases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developing Countries , Humans , Developed Countries , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Income
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e056292, 2022 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has differentially affected countries, with health infrastructure and other related vulnerability indicators playing a role in determining the extent of its spread. Vulnerability of a geographical region to COVID-19 has been a topic of interest, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries like India to assess its multifactorial impact on incidence, prevalence or mortality. This study aims to construct a statistical analysis pipeline to compute such vulnerability indices and investigate their association with metrics of the pandemic growth. DESIGN: Using publicly reported observational socioeconomic, demographic, health-based and epidemiological data from Indian national surveys, we compute contextual COVID-19 Vulnerability Indices (cVIs) across multiple thematic resolutions for different geographical and spatial administrative regions. These cVIs are then used in Bayesian regression models to assess their impact on indicators of the spread of COVID-19. SETTING: This study uses district-level indicators and case counts data for the state of Odisha, India. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: We use instantaneous R (temporal average of estimated time-varying reproduction number for COVID-19) as the primary outcome variable in our models. RESULTS: Our observational study, focussing on 30 districts of Odisha, identified housing and hygiene conditions, COVID-19 preparedness and epidemiological factors as important indicators associated with COVID-19 vulnerability. CONCLUSION: Having succeeded in containing COVID-19 to a reasonable level during the first wave, the second wave of COVID-19 made greater inroads into the hinterlands and peripheral districts of Odisha, burdening the already deficient public health system in these areas, as identified by the cVIs. Improved understanding of the factors driving COVID-19 vulnerability will help policy makers prioritise resources and regions, leading to more effective mitigation strategies for the present and future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health , Income , Incidence
16.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1562-1564, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109350

ABSTRACT

Estimates of excess deaths in 2020-21 only begin to capture the devastating health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. More deaths will occur, and a larger number of Americans will experience disease complications as delays in accessing care and increasing socioeconomic precarity take their toll. No other high-income country experienced as high a death rate during the pandemic. For decades Americans have experienced poorer health outcomes than people in peer countries because of deficiencies in the health care system, adverse socioeconomic conditions, unhealthy physical and social environments, systemic racism, and policies that jeopardize health. The pandemic exposed problems in each of these areas and highlighted the power of policy makers, including those in state government, to alter health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Income , Delivery of Health Care
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099519

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a rapid and sustained negative impact on sleep and mental health in the United States with disproportionate morbidity and mortality among socioeconomically deprived populations. We used multivariable and logistic regression to evaluate the associations among sleep duration, mental health, and socioeconomic deprivation (social deprivation index) in 14,676 Ohio residents from 1101 zip code tabulation areas from the 2020 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Higher socioeconomic deprivation was associated with shorter sleep and poorer mental health after adjusting for covariates (age, sex, race, education, income, and body mass index) in the multivariable linear regression models. Those in the highest socioeconomically deprived areas had 1.6 and 1.5 times higher odds of short sleep (duration < 6 h) and poor mental health (>14 poor mental health days), respectively, in the logistic regression models. Previous researchers have focused on limited socio-environmental factors such as crowding and income. We examined the role of a composite area based measure of socioeconomic deprivation in sleep duration and mental health during the first year of COVID-19. Our results suggest the need for a broader framework to understand the associations among socioeconomic deprivation, sleep duration, and mental health during a catastrophic event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States/epidemiology , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Income , Sleep , Socioeconomic Factors
18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 48, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The One Health (OH) concept has been promoted widely around the globe. OH framework is expected to be applied as an integrated approach to support addressing zoonotic diseases as a significant global health issue and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of zoonosis prevention and control. This review is intended to overview the social impact of the implementation of OH on zoonosis prevention and control. METHODS: A scoping review of studies in the past 10 years was performed to overview the integration feature of OH in zoonosis prevention and control and the social impacts of OH. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for studies published in English between January 2011 and June 2021. The included studies were selected based on predefined criteria. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies were included in this review, and most of them adopted qualitative and semi-qualitative methods. More than 50% of the studies focused on zoonosis prevention and control. Most studies were conducted in low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. Applying OH approach in diseases control integrates policymakers, stakeholders, and academics from various backgrounds. The impact of OH on economic is estimated that it may alleviate the burden of diseases and poverty in the long term, even though more financial support might be needed at the initial stage of OH implementation. OH implementation considers social and ecological factors related to zoonosis transmission and provides comprehensive strategies to assess and address related risks in different communities according to regions and customs. CONCLUSIONS: Based on reviewed literature, although there seems to be a lack of guidelines for assessing and visualizing the outcomes of OH implementation, which may limit the large-scale adoption of it, evidence on the contributions of implementing OH concepts on zoonosis prevention and control indicates long-term benefits to society, including a better integration of politics, stakeholders and academics to improve their cooperation, a potential to address economic issues caused by zoonosis, and a comprehensive consideration on social determinants of health during zoonosis prevention and control.


Subject(s)
One Health , Animals , Global Health , Income , Poverty , Zoonoses/prevention & control
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1001639, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080301

ABSTRACT

Our study assesses whether factors related to healthcare access in the first year of the pandemic affect mortality and length of stay (LOS). Our cohort study examined hospitalized patients at Nebraska Medicine between April and October 2020 who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and had a charted sepsis related diagnostic code. Multivariate logistic was used to analyze the odds of mortality and linear regression was used to calculate the parameter estimates of LOS associated with COVID-19 status, age, gender, race/ethnicity, median household income, admission month, and residential distance from definitive care. Among 475 admissions, the odds of mortality is greater among those with older age (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07) and residence in an area with low median household income (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 0.52-8.57), however, the relationship between mortality and wealth was not statistically significant. Those with non-COVID-19 sepsis had longer LOS (Parameter Estimate: -5.11, adjusted 95% CI: -7.92 to -2.30). Distance from definitive care had trends toward worse outcomes (Parameter Estimate: 0.164, adjusted 95% CI: -1.39 to 1.97). Physical and social aspects of access to care are linked to poorer COVID-19 outcomes. Non-COVID-19 healthcare outcomes may be negatively impacted in the pandemic. Strategies to advance patient-centered outcomes in vulnerable populations should account for varied aspects (socioeconomic, residential setting, rural populations, racial, and ethnic factors). Indirect impacts of the pandemic on non-COVID-19 health outcomes require further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Nebraska/epidemiology , Income , Health Services Accessibility
20.
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL