Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 180
Filter
1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875633

ABSTRACT

In the digital age, electronic health literacy (eHealth literacy) of community-dwelling older people plays a potentially important role in their health behaviors which are critical for health outcomes. Researchers have documented that self-efficacy and self-care ability are related to this relationship. This study aimed to assess the relationship between eHealth literacy and health promotion behaviors among older people living in communities and explore the chain mediating role of self-efficacy and self-care ability. For this cross-sectional study, we used data from 425 older adults at 3 communities in Qingdao, Shandong Province in Northeastern China, from June to September 2021. Path analysis using the structural equation model was performed. We found that eHealth literacy was significantly associated with health promotion behaviors in older people. Additionally, eHealth literacy indirectly affected health promotion behaviors through self-efficacy and self-care ability, respectively. In addition, the chain mediation effect was identified in the relationship of eHealth literacy and health promotion behaviors: eHealth literacy→ self-efficacy→ self-care ability→ health promotion behaviors. These findings offer promising directions for developing interventions to modify older adults' health behaviors through enhancing their eHealth literacy. These interventions should integrate components that target improving the self-efficacy and self-care ability of older people.


Subject(s)
Self Efficacy , Telemedicine , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Promotion , Humans , Independent Living , Self Care
2.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 24(3)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875893

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination uptake among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) is a public health challenge due to various individual level as well as systemic level barriers. The objective of this study was to explore COVID-19 vaccination status among community-dwelling patients with SMI and identify associated factors.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with SMI attending community psychiatry clinics in Northern Kerala from April 21, 2021, to August 3, 2021, using a structured questionnaire. Sociodemographic information and COVID-19-related information, including vaccination status and agreement with COVID-19 vaccination-related statements, were obtained.Results: Of the 62 respondents, only 27.9% received COVID-19 vaccination. Also, 59.7% of respondents received a recommendation for vaccination from their health care providers. The mean age of the vaccinated group was significantly higher than that of the unvaccinated group (F = 1.3359, P < .001). The rate of vaccination uptake among respondents who were contacted by their health care provider for COVID-19 vaccination was significantly higher (P = .001). Respondents in the vaccinated group perceived the vaccine to be more effective in preventing COVID-19 infection than those in the unvaccinated group (2.06 vs 2.64, P = .031). Also, vaccinated respondents were less in agreement regarding the statement about the risk of COVID-19 vaccine worsening mental illness (4.18 vs 3.67, P = .049). Age and recommendation for vaccination from health care providers were found to be significant predictors of COVID-19 vaccination uptake.Conclusions: On the basis of the study findings, it is recommended that tailored educational activities regarding the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine along with recommendation by health care providers can significantly improve COVID-19 vaccination uptake among patients with SMI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Mental Disorders , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Independent Living , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Vaccination
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855628

ABSTRACT

Older adults face the concern of developing frailty and sarcopenia due to an inactive lifestyle during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to reveal the preventive behaviors taken by older adults who perceived a decline in physical fitness during COVID-19 and analyze the background factors which promoted such behaviors using a qualitative study design in 2020. The participants were recruited through the cohort study of Japanese older adults who were aged 79-81 and had not been diagnosed with sarcopenia previously in 2019 and perceived their physical fitness to have declined during the pandemic. The interviews of 19 participants were analyzed using thematic analysis. The participants engaged in five types of preventive behaviors to counter declining physical fitness: "walking", "exercising at home", "improving daily diet", "maintaining a daily routine", and "taking a good rest". Four themes were extracted pertaining to backgrounds of such preventive behaviors: "feeling anxiety and mental pressure", "available networks with family and neighbors", "prior experiences of behaviors", and "access to information". Anxiety due to lifestyle changes during the pandemic was the primary reason for the behaviors. This study can be a useful guide for undertaking possible measures to prevent frailty during future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Sarcopenia , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Humans , Independent Living , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Fitness , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 411, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of virus positivity in the upper respiratory tract of asymptomatic community-dwelling older people remains elusive. Our objective was to investigate the prevalence of respiratory virus PCR positivity in asymptomatic community-dwelling older people using saliva samples and nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs. METHODS: We analyzed 504 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 65 years who were ambulatory and enrolled in a cross-sectional study conducted from February to December 2018 in Nagasaki city, Japan. Fourteen respiratory viruses were identified in saliva, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal samples using multiplex PCR assays. RESULTS: The prevalences of PCR positivity for rhinovirus, influenza A, enterovirus and any respiratory virus were 12.9% (95% CI: 10.1-16.1%), 7.1% (95% CI: 5.1-9.8%), 6.9% (95% CI: 4.9-9.5%) and 25.2% (95% CI: 21.5-29.2%), respectively. Rhinovirus was detected in 21.5% of subjects, influenza A in 38.9% of subjects, enterovirus in 51.4% of subjects and any virus in 32.3% of subjects using only saliva sampling. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalences of several respiratory viruses were higher than the percentages reported previously in pharyngeal samples from younger adults. Saliva sampling is a potentially useful method for respiratory virus detection in asymptomatic populations.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus Infections , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Independent Living , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Nasopharynx , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus , Viruses/genetics
5.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(2): 231-235, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811431

ABSTRACT

Social detachment due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused a decline in physical activity, leading to sarcopenia and frailty in older adults. This study aimed to compare muscle mass, strength, and function values in older women before and after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (April-May 2020). Furthermore, changes in muscle measures across women who experienced different levels of impact on their social participation due to the COVID-19 pandemic were examined. Muscle mass (total, trunk, and appendicular muscle), grip strength, oral motor skills, social interactions (social network and participation), and social support were assessed in 46 Japanese community-dwelling older women (mean, 77.5 y; range 66-93 y) before and after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Trunk muscle mass significantly decreased after the first wave of the pandemic. When comparing changed values between the enhanced/maintained and reduced group during the pandemic, significant group difference was observed in trunk muscular mass, grip strength, and oral motor skills. Intriguingly, those who enhanced social participation had a positive change of grip strength values, showing that social participation might influence muscle function during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hand Strength/physiology , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Muscle Strength , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Pandemics , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
6.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 101: 104710, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disruptions and reductions in healthcare services, coupled with infection concerns in the public, have caused widespread delay in health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Persons with disability were at increased risk for deferred care. This study aimed to examine the extent of delayed care among older US individuals by disability status, identify characteristics associated with delayed care, and explore potential barriers to care during the pandemic. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) 2020 Core Early Release. Community-dwelling adults over age 50 (n = 15145) were classified as having ADL (or IADL) impairment versus no impairment. Distributions of demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics, delayed care, and barriers to care were compared between disability groups. Characteristics associated with delayed care were identified with the multivariable logistic regression model with multiple imputation. RESULTS: 30.7% of older individuals delayed care. ADL/IADL impairment was associated with delayed care overall and in specific domains. Sociodemographic (e.g., younger age and higher socioeconomic status), clinical (e.g., disability, psychiatric conditions, pain, and severe fatigue), and psychosocial (e.g., concerns about the pandemic, perceived financial insecurity, and loneliness) characteristics were associated with delayed care. Financial barrier to care and fear disproportionately affected those with social and clinical vulnerabilities, whereas reductions in healthcare services had a greater impact on those with socioeconomic well-being. CONCLUSION: Efforts should be directed to increase receipt of needed care among vulnerable older individuals. Both pandemic-induced and long-standing barriers to care among disparate subpopulations should be considered in alternative care delivery models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Independent Living , Loneliness , Pandemics
7.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 101: 104706, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The number of socially isolated older adults has increased owing to the coronavirus disease pandemic, thus leading to a decrease in cognitive functions among this group. Smartphone use is expected to be a reasonable preventive measure against cognitive decline in this social context. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the influence of social isolation and smartphone use on cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: We divided 4,601 community-dwelling older adults into four groups based on their levels of social isolation and smartphone use. Then, we conducted cognitive functions tests including a word list memory task, trail-making test, and symbol digit substitution task. Social isolation was defined when participants met two or more of the following measures: domestic isolation, less social contact, and social disengagement. We used an analysis of covariance adjusted by background information to measure between-group differences in levels of cognitive functions and social isolation. A linear regression model was used to analyze the association of standardized scores of cognitive function tests with smartphone use. RESULTS: Smartphone users' scores of the symbol digit substitution task were superior compared with both non-users with social isolation and without. All cognitive functions were associated with smartphone use among non-socially and socially isolated participants. Socially isolated older adults showed an association only between trail making test- part A and smartphone use. CONCLUSIONS: Smartphone use was associated with cognitive functions (memory, attentional function, executive function, and processing speed) even in socially isolated community-dwelling older adults.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Smartphone , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Independent Living/psychology , Social Isolation
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 326, 2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this manuscript, we investigate whether objectively measured lifestyle factors, including walking steps, sedentary time, amount of unforced physical activity, level of slight and energetic physical activity, conversation time, and sleep parameters, were altered before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study conducted from 2015 to 2019 and a subsequent dementia prevention study undertaken in September 2020. Community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 65 years wore wearable sensors before and during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 56 adults were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 74.2 ± 3.9 years, and 58.9% (n = 33) of the participants were female. Moderate and vigorous physical activity time significantly decreased, and sedentary time significantly increased during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate differences in objectively assessed lifestyle factors before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among community-dwelling older adults. The findings show that the pandemic has adversely affected physical activity among older adults living on their own in Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Life Style , Male , Prospective Studies
9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263039, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Distrust, and more broadly, public perception of government's handling of a crisis, has been a widely studied topic within health crisis research and suggests that these perceptions are significantly associated with the behavior of its citizens. PURPOSE: To understand which aspects of the public's perception of government handling of the COVID-19 pandemic predicted engagement of protective behaviors among older adults, who are the most vulnerable to COVID-19. METHODS: Participants were recruited from an ongoing biopsychosocial study on aging amongst community-dwelling older adults. There were two rounds of data collection, during the national lockdown and post-lockdown. The average length of follow-up was 5.88 months. N = 421 completed the first round of data collection and N = 318 subsequently completed the second round of questionnaires. RESULTS: During the lockdown, perceptions that pandemic-related measures in place were sufficient, effective, timely, provided a sense of safety, important information was easily accessible, and government handling of the pandemic could be trusted, were found to significantly predict engagement in protective behaviors. During post-lockdown, only perceptions that measures in place were sufficient, provided a sense of safety, and important information was easily accessible, remained significant predictors. The perception that COVID-19 measures were clear and easy to understand now became a significant predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Public perceptions of government handling of the pandemic predicted engagement in protective behaviors but were less important during post-lockdown. To effectively engage older adults in protective behavior, our findings suggest for pandemic-related information to be accessible, introducing timely safety measures, and having easy-to-understand instructions for nuanced measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Crew Resource Management, Healthcare/methods , Trust/psychology , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Government , Government Programs/trends , Humans , Independent Living/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 87(4): 1467-1474, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793086

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the prevalence and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in individuals with dementia. Patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia were recruited at a tertiary memory clinic, from March 15 to September 15, 2021. Information on COVID-19 vaccination and adverse events experienced after vaccine administration were collected from caregivers. Two-hundred-seventy subjects were finally recruited. Among them, 253 (93.7%) had received the vaccine and only 69 (27.3%) experienced adverse events. Cognitive and behavioral changes following immunization were only rarely reported. COVID-19 vaccination is safe and well-tolerated in patients with cognitive impairment who should be prioritized in the vaccination campaign.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/psychology , Humans , Independent Living , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
11.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604363, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792859

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine the association of sleep with mental health among Hong Kong community-dwelling older men in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This additional analysis was derived from the community-dwelling men aged >60 recruited during three COVID-19 outbreaks (i.e., pre-outbreak, between the second and third wave, and during the third wave) in Hong Kong from July 2019 to September 2020. Sleep and mental health were measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression models were performed for the associations between sleep and mental health after considering the outbreaks' impact. Results: Subjects enrolled between the second and third wave tended to have better sleep but worse mental health. Positive associations between poor sleep and depression (AOR = 3.27, 95% CI: 1.60-7.03) and anxiety (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.07-5.76) were observed. The period "between second and third wave" was positively associated with depression (AOR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.22-5.83), showing an additive interaction with poor sleep. Conclusion: The positive association between poor sleep and depression was aggravated by the period "between the second and third wave" among community-dwelling older males in Hong Kong.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Independent Living , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
12.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(6): 923-929.e2, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate and compare mortality of care home residents, and matched community-dwelling controls, during the COVID-19 pandemic from primary care electronic health records in England. DESIGN: Matched cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Family practices in England in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum database. There were 83,627 care home residents in 2020, with 26,923 deaths; 80,730 (97%) were matched on age, sex, and family practice with 300,445 community-dwelling adults. METHODS: All-cause mortality was evaluated and adjusted rate ratios by negative binomial regression were adjusted for age, sex, number of long-term conditions, frailty category, region, calendar month or week, and clustering by family practice. RESULTS: Underlying mortality of care home residents was higher than community controls (adjusted rate ratio 5.59, 95% confidence interval 5.23‒5.99, P < .001). During April 2020, there was a net increase in mortality of care home residents over that of controls. The mortality rate of care home residents was 27.2 deaths per 1000 patients per week, compared with 2.31 per 1000 for controls. Excess deaths for care home residents, above that predicted from pre-pandemic years, peaked between April 13 and 19 (men, 27.7, 95% confidence interval 25.1‒30.3; women, 17.4, 15.9‒18.8 per 1000 per week). Compared with care home residents, long-term conditions and frailty were differentially associated with greater mortality in community-dwelling controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Individual-patient data from primary care electronic health records may be used to estimate mortality in care home residents. Mortality is substantially higher than for community-dwelling comparators and showed a disproportionate increase in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Care home residents require particular protection during periods of high infectious disease transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Male , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 713202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775829

ABSTRACT

Objective: Verify the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the HOME FAST BRAZIL-Self-reported version and correlate household environmental risks with the history of falls by community-dwelling older adults. Method: Cross sectional study with 50 community-dwelling older adults who were screened by the cut-off point of the Mini Mental State Exam and replied to the HOME FAST BRAZIL-Self-reported version using two evaluators, on three occasions. The reliability analysis was determined by the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC), considering ICC > 0.70 as adequate. To test the correlations, the Spearman test was used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 73.2 ± 5.8 years. The inter- rater reliability of HOME FAST BRAZIL-Self-reported version was ICC 0.83 (IC95%, 0.70-0.90) and the Intra- reliability ICC 0.85 (IC95%, 0.74-0.91). A risk of falls was verified in 88% of the sample and four environmental risks presented significant correlations with the history of falls. Conclusions: The HOME FAST BRAZIL-Self-reported version presented adequate reliability for the evaluation of household environmental risks for community-dwelling older adults. Risks such as inadequate armchairs/ sofas, the absence of anti-slip mats in the shower recess, the presence of pets and inadequate beds require attention in the evaluation of household risks, due to their correlation with the occurrence of falls.


Subject(s)
Independent Living , Accidental Falls , Aged , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Self Report
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 610504, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760273

ABSTRACT

Objective: Study aimed to identify the prevalence of falls and associated contributory factors among older Malaysians. Methods: A cross sectional study among community dwelling older adults aged 50 years and above. Self-administered questionnaires on history of falls in the previous 12 months, physical assessment and computerized and clinical measures of balance were assessed on a single occasion. Results: Forty nine (31.0%) participants fell, with 4.4% reported having multiple falls within the previous 12 months. Slips were the most prevalent cause of falls, accounting for 49% of falls. More than half (54.5%) of falls occurred in the afternoon while participants walked inside the home (32.7%), outside home (30.6%), and 36.7% were in community areas. More than half of respondents were identified as having turning instability. Step Test, turn sway, depression, physical activity level and edge contrast sensitivity were significantly worse for fallers (p < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that turning performance, visual acuity and back pain were significantly associated with falls risk, accounting for 72% of the variance of risk factors for falls among studied population. Conclusion: Falls are common among community dwelling older Malaysians. The findings provide information of falls and falls risk factors among community dwelling older adults in Malaysia. Future intervention studies should target locally identified falls risk factors. This study has highlighted the importance of instability during turning as an important fall risk factor.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Independent Living , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(3): e31912, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In recent years, telehealth has become a common channel for health care professionals to use to promote health and provide distance care. COVID-19 has further fostered the widespread use of this new technology, which can improve access to care while protecting the community from exposure to infection by direct personal contact, and reduce the time and cost of traveling for both health care users and providers. This is especially true for community-dwelling older adults who have multiple chronic diseases and require frequent hospital visits. Nurses are globally recognized as health care professionals who provide effective community-based care to older adults, facilitating their desire to age in place. However, to date, it is unclear whether the use of telehealth can facilitate their work of promoting self-care to community-dwelling older adults. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to summarize findings from randomized controlled trials on the effect of nurse-led telehealth self-care promotion programs compared with the usual on-site or face-to-face services on the quality of life (QoL), self-efficacy, depression, and hospital admissions among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: A search of 6 major databases was undertaken of relevant studies published from May 2011 to April 2021. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and their 95% CIs were calculated from postintervention outcomes for continuous data, while the odds ratio was obtained for dichotomous data using the Mantel-Haenszel test. RESULTS: From 1173 possible publications, 13 trials involving a total of 4097 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with the control groups, the intervention groups of community-dwelling older adults significantly improved in overall QoL (SMD 0.12; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.20; P=.006; I2=21%), self-efficacy (SMD 0.19; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.30; P<.001; I2=0%), and depression level (SMD -0.22; 95% CI -0.36 to -0.08; P=.003; I2=89%). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that employing telehealth in nurse-led self-care promotion programs may have a positive impact on older adults, although more studies are needed to strengthen the evidence base, particularly regarding organization and delivery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (Prospective International Register of Systematic Reviews) CRD42021257299; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=257299.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Aged , Health Promotion , Humans , Independent Living , Nurse's Role , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Self Care
16.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 22(5): 405-411, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752550

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate whether the type and frequency of social interaction during the state of emergency due to coronavirus disease were associated with self-rated health (SRH) after the state of emergency. METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional study were collected for 889 oldest-old adults in Bibai City, Hokkaido, Japan. In total, 612 participants (mean age: 83.0 ± 4.3 years; women: 51.8%) were included in the analysis, taking biological sex into account. The self-reported questionnaire included questions about demographic variables, SRH (July 2020, after the emergency), and the type and frequency of social interaction (March 2020, during the state of emergency). RESULTS: There was no significant association between social interaction and SRH in men (P > 0.05). Women who had social interactions (both face-to-face and non-face-to-face) more than once a week during the state of emergency reported higher SRH after the emergency than those who did not (odds ratio 2.17, 95% confidence interval 1.07-4.41). CONCLUSIONS: Having both types of interaction more than once a week during the state of emergency was related to higher SRH after the emergency among oldest-old women. It is suggested that having opportunities for both types of interaction at least once a week would potentially be beneficial for high SRH in women, even in situations where the declaration of a state of emergency restricts face-to-face interaction. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2022; 22: 405-411.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Independent Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Social Interaction
17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 37(3): 235-249, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750758

ABSTRACT

This mixed design synthesis aimed to estimate the infection fatality rate (IFR) of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in community-dwelling elderly populations and other age groups from seroprevalence studies. Protocol: https://osf.io/47cgb . Eligible were seroprevalence studies done in 2020 and identified by any of four existing systematic reviews; with ≥ 500 participants aged ≥ 70 years; presenting seroprevalence in elderly people; aimed to generate samples reflecting the general population; and whose location had available data on cumulative COVID-19 deaths in elderly (primary cutoff ≥ 70 years; ≥ 65 or ≥ 60 also eligible). We extracted the most fully adjusted (if unavailable, unadjusted) seroprevalence estimates; age- and residence-stratified cumulative COVID-19 deaths (until 1 week after the seroprevalence sampling midpoint) from official reports; and population statistics, to calculate IFRs adjusted for test performance. Sample size-weighted IFRs were estimated for countries with multiple estimates. Thirteen seroprevalence surveys representing 11 high-income countries were included in the main analysis. Median IFR in community-dwelling elderly and elderly overall was 2.9% (range 1.8-9.7%) and 4.5% (range 2.5-16.7%) without accounting for seroreversion (2.2% and 4.0%, respectively, accounting for 5% monthly seroreversion). Multiple sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. IFR was higher with larger proportions of people > 85 years. The IFR of COVID-19 in community-dwelling elderly is lower than previously reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Independent Living , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 13(3): 1653-1672, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750384

ABSTRACT

General muscle health declines with age, and in particular, sarcopenia-defined as progressive loss of muscle mass and strength/physical performance-is a growing issue in Asia with a rising population of community-dwelling older adults. Several guidelines have addressed early identification of sarcopenia and management, and although nutrition is central to treatment of sarcopenia, there are currently few guidelines that have examined this specifically in the Asian population. Therefore, the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia established a special interest group (SIG) comprising seven experts across Asia and one from Australia, to develop an evidence-based expert consensus. A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE on the topic of muscle health, from 2016 (inclusive) to July 2021, in Asia or with relevance to healthy, Asian community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years old). Several key topics were identified: (1) nutritional status: malnutrition and screening; (2) diet and dietary factors; (3) nutritional supplementation; (4) lifestyle interventions plus nutrition; and (5) outcomes and assessment. Clinical questions were developed around these topics, leading to 14 consensus statements. Consensus was achieved using the modified Delphi method with two rounds of voting. Moreover, the consensus addressed the impacts of COVID-19 on nutrition, muscle health, and sarcopenia in Asia. These statements encompass clinical expertise and knowledge across Asia and are aligned with findings in the current literature, to provide a practical framework for addressing muscle health in the community, with the overall aim to encourage and facilitate broader access to equitable care for this target population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , Humans , Independent Living , Middle Aged , Muscles , Nutritional Status , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/therapy
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of growing population ageing, technologies aimed at helping people age in place play a fundamental role. Acceptance of the implementation of technological solutions can be defined as the intention to use a technology or the effective use of it. Approaches based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) have been shown to have good predictive power for pre-implementation attitudes towards new technologies. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the degree of acceptability of the use of new technologies for ageing in place and the factors associated with greater acceptance in people older than 64 years. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. Sociodemographic, clinical and environmental variables, architectural barriers, social risk and quality of life, degree of autonomy, morbidity, and risk of falls were collected in a population sample over 64 years of age in a large region of western Spain. The degree of acceptance of the use of technologies was measured through a scale based on the TAM. RESULTS: Of the 293 people included in the study, 36.2% exhibited a high acceptability of new technologies, 28.3% exhibited a medium acceptability, and 35.5% exhibited a low acceptability. Of all the factors, age, education level, and living alone were significantly associated with high acceptance in the adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Younger age, a higher education level, and living alone are factors associated with a greater degree of acceptance of the use of technologies for ageing in place.


Subject(s)
Independent Living , Quality of Life , Aged , Aging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Technology
20.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 59(1): 39-48, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736704

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to clarify the construct validity of the Questionnaire for medical checkup of old-old (QMCOO). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires including the QMCOO were distributed to 1,953 older adults, and responses were returned by mail. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for the QMCOO among older participants (age ≥75 years) and extracted the relevant factors. Next, we structured the model for the QMCOO based on these factors and conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modeling. We conducted a CFA among young-older participants (age 65 to <75 years) for the same model. RESULTS: Of the 1,110 (53.5%) adults who responded, data from the 994 respondents who provided complete answers were analyzed. Five factors were extracted from the results of the EFA: physical and mental condition, relationship with society, eating and smoking, chance for exercise, and cognitive function. The results of the CFA were as follows: comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.899, adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) = 0.965, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.034, and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.040. Meanwhile, the results for young-older participants were as follows: CFI = 0.886, AGFI = 0.942, RMSEA = 0.035, and SRMR = 0.048. CONCLUSIONS: The QMCOO assessed health condition and was composed of multiple factors associated with frailty. The CFA results indicated that the model fit was good. The QMCOO showed sufficient structural validity. Therefore, the construct validity of the QMCOO was shown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Independent Living , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Pilot Projects , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL