Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
1.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575182

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the impact of food insecurity and poor nutrient intake on the psychological health of middle-aged and older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. A sub-sample of 535 individuals aged 52 years and above, from the earlier cohort and interventional studies (n = 4) from four selected states in Peninsular Malaysia, were recruited during the COVID-19 outbreak (April to June 2020). Telephone interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with a health sciences background to obtain participants' information on health status, physical activity, food security, and psychological health (General Health Questionnaire-12; normal and psychological distress). Univariate analyses were performed for each variable, followed by a logistic regression analysis using SPSS Statistics version 25.0. Results revealed food insecurity (OR = 17.06, 95% CI: 8.24-35.32, p < 0.001), low protein (OR = 0.981, 95% CI: 0.965-0.998, p < 0.05), and fiber intakes (OR = 0.822, 95% CI: 0.695-0.972, p < 0.05) were found to be significant factors associated with the psychological distress group after adjusting for confounding factors. The findings suggested that food insecurity and insufficiencies of protein and fiber intakes heightened the psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Optimal nutrition is vital to ensure the physical and psychological health of the older population, specifically during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Food Insecurity/economics , Humans , Independent Living/economics , Independent Living/psychology , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/economics , Stress, Psychological/psychology
2.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E693-E702, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identification of therapies to prevent severe COVID-19 remains a priority. We sought to determine whether hydroxychloroquine treatment for outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection could prevent hospitalization, mechanical ventilation or death. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in Alberta during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic without direct contact with participants. Community-dwelling individuals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR] viral ribonucleic acid test) within the previous 4 days, and symptom onset within the previous 12 days, were randomly assigned to oral hydroxychloroquine or matching placebo for 5 days. Enrolment began Apr. 15, 2020. The primary outcome was the composite of hospitalization, invasive mechanical ventilation or death within 30 days. Secondary outcomes included symptom duration and disposition at 30 days. Safety outcomes, such as serious adverse events and mortality, were also ascertained. Outcomes were determined by telephone follow-up and administrative data. RESULTS: Among 4919 individuals with a positive RT-PCR test, 148 (10.2% of a planned 1446 patients) were randomly assigned, 111 to hydroxychloroquine and 37 to placebo. Of the 148 participants, 24 (16.2%) did not start the study drug. Four participants in the hydroxychloroquine group met the primary outcome (4 hospitalizations, 0 mechanical ventilation, 4 survived to 30 days) and none in the placebo group. Hydroxychloroquine did not reduce symptom duration (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.49-1.21). Recruitment was paused on May 22, 2020, when a since-retracted publication raised concerns about the safety of hydroxychloroquine for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Although we had not identified concerns in a safety review, enrolment was slower than expected among those eligible for the study, and cases within the community were decreasing. Recruitment goals were deemed to be unattainable and the trial was not resumed, resulting in a study underpowered to assess the effect of treatment with hydroxychloroquine and safety. INTERPRETATION: There was no evidence that hydroxychloroquine reduced symptom duration or prevented severe outcomes among outpatients with proven COVID-19, but the early termination of our study meant that it was underpowered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT04329611.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hydroxychloroquine , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Preventive Health Services/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
3.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2722-2731, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268124

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and decreased hand grip strength (HGS). DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based study. SETTING: Community-dwelling older adults (aged ≥60 years) living in a rural Ecuadorian village struck by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: Of 282 enrolled individuals, 254 (90%) finished the study. MEASUREMENTS: HGS was measured 3 months before (January 2020) and 9 months after the introduction of the virus into the population (January 2021). SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing was performed in two rounds: in May-June (early) and September-November (late), 2020. An independent association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and HGS decline was assessed by fitting linear mixed models for longitudinal data. Changes in HGS scores in SARS-CoV-2 seropositive subjects, according to the time elapsed since seroconversion, were compared with those who remained seronegative. RESULTS: Overall, 149 (59%) individuals became seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. The mean HGS (in kg) was 25.3 ± 8.3 at baseline and 23.7 ± 8.1 at follow-up (p = 0.028), with 140 individuals having >5% HGS decline between both measurements. The follow-up HGS measurement decreased by 1.72 kg in seropositive individuals, and by 0.57 kg in their seronegative counterparts (p < 0.001). SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals were 2.27 times more likely (95% CI: 1.33-3.87) to have a lower HGS measurement at the time of follow-up than those who remained seronegative. When compared with seronegative subjects, seropositive patients with early seroconversion were 3.41 times (95% CI: 1.73-6.74) more likely to have >5% HGS decline at the time of the follow-up than those with later, i.e., more recent, infections. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an independent deleterious impact of SARS-CoV-2 on HGS that is more marked among individuals with infections that occurred more than 8 months before follow-up HGS. Results suggest the possibility of chronic damage to skeletal muscles by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Geriatric Assessment , Hand Strength , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aftercare/methods , Aftercare/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Geriatric Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Health Services for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Rural Population
4.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(9): 934-942, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243768

ABSTRACT

Social distancing, a critical measure to manage COVID-19 transmission, is consistently associated with social isolation, a major health issue. Social isolation negatively impacts mental and physical health, particularly among older adults. A pre-post comparison study examined changes in cognitive function and perceived health among 36 community-dwelling Brazilian older adults, assessed pre and post social distancing measures enacted due to COVID-19. A significant increase in cognitive function was found 1 month into social distancing (M = 16.3, p = .002, power = 0.88), with declining scores for vitality (M = -29.3, p < .001, power = 0.99) and mental health (M = -38.1, p < .001, power = 0.99), particularly among participants who lived alone (t = -3.8, p = .001). Older adults exhibit rapid changes in perceived health when excluded from participation in social activities. Health care professionals should consider holistic approaches when addressing the impacts of social isolation on this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Independent Living , Social Isolation/psychology , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Independent Living/psychology , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Mental Health , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 50(1-2): 84-89, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Increasing age, male sex and various chronic conditions have been identified as important risk factors for poor outcomes from COVID-19. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of risk factors for poor outcomes due to COVID-19 infection in an older population. METHOD: The proportion of the population with one or more risk factors and the prevalence of individual risk factors and multiple risk factors were calculated among Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) clients aged ≥70 years. RESULTS: There were 103,422 DVA clients included. Of these, 79% in the community and 82% in residential aged care had at least one risk factor for poor outcomes from COVID-19. Hypertension was most prevalent, followed by chronic heart and airways disease. Over half had ≥2 risk factors, and one in five had ≥3 risk factors across multiple body systems. DISCUSSION: A substantial proportion of older Australians are at risk of poor outcomes from COVID-19 because of their multimorbid risk profile. These patients should be prioritised for proactive monitoring to avoid unintentional harm due to potential omission of care during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Chronic Disease/mortality , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors
6.
CMAJ Open ; 9(1): E1-E9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with a recent history of homelessness are believed to be at high risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and, when infected, complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We describe and compare testing for SARS-CoV-2, test positivity and hospital admission, receipt of intensive care and mortality rates related to COVID-19 for people with a recent history of homelessness versus community-dwelling people as of July 31, 2020. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada, between Jan. 23 and July 31, 2020, using linked health administrative data among people who either had a recent history of homelessness or were dwelling in the community. People were included if they were eligible for provincial health care coverage and not living in an institutionalized facility on Jan. 23, 2020. We examined testing for SARS-CoV-2, test positivity and complication outcomes of COVID-19 (hospital admission, admission to intensive care and death) within 21 days of a positive test result. Extended multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in 3 time periods: preshutdown (Jan. 23-Mar. 13), peak (Mar. 14-June 16) and reopening (June 17-July 31). RESULTS: People with a recent history of homelessness (n = 29 407) were more likely to be tested for SARS-CoV-2 in all 3 periods compared with community-dwelling people (n = 14 494 301) (preshutdown adjusted HR 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-2.11; peak adjusted HR 2.95, 95% CI 2.88-3.03; reopening adjusted HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.39-1.51). They were also more likely to have a positive test result (peak adjusted HR 3.66, 95% CI 3.22-4.16; reopening adjusted HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.15-2.71). In the peak period, people with a recent history of homelessness were over 20 times more likely to be admitted to hospital for COVID-19 (adjusted HR 20.35, 95% CI 16.23-25.53), over 10 times more likely to require intensive care for COVID-19 (adjusted HR 10.20, 95% CI 5.81-17.93) and over 5 times more likely to die within 21 days of their first positive test result (adjusted HR 5.73, 95% CI 3.01-10.91). INTERPRETATION: In Ontario, people with a recent history of homelessness were significantly more likely to be tested for SARS-CoV-2, to have a positive test result, to be admitted to hospital for COVID-19, to receive intensive care for COVID-19 and to die of COVID-19 compared with community-dwelling people. People with a recent history of homelessness should continue to be considered particularly vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and its complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality , Ontario/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Vulnerable Populations
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 83, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy, infection among health-care professionals and in the context of welfare and health-care facilities was a significant concern. It is known that the elderly or those with concomitant pathologies are at greater risk of a serious evolution of the disease if affected by COVID-19 and that health workers are a category with greater exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Until now, there has been little information on the epidemiological features and transmission dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak which did not involve health-care professionals or social and health-care facilities. For this reason, this paper aims to describe the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population outside these semi-closed communities. METHODS: The study was designed by analyzing the data of the 1371 SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects observed in Sardinia up to 9 July, 2020 and whose data were available in the public health department. Statistical analysis and graphic representation were performed using STATA and Adobe Illustrator, respectively. RESULTS: Of the positive cases analyzed, 323 (23.5%) are health-care workers and 563 (41.1%) reside in social or health-care facilities. The number of positive cases among the general population (subjects who do not belong to these semi-closed communities), is 399 (29.1%), 208 females and 191 males. The estimated Case Fatality Rate stands at 5.0%, which is almost half the rate reported for all the SARS-CoV-2 positive cases (9.8%). The geographical distribution of positive cases differs considerably from the distribution of the totality of cases in Sardinia. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides an insight into the COVID-19 situation in the general community, ie not involving health-care professionals or social and health-care facilities. Understanding the evolving epidemiology and transmission dynamics of the outbreak outside of these semi-closed communities would provide appropriate information to guide intervention policy. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the vulnerability of our health-care system. Severe disruptions in care, medicine shortages and unequal access to health-care are but a few examples of the challenges faced by people living in Italy and Europe, highlighting the importance of evidence-based approaches in supporting the development of prevention and response strategies for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Facilities , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Residential Facilities , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Homes for the Aged , Hospitals , Humans , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040341, 2020 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868325

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Local activities that functioned to prevent frailty in the elderly have been suspended or reduced as a countermeasure against COVID-19. As a result, frailty rates are expected to increase, and frailty is expected to worsen as a secondary problem associated with COVID-19 countermeasures. Therefore, this study aims to determine the extent of frailty in the elderly associated with lifestyle changes implemented as COVID-19 countermeasures, to ascertain actual lifestyle changes and clarify the existence of Corona-Frailty. We will also conduct Corona-Frailty screening to verify the effect of support provided as feedback to supporters of the elderly. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The survey target area is Takasaki City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Phase I aims to verify the short-term effects of COVID-19. A questionnaire will be distributed to 465 community-dwelling elderly people, and responses will be obtained by post. Frailty will be evaluated using the Frailty Screening Index. Respondents who are frail and have had many changes in their lifestyle will be screened as high-risk people, and feedback will be provided to local supporters. The aim of Phase II will be to verify the long-term effects of COVID-19 and the effect of screening. A similar survey will be distributed twice after the first survey, once after 6 months and again after 1 year and the frailty rate will be tested. Furthermore, out of the subjects identified with frailty in Phase I, the progress of those who were screened and those who were not screened will be compared between groups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Takasaki University of Health and Welfare (approval number: 2009). The results of this study will be reported to the policymaker, presented at academic conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000040335.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Life Style , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aging/physiology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(7): e249-e255, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With the spread of COVID-19, the Netherlands implemented a policy to keep citizens physically distanced. We hypothesize that consequent reduction in the frequency of social contacts, personal losses, and the experience of general threats in society reduced well-being. METHODS: Data were collected from 1,679 Dutch community-dwelling participants aged 65-102 years comprising a longitudinal online panel. Social and emotional loneliness and mental health were measured in May 2020, that is, 2 months after the implementation of the measures, and earlier in October and November 2019. RESULTS: In this pandemic, the loneliness of older people increased, but mental health remained roughly stable. The policy measures for physical distancing did not cause much social isolation but personal losses, worries about the pandemic, and a decline in trust in societal institutions were associated with increased mental health problems and especially emotional loneliness. DISCUSSION: The consequences of long-term social isolation and well-being must be closely monitored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Loneliness , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Independent Living/psychology , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology
13.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(11): 2587-2593, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Frailty, loneliness, and social isolation are all associated with adverse outcomes in older adults, but little is known about their combined impact on mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling older adults aged 65 and older (n = 1,427). MEASUREMENTS: Frailty was measured with the frailty phenotype (Fried criteria). Loneliness was assessed with the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Social isolation was operationalized using information on partner status, social support, and network size. Two categorical variables were created, for each possible combination regarding frailty and loneliness (FL) and frailty and social isolation (FS), respectively. Mortality was monitored over a period of 22 years (1995-2017). Survival curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used to study the effects of the FL and FS combinations on mortality. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, depression, chronic diseases, and smoking. RESULTS: Frailty prevalence was 13%, and 5.9% of the sample were frail and lonely, and 6.2% frail and socially isolated. In fully adjusted models, older adults who were only frail had a higher risk of mortality compared with people without any of the conditions (hazard ratio [HR] range = 1.40-1.48; P < .01). However, the highest risk of mortality was observed in people with a combined presence of frailty and loneliness or social isolation (HRFL = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42-2.37; HRFS = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.36-2.30). Sensitivity analyses using a frailty index based on the deficit accumulation approach instead of the frailty phenotype showed similar results, confirming the robustness of our findings. CONCLUSION: Frail older adults are at increased risk of mortality, but this risk is even higher for those who are also lonely or socially isolated. To optimize well-being and health outcomes in physically frail older adults, targeted interventions focusing on both subjective and objective social vulnerability are needed.


Subject(s)
Frailty/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/mortality , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Humans , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
14.
J Community Health ; 46(2): 292-297, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645740

ABSTRACT

High social risk, as measured by the social determinants of health (SDH), may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, this association has not been studied in rural communities. Using the Atahualpa Project cohort, we aimed to assess the association between SDH and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in community-dwelling older adults living in rural Ecuador. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were determined in 319 individuals aged ≥ 60 years that completed a validated field instrument to assess their social risk before the introduction of this novel pandemic. Multivariate models were fitted to assess the independent association between SDH-and each of their components-and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, after adjusting for relevant covariates. According to the Gijon scale, 102 (32%) individuals had a high social risk (≥ 10 points). A total of 141 (44%) individuals were seropositive to SARS-CoV-2. A fully-adjusted logistic regression model showed an independent) association between social risk and SARS-CoV-2 positivity (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.04-1.27; p = 0.008). For every unit of the total SDH score, the odds of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity increased 15% (95% CI 3.7-27%). In addition, multivariate models showed that the individual component of SDH more strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was housing, which suggested that lack of basic home facilities may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Knowledge on the association between high social risk and SARS-CoV-2 infection is indispensable for the development of cost-effective preventive strategies for controlling modifiable factors that are in the path of SARS-CoV-2 infection among older adults living in underserved communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Ecuador , Female , Humans , Latin America , Logistic Models , Male , Population Density , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...