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1.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(6): 589-596, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595790

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has spread like wildfire worldwide and has affected millions of people. The novel corona virus mainly affects the lungs leading to life threatening disease like acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aftermath of the disease in form of pulmonary fibrosis is upcoming cause of further increase in morbidity and mortality. Nintedanib is an oral antifibrotics with proven role in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, however its use in COVID-19 related pulmonary fibrosis has not been studied. We report our early experience of use of nintedanib in COVID-19 related pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory System Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diet therapy , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7327, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585856

ABSTRACT

The global disruption caused by the 2020 coronavirus pandemic stressed the supply chain of many products, including pharmaceuticals. Multiple drug repurposing studies for COVID-19 are now underway. If a winning therapeutic emerges, it is unlikely that the existing inventory of the medicine, or even the chemical raw materials needed to synthesize it, will be available in the quantities required. Here, we utilize retrosynthetic software to arrive at alternate chemical supply chains for the antiviral drug umifenovir, as well as eleven other antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs. We have experimentally validated four routes to umifenovir and one route to bromhexine. In one route to umifenovir the software invokes conversion of six C-H bonds into C-C bonds or functional groups. The strategy we apply of excluding known starting materials from search results can be used to identify distinct starting materials, for instance to relieve stress on existing supply chains.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Indoles/chemistry , Software , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Indoles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 7005-7017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524524

ABSTRACT

The tumor suppressor protein p53 remains in a wild type but inactive form in ~50% of all human cancers. Thus, activating it becomes an attractive approach for targeted cancer therapies. In this regard, our lab has previously discovered a small molecule, Inauhzin (INZ), as a potent p53 activator with no genotoxicity. Method: To improve its efficacy and bioavailability, here we employed nanoparticle encapsulation, making INZ-C, an analog of INZ, to nanoparticle-encapsulated INZ-C (n-INZ-C). Results: This approach significantly improved p53 activation and inhibition of lung and colorectal cancer cell growth by n-INZ-C in vitro and in vivo while it displayed a minimal effect on normal human Wi38 and mouse MEF cells. The improved activity was further corroborated with the enhanced cellular uptake observed in cancer cells and minimal cellular uptake observed in normal cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of these nanoparticles showed that the nanoparticle encapsulation prolongates the half-life of INZ-C from 2.5 h to 5 h in mice. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that we have established a nanoparticle system that could enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of INZ-C as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Indoles/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacokinetics , Indoles/therapeutic use , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Phenothiazines/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacokinetics , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
4.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 815-825, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor is a small-molecule cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator regimen shown to be efficacious in patients with at least one Phe508del allele, which indicates that this combination can modulate a single Phe508del allele. In patients whose other CFTR allele contains a gating or residual function mutation that is already effectively treated with previous CFTR modulators (ivacaftor or tezacaftor-ivacaftor), the potential for additional benefit from restoring Phe508del CFTR protein function is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled trial involving patients 12 years of age or older with cystic fibrosis and Phe508del-gating or Phe508del-residual function genotypes. After a 4-week run-in period with ivacaftor or tezacaftor-ivacaftor, patients were randomly assigned to receive elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor or active control for 8 weeks. The primary end point was the absolute change in the percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) from baseline through week 8 in the elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor group. RESULTS: After the run-in period, 132 patients received elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor and 126 received active control. Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor resulted in a percentage of predicted FEV1 that was higher by 3.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 4.6) relative to baseline and higher by 3.5 percentage points (95% CI, 2.2 to 4.7) relative to active control and a sweat chloride concentration that was lower by 22.3 mmol per liter (95% CI, 20.2 to 24.5) relative to baseline and lower by 23.1 mmol per liter (95% CI, 20.1 to 26.1) relative to active control (P<0.001 for all comparisons). The change from baseline in the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised respiratory domain score (range, 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better quality of life) with elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was 10.3 points (95% CI, 8.0 to 12.7) and with active control was 1.6 points (95% CI, -0.8 to 4.1). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups; adverse events led to treatment discontinuation in one patient (elevated aminotransferase level) in the elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor group and in two patients (anxiety or depression and pulmonary exacerbation) in the active control group. CONCLUSIONS: Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was efficacious and safe in patients with Phe508del-gating or Phe508del-residual function genotypes and conferred additional benefit relative to previous CFTR modulators. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals; VX18-445-104 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04058353.).


Subject(s)
Aminophenols/therapeutic use , Benzodioxoles/therapeutic use , Chloride Channel Agonists/therapeutic use , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aminophenols/adverse effects , Benzodioxoles/adverse effects , Child , Chloride Channel Agonists/adverse effects , Chlorides/analysis , Cystic Fibrosis/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Genotype , Humans , Indoles/adverse effects , Male , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridines/adverse effects , Quinolines/adverse effects , Sweat/chemistry
5.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1263-1277, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365228

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causing the disease COVID-19, spread from Wuhan throughout China and has infected people over 200 countries. Thus far, more than 3,400,000 cases and 240,000 deaths have occurred worldwide, and the coronavirus pandemic continues to grip the globe. While numbers of cases in China have been steadying, the number of infections outside China is increasing at a worrying pace. We face an urgent need to control the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic, which is currently expanding to a global pandemic. Efforts have focused on testing antiviral drugs and vaccines, but there is currently no treatment specifically approved. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is grounded in empirical observations and the Chinese people use TCM to overcome these sorts of plagues many times in thousands of years of history. Currently, the Chinese National Health Commission recommended a TCM prescription of Qing-Fei-Pai-Du-Tang (QFPDT) in the latest version of the "Diagnosis and Treatment guidelines of COVID-19" which has been reported to provide reliable effects for COVID-19. While doubts about TCM still exist today, this review paper will describe the rationalities that QFPDT is likely to bring a safe and effective treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Drug Combinations , Humans , Indoles/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 107969, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307010

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of umifenovir against COVID-19 is controversial; therefore, clinical trials are crucial to evaluate its efficacy. METHODS: The study was conducted as a single-center, randomized, open-label clinical trial. Eligible moderate-severe hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection were randomly segregated into intervention and control groups. The intervention group were treated with lopinavir/ritonavir (400 mg/100 mg bid for 10-14 days) + hydroxychloroquine (400 mg single dose) + interferon-ß1a (Subcutaneous injections of 44 µg (12,000 IU) on days 1, 3, 5) + umifenovir (200 mg trice daily for 10 days), and the control group received lopinavir/ritonavir (same dose) + hydroxychloroquine (same dose) + interferon-ß1a (same dose). RESULTS: Of 1180 patients with positive RT-PCRs and positive chest CT scans, 101 patients were finally included in the trial; 50 were assigned to receive IFNß1a + hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir group and 51 were managed to treat with IFNß1a + hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir + umifenovir. Since all patients received the intended treatment as scheduled, the analysis just included as the ITT population. Time to clinical improvement (TTCI) did not hold a statistically significant difference between intervention and control groups (median, 9 days for intervention group versus 7 days for the control group; P: 0.22). Besides, Hazard Ratio for TTCI in the Cox regression model was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.45-1.23, P:0.25) which also confirmed that there was no statistically significant difference between the treatment group and the control group. The mortality was not statistically significant between the two groups (38% in controls vs 33.3% treatment group). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings shed new lights on the facts that additional umifenovir has not been found to be effective in shortening the duration of SARS-CoV-2 in severe patients and improving the prognosis in non-ICU patients and mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was confirmed by the Ethics in Medical Research Committee of the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. signed informed consents were obtained from all the participants or their legally authorized representatives. This trial has been registered as ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04350684.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Ritonavir/therapeutic use
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 580989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285284

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged around December 2019 and have become a global epidemic disease currently. Specific antibodies against SAS-COV-2 could be detected in COVID-19 patients' serum or plasma, but the clinical values of these antibodies as well as the effects of clinical drugs on humoral responses have not been fully demonstrated. In this study, 112 plasma samples were collected from 36 patients diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. The IgG and IgM antibodies against receptor binding domain (RBD) and spike protein subunit 1 (S1) of SAS-COV-2 were detected by ELISA. We found that COVID-19 patients generated specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 after infection, and the levels of anti-RBD IgG within 2 to 3 weeks from onset were negatively associated with the time of positive-to-negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. Patients with severe symptoms had higher levels of anti-RBD IgG in 2 to 3 weeks from onset. The use of chloroquine did not significantly influence the patients' antibody titer but reduced C-reaction protein (CRP) level. Using anti-viral drugs (lopinavir/ritonavir or arbidol) reduced antibody titer and peripheral lymphocyte count. While glucocorticoid therapy developed lower levels of peripheral lymphocyte count and higher levels of CRP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), α-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase(α-HBDH), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL). From these results, we suggested that the anti-RBD IgG may provide an early protection of host humoral responses against SAS-COV-2 infection within 2 to 3 weeks from onset, and clinical treatment with different drugs displayed distinct roles in humoral and inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(5): 767-775, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284232

ABSTRACT

Despite aggressive efforts on containment measures for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic around the world, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is continuously spreading. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an effective antiviral agent. To date, considerable research has been conducted to develop different approaches to COVID-19 therapy. In addition to early observational studies, which could be limited by study design, small sample size, non-randomized design, or different timings of treatment, an increasing number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the clinical efficacy and safety of antiviral agents are being carried out. This study reviews the updated findings of RCTs regarding the clinical efficacy of eight antiviral agents against COVID-19, including remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, favipiravir, sofosbuvir/daclatasvir, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, baloxavir, umifenovir, darunavir/cobicistat, and their combinations. Treatment with remdesivir could accelerate clinical improvement; however, it lacked additional survival benefits. Moreover, 5-day regimen of remdesivir might show adequate effectiveness in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Favipiravir was only marginally effective regarding clinical improvement and virological assessment based on the results of small RCTs. The present evidence suggests that sofosbuvir/daclatasvir may improve survival and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. However, the sample sizes for analysis were relatively small, and all studies were exclusively conducted in Iran. Further larger RCTs in other countries are warranted to support these findings. In contrast, the present findings of limited RCTs did not indicate the use of lopinavir/ritonavir, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, baloxavir, umifenovir, and darunavir/cobicistat in the treatment of patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/therapeutic use , Carbamates/therapeutic use , Cobicistat/therapeutic use , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Dibenzothiepins/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Indoles/therapeutic use , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Morpholines/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Pyrrolidines/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Triazines/therapeutic use , Valine/analogs & derivatives , Valine/therapeutic use
9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(12): 11224-11237, 2020 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251837

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), Changsha faced an increasing burden of treating the Wuhan migrants and their infected patients. This study is a retrospective, single-center case series of the 238 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 at the First Hospital of Changsha city, China, from 01/21 to 02/14, 2020; the final date of follow-up was 02/27, 2020. Of 238 patients 43.7% visited Wuhan, 58.4% got in touch with Wuhan people, and 47.5% had contacted with diagnosed patients. 37.8% patients had family members infected. 190 cases had mild / general disease, and 48 cases had severe / critical disease. Compared to mild or general patients, more severe or critical patients visited Wuhan (59.6% vs 40.2%; P=0.02) and contacted with Wuhan people (74.5% vs 55.0%; P=0.02). All patients received antiviral treatment, including Lopinavir / Ritonavir (29.3%), Interferon (14.6%) and their combination (40.6%), Arbidol (6.7%), Xuebijing (7.1%) and Chloroquine phosphate (1.3%). Severe and critical patients received glucocorticoid, Gamma-globulin and oxygen inhalation. Some received mechanic ventilation support. As of 02/27, 161 patients discharged. The median length of hospital stay was 13 days. The 10-, 14-, 20- and 28-day discharge rate was 19.1%, 42.8%, 65.0% and 76.4%, respectively. No hospital-related transmission was observed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Indoles/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , gamma-Globulins/therapeutic use
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 481-490, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206788

ABSTRACT

We conducted this systemic review and meta-analysis in an attempt to evaluate the efficacy and safety of umifenovir in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and medRxiv database. We included both retrospective and prospective studies. The mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were applied to assess the effectiveness of umifenovir for COVID-19. A total of 12 studies with 1052 patients were included in our final studies. Compared with control group, umifenovir was associated with higher negative rate of PCR on day 14 (RR:1.27; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.55). However, umifenovir is not related to nucleus acid negative conversion time (MD: 0.09; 95% CI: -1.48 to 1.65), negative rate on day 7 (RR:1.09; 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.31), incidence of composite endpoint (RR:1.20; 95% CI: 0.61 to 2.37), rate of fever alleviation on day 7 (RR:1.00; 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.10), rate of cough alleviation on day 7 (RR:1.00; 95% CI: 0.85 to 1.18), or hospital length of stay (MD: 1.34; 95% CI: -2.08 to 4.76). Additionally, umifenovir was safe in COVID-19 patients (RR for incidence of adverse events: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.57 to 2.92). The results of sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were similar to pooled results. There is no evidence to support the use of umifenovir for improving patient-important outcomes in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1378-1386, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196511

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly swept the world. So far, more than 30 million people have been infected and nearly one million have died. Although the world is still in the stage of COVID-19 pandemic, the treatment of new cases and critically ill patients is the focus of the current work. However, COVID-19 patients lead to pulmonary fibrosis, such a serious threat to the prognosis of complications were also worthy of our attention. First of all, we proposed the possible mechanism of pulmonary fibrosis caused by SARS-CoV-2, based on the published data of COVID-19 ((i) Direct evidence: pulmonary fibrosis was found in autopsy and pulmonary puncture pathology. (ii) Indirect evidence: increased levels of fibrosis-related cytokines[transforming growth factor [TGF]- ß, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]- α, interleukin [IL]-6, etc] in peripheral blood of severe patients.) What is more, we summarized the role of three fibrosis-related signaling pathways (TGF- ß signal pathway, WNT signal pathway and YAP/TAZ signal pathway) in pulmonary fibrosis. Finally, we suggested the therapeutic value of two drugs (pirfenidone and nintedanib) for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19-induced pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Indoles/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Patient Discharge , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 794-802, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was found in the intestines and feces, but its clinical significance is not completely clear. We aim to characterize the longitudinal test results of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in anal swabs and to explore the association with disease severity. METHODS: We included laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, who were hospitalized in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital and excluded those who had not received anal swabs for SARS-COV-2 RNA testing. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained. Throat swabs and anal swabs were collected periodically for SARS-COV-2 RNA detection. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventeen eligible patients (median aged 50 years, 50.2% were females) were analyzed. 21.2% (46/217) of the patients were detected with SARS-CoV-2 RNA in anal swabs. The duration of viral RNA was longer, but the viral load was lower in anal swabs than throat swabs in the early stage of the disease. During a median follow-up of 20 days, 30 (13.8%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for high-flow nasal cannula or higher-level oxygen support measures to correct hypoxemia. Detectable viral RNA in anal swabs (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-5.24), increased C-reactive protein (aHR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.35-7.32) and lymphocytopenia (aHR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.46-6.67) were independently associated with ICU admission. The cumulative incidence of ICU admission was higher among patients with detectable viral RNA in anal swabs (26.3% vs 10.7%, P = .006). CONCLUSION: Detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the digestive tract was a potential warning indicator of severe disease.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Indoles/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lymphopenia/pathology , Lymphopenia/therapy , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Pharynx/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load/drug effects
14.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(3): 3307-3312, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was broken out in December 2019 and soon became a global health emergency. Effective treatment for COVID-19 is urgently needed. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the antiviral effect of Arbidol vs. Chloroquine in treating COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 62 patients with COVID-19 diagnosed according to the guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in China. They were divided into two groups depending on the antiviral drugs that they received. Participants in the Arbidol group (n=42) received 0.2 g Arbidol, tid for 10 days,and those in Chloroquine group (n=20) received 500 mg Chloroquine, bid for 10 days. The coronavirus negative conversion time and the length of hospital stay were analyzed and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups. After antiviral treatment, the nasopharyngeal specimen negative conversion time of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the length of hospital stay in the Arbidol group were significantly shorter than those in the Chloroquine group (18.50 vs. 25.05 days, P=0.001; 23.52 vs. 28.75 days, P=0.001). Adverse events observed during the antiviral treatment period were comparable between the two groups. Overall, 3 (7.14%) participants in the Arbidol group and 4 (20.0%) in the Chloroquine group experienced adverse events during antiviral treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Arbidol is advantageous over Chloroquine in terms of the SARS-CoV-2 negative conversion and the length of hospital stay in treating COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Indoles/therapeutic use , China , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Humans , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies
15.
CEN Case Rep ; 10(4): 494-499, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152139

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection that has received much attention due to its rapid expansion. Currently, it has been revealed that patients with underlying disease, especially those with kidney disease are more prone to develop complications. Some studies associate kidney transplantation as a risk factor for COVID-19 progression; however, epidemiologic data that demonstrate this are amazingly rare. Considering the importance of the topic, we report on six kidney transplant recipients (median age 47 [41-55]) with confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19. The most common admission presentations were fever (83.3%), dyspnea, and myalgia. At baseline, immunosuppressive therapy was ceased, prednisolone dose was increased, and all patients received antiviral treatment including hydroxychloroquine and umifenovir. After a median follow-up of 11.5 days from admission, six patients (100%) developed acute kidney injury (AKI), 50% required intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and two patients (33.3%) deceased as a result of deterioration in respiratory status. Overall, these findings demonstrate that respiratory involvement may be a risk indicator of in-hospital mortality in kidney recipients with COVID-19. In addition, AKI development in kidney recipients with COVID-19 is of utmost importance given the higher AKI occurrence in these patients compared with others. Therefore, more intensive attention should be paid to kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Indoles/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(10): 1219-1244, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132305

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Currently, there is no approved therapeutic entity for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and clinicians are primarily relying on drug repurposing. However, findings across studies are widely disparate, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Since clinicians need accurate evidence to treat COVID-19, this manuscript systematically analyzed the published and ongoing studies evaluating the pharmacological interventions for COVID-19.Areas Covered: A systematic search of observational studies and Clinical Trials on the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 was performed by using various databases from inception to 2 December 2020.Expert Opinion: A total of 460 studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 37 were research studies, 386 were ongoing trials, and 37 were completed trials. Anti-virals, steroids, anti-malarial, plasma exchange, and monoclonal antibodies were the most common treatment modalities used alone or in combination in these studies. However, tocilizumab, plasma exchange, and steroids have shown significant improvements in patient's clinical and radiological status. Tocilizumab reported minimum hospital stay of 2 days along with maximum recovery and patient's stability rate. Existing literature demonstrate promising results of tocilizumab, plasma exchange, and steroids among COVID-19 patients. Nevertheless, these studies are accompanied by several methodological disparities which should be considered while interpreting the results.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Indoles/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Observational Studies as Topic , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
17.
Vopr Virusol ; 66(1): 40-46, 2021 03 07.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120830

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Analysis of the pathogenesis of coronavirus infection caused SARS-CoV-2 indicates a significant impact of hemorheological disorders on its course and outcomes. It is known that chronic cardiovascular diseases are associated with the risk of severe course and lethal outcomes both in COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. Therefore, in each case it is necessary to study the interaction and mutual influence of different components of the treatment program prescribed to such patients.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of coagulation activity on the course of a novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) and to justify the management of comorbid patients having been received novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in previously selected doses according to indications in concomitant somatic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total 76 cases of confirmed coronavirus infection in patients who had been received initial therapy on an outpatient basis were analyzed. 26 patients who received NOACs (rivaroxaban, apixaban, dabigatran) made up the main group and 50 - the comparison (control) group in which patients had not been administered any drugs that affect blood clotting until the episode of COVID-19. All patients have been prescribed therapy following the Provisional guidelines «Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus infection (COVID-19)¼ (https://static-0.minzdrav.gov.ru/system/attachments/attaches/). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The number of hospitalizations was significantly fewer in the group of patients who had been received NOACs (19 vs. 66% in the control group). No deaths or cases of severe respiratory and/or renal failure were observed in the main group, while adverse outcomes were noted in 14% of patients who had not been administered these drugs. CONCLUSION: Taking NOACs reduces the probability of severe course and adverse outcomes in the development of coronavirus infection caused by SARS-CoV-2, which indicates a significant contribution of coagulation mechanisms to the pathogenesis in COVID-19. There were no indications for drug replacement and correction of anticoagulant therapy regimens in patients who received adequate therapy with oral anticoagulants for treating a non-severe form of coronavirus infection in ambulatory patient settings.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/drug therapy , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/mortality , Atrial Fibrillation/virology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/virology , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Indoles/therapeutic use , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/diagnosis , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/mortality , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
18.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088959

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a lung disease that may progress to systemic organ involvement and in some cases, death. The identification of the earliest predictors of progressive lung disease would allow for therapeutic intervention in those cases. In an earlier clinical study, individuals with moderate COVID-19 were treated with either arbidol (ARB) or inhaled interferon (IFN)-α2b +/-ARB. IFN treatment resulted in accelerated viral clearance from the upper airways and in a reduction in the circulating levels of the inflammatory biomarkers IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). We have extended the analysis of this study cohort to determine whether IFN treatment had a direct effect on virus-induced lung abnormalities and also to ascertain whether any clinical or immune parameters are associated with worsening of lung abnormalities. Evidence is provided that IFN-α2b treatment limits the development of lung abnormalities associated with COVID-19, as assessed by CT images. Clinical predictors associated with worsening of lung abnormalities include low CD8+ T cell numbers, low levels of circulating albumin, high numbers of platelets, and higher levels of circulating interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Notably, in this study cohort, IFN treatment resulted in a higher percentage of CD8+ T cells, lower tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels and, as reported earlier, lower IL-6 levels. Independent of treatment, age and circulating levels of albumin and CRP emerged as the strongest predictors of the severity of lung abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Lung/abnormalities , Administration, Inhalation , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/physiopathology , China , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Indoles/administration & dosage , Indoles/therapeutic use , Interferon alpha-2 , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4446-4453, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064383

ABSTRACT

This study aims to comparatively analyze the therapeutic efficacy upon multiple medication plans over lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), arbidol (ARB), and methylprednisolone on patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Totally, 75 COVID-19 patients admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 22, 2020 to February 29, 2020 were recruited and grouped based on whether or not LPV/r and ARB were jointly used and whether or not methylprednisolone was used. Indexes including body temperature, time for nucleic acid negative conversion, hospital stays, and laboratory indexes were examined and compared. For all patients, there were no significant differences in the change of body temperature, the time for negative conversion, and hospital stays whether LPV/r and ARB were jointly used or not. While for severe and critically severe patients, methylprednisolone noticeably reduced the time for negative conversion. Meanwhile, the clinical efficacy was superior on patients receiving methylprednisolone within 3 days upon admission, and the duration of hospital stays was much shorter when methylprednisolone was given at a total dose of 0-400 mg than a higher dose of >400 mg if all patients received a similar dose per day. Nonetheless, no significant changes across hepatic, renal, and myocardial function indexes were observed. LPV/r combined with ARB produced no noticeably better effect on COVID-19 patients relative to the single-agent treatment. Additionally, methylprednisolone was efficient in severe and critically severe cases, and superior efficacy could be realized upon its early, appropriate, and short-term application.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , China , Drug Combinations , Female , Fever/drug therapy , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
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