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1.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 9(4): 978-989, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594125

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Faced with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, governments worldwide instituted lockdowns to curtail virus spread. Health facility closures and travel restrictions disrupted access to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for people living with HIV. This report describes how HIV programs in Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, and Nigeria supported treatment continuation by introducing home delivery of ARVs. METHODS: Staff supporting the programs provided accounts of when and how decisions were taken to support ARV home delivery. They captured programmatic information about home delivery implementation using an intervention documentation tool. The 4 country experiences revealed lessons learned about factors favoring successful expansion of ARV home delivery. RESULTS: Three of the countries relied on existing networks of community health workers for ARV delivery; the fourth country, Indonesia, relied on a private sector courier service. Across the 4 countries, between 19% and 51% of eligible clients were served by home delivery. The experiences showed that ARV home delivery is feasible and acceptable to health service providers, clients, and other stakeholders. Essential to success was rapid mobilization of stakeholders who led the design of the home delivery mechanisms and provided leadership support of the service innovations. Timely service adaptation was made possible by pre-existing differentiated models of care supportive of community-based ARV provision by outreach workers. Home delivery models prioritized protection of client confidentiality and prevention measures for COVID-19. Sustainability of the innovation depends on reinforcement of the commodity management infrastructure and investment in financing mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Home delivery of ARVs is a feasible client-centered approach to be included among the options for decentralized drug distribution. It serves as a measure for expanding access to care both when access to health services is disrupted and under routine circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Communicable Disease Control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Indonesia , Laos , Nepal , Nigeria , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Gac Sanit ; 35 Suppl 2: S463-S467, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This research was exploring the activities undertaken and compliance of the COVID-19 prevention protocols among adolescents in the period of adapting new habits. METHODS: This research was a study of prevalence through online surveys among adolescents (12-25 years). There were 190 participants, used probabilistic sampling. Data was collected between 20th-24th June 2020. RESULT: We found it very small that did the domestic and general activities with not comply (0-8%), except family gatherings (14%). The transportation activities were not carried out by most participants who did contact with others, they perform by riding with their own motorbikes alone (80%) did comply. One-third of participants did dine outside, those who did not comply were those who buy/receive food or goods without leaving home (4-7%). Sport, health, and entertainment activities mostly (75%-93%) were not carried out, unless the sport was mostly performed well (82%). CONCLUSION: Adolescents in the COVID-19 pandemic at the beginning of the new habit adaptation largely restrict/did not perform outdoor activities. Those who were conducting their activities implemented prevention protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Habits , Humans , Indonesia , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E598-E604, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574398

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a global pandemic since March 2020. Undergraduate medical students were encouraged to educate Indonesian society about COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Indonesian students on COVID-19 prevention. Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted online between August 22 and September 2, 2020, with a minimum sample size of 1,068 subjects. The questionnaire was sent to 86 Faculty of Medicine (FoM) in Indonesia. The questionnaire consisted of knowledge, attitude, and practice section, with the scores above median were considered as sufficient knowledge, positive attitude, and positive practice. Association between knowledge, attitude, and practice, which were dependent variables, with gender, year of study, location of FoM, and source of information, which were independent variables, were tested using Chi-Square Test. Correlation among knowledge, attitude, and practice scores was tested using Spearman Rank Test. Results: Among 1,390 participated students, 51.4, 55.7, and 56.3% had sufficient knowledge, positive attitude, and, positive practice, respectively. There were associations between knowledge and gender (p = 0.005), year of study (p = 0.000), location of FoM (p=0.000), and source of information (p = 0.000); between attitude and gender (p = 0.022), year of study (p = 0.004), and source of information (p = 0.015); and between practice and gender (p = 0.000) and source of information (p = 0.000). There were weak correlations between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.246, p<0.001); and between attitude and practice (r = 0.272, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Half of Indonesian medical students showed sufficient knowledge, positive attitude, and positive practice on COVID-19 prevention. Hence, improvement towards COVID-19 prevention is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Indonesia , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1864, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Socio-behavioural adaptations during the COVID-19 pandemic may have significantly affected adolescents' lifestyle. This study aimed to explore possible reasons affecting changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Indonesian adolescents during the pandemic based on mothers' perspectives. METHODS: We recruited parents (n = 20) from the Yogyakarta region of Indonesia (July-August 2020) using purposive and snowball sampling. Individual interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and anonymised. Data were imported into NVivo software for a reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The interviews lasted between 38 and 113 min (M = 65 min). Participants' age ranged between 36 and 54 years (M = 42.6 years). Participants' children ranged in age from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.7 years, female: 9, male: 11). Themes related to changes in physical activity during the pandemic were 1) self-determination and enjoyment, 2) supports from others, and 3) physical activity facilities and equipment. Themes related to changes in sedentary behaviour during the pandemic included 1) educational demands, 2) psychological effects due to the pandemic, 3) devices and internet availability, 4) parental control, and 5) social facilitators. CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, mothers perceived their children to be less active and using more screen-based devices, either for educational or recreational purposes, compared to before. The present themes might be useful when developing interventions and policies promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour in adolescents. Interventions could, for example, consider increasing parents' and adolescents' awareness on current activity guidelines, providing education on healthier recreational screen time, and involving parents, peers, and teachers. Increasing the accessibility of physical activity facilities and equipment, making use of adolescents' favourite program and social media for interventions, and providing activities that are fun and enjoyable may also important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Exercise , Female , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mothers , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior
5.
Work ; 70(2): 365-376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dentistry is one of the highest risk occupations that face COVID-19, especially in countries that are severely affected by the pandemic, such as Indonesia. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine factors influencing job satisfaction among dentists during the new normal of COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia by utilizing the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. METHODS: A total of 310 Indonesian dentists voluntary completed an online questionnaire, which contained 58 questions. Several latent variables such as perceived severity of COVID-19, staff cooperation and management commitment, personal protective equipment, job stress, working hours, income, and overall job satisfaction were analyzed simultaneously. RESULTS: SEM revealed perceived severity of COVID-19 had significant effects on job stress (ß:0.394, p = 0.025) and the utilization of personal protective equipment (ß:0.757, p = 0.001). Subsequently, job stress (ß:-0.286, p = 0.001), working hours (ß:0.278, p = 0.018), income (ß:0.273, p = 0.003), personal protective equipment (ß:0.145, p = 0.038), and staff cooperation & management commitment (ß:0.091, p = 0.002) were found to have significant effects on overall job satisfaction. In addition, management & staff cooperation was found to have a significant association with job stress reduction (ß:-0.319, p = 0.003) which subsequently led to higher satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The current study is one of the first that analyzed job satisfaction among dentists in Indonesia during the global COVID-19 pandemic. The integrated latent variables can be applied and extended to evaluate job satisfaction among dentists during the COVID-19 pandemic in other countries. Finally, this study contributed as a theoretical foundation for policymakers to enhance the job satisfaction of dentists during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Dentists , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Job Satisfaction , Latent Class Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 564, 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019, has become a global pandemic. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for coronavirus disease 2019. Convalescent plasma therapy has become a potential specific curative method, while vaccines as protection modalities require further work. CASE PRESENTATION: Eight non-intubated Indonesian patients, ages ranging from 40 to 74 years old, with coronavirus disease 2019 confirmed by viral Ribonucleid Acid (RNA) real-time polymerase chain reaction tests were included. Four patients were administered two doses of 200 mL convalescent plasma, and the other four patients were administered one dose of convalescent plasma with an antibody titer of 1:320, within the first 14 days since symptoms occurred. The median times from illness onset to convalescent plasma therapy and from the first day of hospital admission to convalescent plasma therapy were 13 and 6.5 days, respectively. All patients showed improvements in clinical symptoms, laboratory parameters, thorax imaging, negative conversion of polymerase chain reaction results, and decreased oxygen supplementation within 1 week after convalescent plasma therapy. Patients with two convalescent plasma doses tended to have faster recovery than those with one convalescent plasma dose. No severe adverse effects were observed in any patient. CONCLUSION: This is the first case series in Indonesia showing that convalescent plasma therapy is safe and well tolerated and that early convalescent plasma therapy before the patient is intubated could potentially prevent disease progression, increase the recovery rate, and shorten the inpatient time of stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Indonesia , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Int Med Res ; 49(11): 3000605211059939, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy and inflammation are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. This study assessed D-dimer concentration and its correlation with inflammatory markers and COVID-19 severity. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 194 COVID-19 cases, with the severity of infection graded in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. We measured D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin on admission and determined the cutoff values for D-dimer and CRP and evaluated the correlation between D-dimer and CRP and ferritin. RESULTS: Median D-dimer, CRP, and ferritin concentrations were 2240 µg/L, 73.2 mg/L, and 1173.8 µg/mL, respectively. The highest median D-dimer value was seen in mild and moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The highest ferritin concentration was seen in severe ARDS. There was a significant correlation between D-dimer value and CRP (r = 0.327), but no significant correlation between D-dimer and ferritin (r = 0.101). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the combination of CRP ≥72.65 mg/L and D-dimer ≥1250 µg/L as a marker of COVID-19 severity was 0.722 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.615-0.781). CONCLUSION: The combination of CRP ≥72.65 mg/L and D-dimer ≥1250 µg/L can be used as marker of COVID-19 severity, with moderate accuracy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hospitals , Humans , Indonesia , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2102, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the prevalence and associated adverse health consequences of negative body image among adolescents globally, there is a need to develop acceptable, effective, and scalable interventions. School-based body image interventions delivered by trained teachers show promise in reducing negative body image in adolescents. However, there is currently a lack of evidenced-based body image interventions for use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This paper outlines a protocol for the development and evaluation of Dove Confident Me Indonesia: Single Session, a single-session, teacher-led body image intervention for Indonesian adolescents. METHOD: The effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the trial will be conducted online. Trained teachers or school guidance counsellors will deliver the intervention. Self-report questionnaires will be collected at three time points: baseline, post-intervention, and two-month follow-up. The primary outcome is body esteem. Secondary outcomes are internalisation of appearance ideals, mood, engagement in life activities, tendency to engage in appearance comparisons, and skin shade satisfaction. A minimum of 1000 participants will provide 95% power to detect small-to-medium intervention effects. To account for attrition and potential internet issues, the sample will comprise of 2000 Indonesian adolescents in grades 7-9, attending state junior high schools in Surabaya, East Java. Quantitative and qualitative data on acceptability of the intervention will also be collected from teachers and students. Additionally, fidelity of lesson implementation will be assessed. This project received ethical approval from the Universitas Indonesia and the University of the West of England. The intervention will be disseminated in junior high schools throughout Indonesia via UNICEF's Life Skills Education (LSE) programme, which will be freely available for teachers to download. DISCUSSION: This paper presents Dove Confident Me Indonesia: Single Session, a culturally adapted school-based intervention designed to improve Indonesian adolescents' body image. It details the plan for evaluation, highlighting the strengths and limitations of the proposed study design. It will be informative for others aiming to adapt evidence-based school curricula to promote well-being among adolescents in LMICs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04665557 . Registered 11th December 2020.


Subject(s)
Body Image , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Humans , Indonesia , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , School Health Services , Schools
9.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1896-1904, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 disease has overwhelmed and disrupted healthcare services worldwide, particularly healthcare workers (HCW). HCW are essential workers performing any job in a healthcare setting who are potentially directly or indirectly exposed to infectious materials. Our retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the prevalence of COVID-19 infections among HCW in Jakarta and neighbouring areas during the first three months of the pandemic. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab specimens from HCW working at private and public hospitals in Jakarta and neighbouring areas were screened for SARS-CoV-2 between March and May 2020. Data on demography, clinical symptoms, contact history, and personal protective equipment (PPE) use were collected using standardised forms. RESULTS: Among 1201 specimens, 7.9% were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 with the majority coming from medical doctors (48.4%) and nurses (44.2%). 64.2% of the positive cases reported to have contact with suspect/confirmed COVID-19 cases, including 32 (52.2%) with patient and 3 (6.6%) with co-worker. The symptomatic HCW had a significantly lower median Ct value as compared to their asymptomatic counterpart (p < .001). Tendency to have a higher prevalence of pneumonia was observed in the age group of 40 - 49 and ≥50 years old. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlighted the necessity to implement proper preventive and surveillance strategies for this high-risk population including adherence to strict PPE protocol and appropriate training.Key MessageHealthcare workers (HCW), defined as those handling any job in a healthcare setting, are at the frontline of risk of infection as SARS-CoV-2 is easily transmitted through airborne droplets and direct contact with contaminated surfaces. The aim of our study is to attain a more comprehensive and accurate picture of the impact of COVID-19 on HCW during the earlier phase of the outbreak in Indonesia to develop effective strategies that protect the health and safety of this workforce. Our findings highlighted that COVID-19 infections in HCW were mostly acquired in healthcare settings, with significant consequences of pneumonia and hospitalisation occurring across all age groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512283

ABSTRACT

Medical curricula need to prepare doctors for emerging health issues and increased public health roles. With medical schools spread over a vast geographical region of Indonesia, ensuring that all schools meet appropriate standards in the quality of subjects, course delivery, and performance is challenging. This paper explores the inclusion of public health subjects in medical education across the country. A search of all subjects (n = 388) who were taught in 28 representative medical schools was undertaken and categorized by geographical region, accreditation grade, and according to the Indonesian National Standard of Medical Competency. Basic biomedicine subjects had the highest representation in the curricula (49.2 ± 8.7%) and public health was generally well represented (14.3 ± 5.0%). All medical schools complied with the minimum of 144 credits required for the bachelor stage. No statistically significant difference was found between school accreditation grades, or when an overall comparison of programs in Eastern and Western regions was undertaken. The Indonesian medical schools included have relatively good curriculum transparency, and public health is an important feature in their curricula. Further research is critical to identify the materials taught, the relevance and the applicability of the specific public health content, and the assessment of public health competency of graduates.


Subject(s)
Students, Medical , Curriculum , Humans , Indonesia , Public Health , Schools, Medical
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 731459, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506905

ABSTRACT

Community perceptions of early-stage pandemics may have significant implications for subsequent disease control and management. Perceptions of COVID-19 among Indonesian citizens were assessed 2 months after the first reported case in the country. The study used an online survey tool, which was adapted from a standardized questionnaire for risk perception of an infectious disease outbreak. The questions of the survey involved respondents' perceived level of knowledge, preparedness, efficacy of control measures, newness, infectiousness, seriousness, motivating and hindering factors, and effectiveness of prevention methods, as well as questions that assessed actual level of knowledge of respondents such as causative agents, modes of transmission, number of total cases, and available control measures. A total of 1,043 respondents participated in this study. The main sources of information of respondents were social media (85.2%) and online news (82.2%). Nearly all respondents were aware that COVID-19 is a viral disease with saliva droplets (97.1%) and contaminated surfaces (86.5%) being its main modes of transmission. Participants showed a good level of knowledge pertaining to control measures, an adequate level of belief toward their efficacy, and a willingness to implement such measures. More than 95% of the respondents perceived COVID-19 to be either serious or very serious. However, the level of anxiety among respondents was moderate, suggesting the presence of risk tolerance in the community. Individual characteristics such as gender, educational background, and occupation were found to have a statistically significant relationship with risk perception and tolerance, but voluntary participation in control measures was high and similar. This indicates that the COVID-19 health campaign during early pandemic in Indonesia was a success. This research also revealed certain areas where health promotion, education, and awareness might be improved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Health Secur ; 19(5): 521-531, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500966

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on health, society, and the economy globally and in Indonesia. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the use of intra-action reviews (IARs) to identify best practices, gaps, and lessons learned to make real-time improvements to the COVID-19 response. The Emergency Committee of the International Health Regulations (2005) has recommended that countries share COVID-19 best practices and lessons learned with peer countries through IARs. Using WHO-established methodology, we conducted the first IAR of Indonesia's COVID-19 response from January through August 2020. The review covered 10 thematic areas (pillars): (1) command and coordination; (2) operational support and logistics; (3) surveillance, rapid response teams, risk assessment, and field investigation; (4) laboratories; (5) case management; (6) infection prevention and control; (7) risk communication and community empowerment; (8) points of entry, international travel, and transportation; (9) large-scale social restrictions; and (10) maintaining essential health services and systems. We held focus group discussions with a variety of stakeholders from a range of government departments, provincial health offices, and nongovernmental organizations. We used the results of the focus group discussions and other key findings from the IAR to formulate recommendations. The IAR identified key areas for improvement at national and subnational levels across all 10 pillars. Priority recommendations included improving multisectoral coordination and monitoring of COVID-19 response plan indicators; strengthening implementation of public health response measures, including case detection, isolation, infection prevention and control, contact tracing, and quarantine; and improving data collection, analysis, and reporting to inform public health risk assessment and response. The IAR is a useful tool for reviewing progress and identifying areas to improve the COVID-19 response in real time and provides a means to share information on areas of need with COVID-19 response partners and contributes to International Health Regulations (2005) core capacity development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Indonesia , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502437

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are expected to have a high level of awareness when it comes to checking their fetal health and ensuring their welfare. This study explored the experiences of pregnant women in Indonesia who were monitoring their fetal wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic. A qualitativedescriptive study design with a constructivist paradigm was used. Twenty-two pregnant women were recruited and participated in a semi-structured interview. Analysis of the transcribed interviews used a content, thematic and comparative process. Three themes emerged from the analysis: feelingsand responses, changes to the ante natal care service during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the fetal wellbeing monitoring, tools, and methods used. Advice on how pregnant women should conduct fetal wellbeing monitoring during COVID-19 is urgently needed. The results of this study indicate there is a need for interventions to help pregnant women carry out self-fetal wellbeing monitoring in times where they have fewer contacts with health professionals such as during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Female , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(1): 34-44, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) accounts for a large burden of illness in Indonesia. However, epidemiology of SARI in tertiary hospitals in Indonesia is unknown. This study sought to assess the burden, clinical characteristics, and etiologies of SARI and concordance of clinical diagnosis with confirmed etiology. METHODS: Data and samples were collected from subjects presenting with SARI as part of the acute febrile Illness requiring hospitalization study (AFIRE). In tertiary hospitals, clinical diagnosis was ascertained from chart review. Samples were analyzed to determine the "true" etiology of SARI at hospitals and Indonesia Research Partnership on Infectious Diseases (INA-RESPOND) laboratory. Distribution and characteristics of SARI by true etiology and accuracy of clinical diagnosis were assessed. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty of 1464 AFIRE subjects presented with SARI; etiology was identified in 242 (57.6%), including 121 (28.8%) viruses and bacteria associated with systemic infections, 70 (16.7%) respiratory bacteria and viruses other than influenza virus, and 51 (12.1%) influenza virus cases. None of these influenza patients were accurately diagnosed as having influenza during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza was misdiagnosed among all patients presenting with SARI to Indonesian tertiary hospitals in the AFIRE study. Diagnostic approaches and empiric management should be guided by known epidemiology. Public health strategies to address the high burden of influenza should include broad implementation of SARI screening, vaccination programs, clinician education and awareness campaigns, improved diagnostic capacity, and support for effective point-of-care tests.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Tract Infections , Diagnostic Errors , Hospitalization , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Infant , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21352, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493207

ABSTRACT

The outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection is determined by multiple factors, including the viral, host genetics, age, and comorbidities. This study investigated the association between prognostic factors and disease outcomes of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 with multiple S protein mutations. Fifty-one COVID-19 patients were recruited in this study. Whole-genome sequencing of 170 full-genomes of SARS-CoV-2 was conducted with the Illumina MiSeq sequencer. Most patients (47%) had mild symptoms of COVID-19 followed by moderate (19.6%), no symptoms (13.7%), severe (4%), and critical (2%). Mortality was found in 13.7% of the COVID-19 patients. There was a significant difference between the age of hospitalized patients (53.4 ± 18 years) and the age of non-hospitalized patients (34.6 ± 19) (p = 0.001). The patients' hospitalization was strongly associated with hypertension, diabetes, and anticoagulant and were strongly significant with the OR of 17 (95% CI 2-144; p = 0.001), 4.47 (95% CI 1.07-18.58; p = 0.039), and 27.97 (95% CI 1.54-507.13; p = 0.02), respectively; while the patients' mortality was significantly correlated with patients' age, anticoagulant, steroid, and diabetes, with OR of 8.44 (95% CI 1.5-47.49; p = 0.016), 46.8 (95% CI 4.63-472.77; p = 0.001), 15.75 (95% CI 2-123.86; p = 0.009), and 8.5 (95% CI 1.43-50.66; p = 0.019), respectively. This study found the clade: L (2%), GH (84.3%), GR (11.7%), and O (2%). Besides the D614G mutation, we found L5F (18.8%), V213A (18.8%), and S689R (8.3%). No significant association between multiple S protein mutations and the patients' hospitalization or mortality. Multivariate analysis revealed that hypertension and anticoagulant were the significant factors influencing the hospitalization and mortality of patients with COVID-19 with an OR of 17.06 (95% CI 2.02-144.36; p = 0.009) and 46.8 (95% CI 4.63-472.77; p = 0.001), respectively. Moreover, the multiple S protein mutations almost reached a strong association with patients' hospitalization (p = 0.07). We concluded that hypertension and anticoagulant therapy have a significant impact on COVID-19 outcomes. This study also suggests that multiple S protein mutations may impact the COVID-19 outcomes. This further emphasized the significance of monitoring SARS-CoV-2 variants through genomic surveillance, particularly those that may impact the COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Hospitalization , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , Young Adult
16.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(10): 1320-1327, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: World Health Organization has reported fifty countries have now detected the new coronavirus (B.1.1.7 variant) since a couple of months ago. In Indonesia, the B.1.1.7 cases have been found in several provinces since January 2021, although they are still in a lower number than the old variant of COVID-19. Therefore, this study aims to create a forecast analysis regarding the occasions of COVID-19 and B.1.1.7 cases based on data from the 1st January to 18th March 2021, and also analyze the association between meteorological factors with B.1.1.7 incidences in three different provinces of Indonesia such as the West Java, South Sumatra and East Kalimantan. METHODS: We used the Autoregressive Moving Average Models (ARIMA) to forecast the number of cases in the upcoming 14 days and the Spearman correlation analysis to analyze the relationship between B.1.1.7 cases and meteorological variables such as temperature, humidity, rainfall, sunshine, and wind speed. RESULTS: The results of the study showed the fitted ARIMA models forecasted there was an increase in the daily cases in three provinces. The total cases in three provinces would increase by 36% (West Java), 13.5% (South Sumatra), and 30% (East Kalimantan) as compared with actual cases until the end of 14 days later. The temperature, rainfall and sunshine factors were the main contributors for B.1.1.7 cases with each correlation coefficients; r = -0.230; p < 0.05, r = 0.211; p < 0.05 and r = -0.418; p < 0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We recapitulated that this investigation was the first preliminary study to analyze a short-term forecast regarding COVID-19 and B.1.1.7 cases as well as to determine the associated meteorological factors that become primary contributors to the virus spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Weather , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Humidity , Indonesia/epidemiology , Meteorological Concepts
17.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1281-1285, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478142

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic influences the spirituality and mental health of individuals. It also has caused a global economic recession. COVID-19 is easily transmitted and causes death. Consequently, severe prevention and control measures of COVID 19 are required in this situation. This study aims to analyze the relationship between anxiety, stigma, religiosity, economic conditions, and the prevention of COVID-19. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was designed. The data collection was taken through online surveys. The population in this study is ninety-two lecturers from the College of Health Sciences and the State Islamic Institute who were chosen using a non-probability snowball sampling technique. Data analysis used logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that there was a relationship between anxiety (p = 0.001), stigma (p = 0.008), religiosity (p = 0.005) and the efforts to prevent COVID-19, while economic conditions (p = 0.882) were not related to the preventive efforts. The results of multivariate analysis indicated that the most influential variable affecting COVID-19 preventions was the level of anxiety, with an Odds Ratio of 4.9. CONCLUSIONS: There was a relationship between anxiety, stigma, religiosity, and COVID-19 preventions, while there was no relationship between economic conditions and COVID-19 preventions. The most influencing variable was anxiety. Respondents must be able to manage anxiety levels related to COVID-19 with good coping strategies.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Faculty , Social Stigma , Spirituality , Adult , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Islam , Male , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471002

ABSTRACT

West Java Health Laboratory (WJHL) is one of the many institutions in Indonesia that have sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genome. Although having submitted a large number of sequences since September 2020, however, these submitted data lack advanced analyses. Therefore, in this study, we analyze the variant distribution, hotspot mutation, and its impact on protein structure and function of SARS-CoV-2 from the collected samples from WJHL. As many as one hundred sixty-three SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences submitted by West Java Health Laboratory (WJHL), with collection dates between September 2020 and June 2021, were retrieved from GISAID. Subsequently, the frequency and distribution of non-synonymous mutations across different cities and regencies from these samples were analyzed. The effect of the most prevalent mutations from dominant variants on the stability of their corresponding proteins was examined. The samples mostly consisted of people of working-age, and were distributed between female and male equally. All of the sample sequences showed varying levels of diversity, especially samples from West Bandung which carried the highest diversity. Dominant variants are the VOC B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant, B.1.466.2 variant, and B.1.470 variant. The genomic regions with the highest number of mutations are the spike, NSP3, nucleocapsid, NSP12, and ORF3a protein. Mutation analysis showed that mutations in structural protein might increase the stability of the protein. Oppositely, mutations in non-structural protein might lead to a decrease in protein stability. However, further research to study the impact of mutations on the function of SARS-CoV-2 proteins are required.


Subject(s)
Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Disease Hotspot , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mutation/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Protein Stability , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 755047, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470775

ABSTRACT

This paper analyses the stochastic dynamics of the COVID-19 Case-Fatality Ratios (CFR) in three developing economies in East Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The sample covers the daily frequency data from April 28, 2020, to June 29, 2021. For this purpose, we utilize two unit root tests, which consider one structural break and two structural breaks. The findings reveal that the CFR follows a unit root process in Indonesia and the Philippines. However, the CFR is stationary in Malaysia. This evidence indicates that the COVID-19 has a permanent effect in Indonesia and the Philippines but temporary in Malaysia. The paper also discusses the potential economic implications of these results for the post-COVID-19 era in the related developing economies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developing Countries , Humans , Indonesia , Malaysia/epidemiology , Philippines , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 22(1): 58, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468104

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) caused by Novel Coronavirus named as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was declared Pandemic by The World Health Organization (WHO) and a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on January 30, 2020. Many COVID-19 vaccines have been developed, including CoronaVac vaccines by Sinovac. Health care workers, along with medical clerkship students are the priority to receive the vaccine. However, the Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) of the CoronaVac remains unclear. This study aims to describe and analyze the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) of COVID-19 vaccination in medical students in clerkship programs. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire to assess AEFI after CoronaVac vaccination among medical clerkship students. A Chi-Square test with 95 % of CI was used to determine whether gender correlated with symptoms of AEFI. RESULT: We identified 144 medical clerkship students. The most common AEFI of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations was localized pain in the injection site during the first dose with 25 (45 %) reports and the booster dose with 34 (67 %) reports. Then followed by malaise, the first dose with 20 (36 %) reports and the booster dose with 21 (41 %) reports. Other symptoms like headache, fever, shivering, sleepiness, nausea, dysphagia, and cold were also reported. CONCLUSIONS: CoronaVac SARS-COV-2 vaccine has several mild symptoms of AEFI and not correlated with gender. Nevertheless, follow-up after vaccination is needed to prevent immunologic responses that may occur in some patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Apathy , Clinical Clerkship , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Indonesia , Injections/adverse effects , Male , Pain/etiology , Sex Factors , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
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