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1.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 333, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abortion is highly restricted in Indonesia; self-administered misoprostol can safely induce an abortion. Brick and mortar pharmacies, a common place to purchase misoprostol off-label in other parts of the world, are monitored closely by the government authority in Indonesia which controls drugs so that they cannot function outside the law without risking arrest and prosecution. An online marketplace has sprung up in response that sells misoprostol through in-country distributors. Such procurement offers a level of safety and anonymity to the buyer and seller. So as to understand online access to misoprostol, we created a protocol to identify the most visible universe of sellers. METHODS: We carried out a mystery client methodology to replicate the experiences of women procuring misoprostol online. Our study consisted of five stages: (1) identify the universe of online sellers using the most common search terms, drawn from multiple platforms to capture diversity in interactions as well as products sold (2) remove duplicates across sites as determined by their telephone numbers (3) draw a roughly probability proportional to size sample (4) contact sellers as mystery clients through text/chat, depending on the platform, and engage with them and (5) attempt to purchase drugs offered by the seller. Descriptive statistics are presented. RESULTS: The listing generated 727 sites: 441 websites, 153 marketplace sellers, and 133 Instagram profiles. After removing duplicate listings, we identified 281 unique sellers. We selected all sellers with greater than 12 listings, 60% of sellers with 4-12 listings, 50% of sellers with 2-3 listings, and 40% of sellers with only one listing. Mystery clients were able to send initial messages to 110 sellers, of which 16 never responded. The interaction progressed to purchasing misoprostol with 76 sellers, 64 of whom sent drugs. CONCLUSIONS: As women seek to terminate unwanted pregnancies in legally restrictive settings, online sales of misoprostol must be considered. With the Covid pandemic constraining movement, the importance of this way of procuring misoprostol will likely become more appealing. Understanding this unregulated landscape is important if we are to try to improve women's ability to safely conduct an abortion in highly restrictive settings.


Subject(s)
Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal , Abortion, Induced , COVID-19 , Misoprostol , Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal/therapeutic use , Abortion, Induced/methods , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Pregnancy
2.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 35(12): 1-6, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135598

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Patients who are critically ill with COVID-19 need ventilation support in the ICU. However, ICU patients are at higher risk of developing a pressure injury (PI). Unfortunately, PI prevention is not optimally implemented in Indonesia, especially in the makeshift hospitals created during the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, the authors report two cases of critically ill patients with COVID-19 who developed large sacral PIs during hospitalization in a makeshift hospital in Indonesia. The first patient developed a stage 3, 7 × 7-cm sacral PI on the 14th day of hospitalization. The second patient developed a stage 4, 12 × 8-cm sacral PI on the 16th day of hospitalization. Both patients had elevated d-dimer levels and used a noninvasive ventilator for 1 week. The wounds were treated with surgical debridement, silver hydrogel dressing, and hydrocolloid dressing and complemented with static air mattress overlay. The authors recommend that in situations where there is a shortage of healthcare workers, the government should provide pressure-redistribution devices and silicone foam dressings for all critically ill patients to prevent PI development and lighten the workload of healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , Humans , Critical Illness/therapy , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control , Indonesia , Pandemics , Hospitals
3.
Enferm Clin ; 32(6): 376-384, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130748

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 vaccination program campaign has been underway in Indonesia for people aged ≥ 18 years. The program's success can be hampered by vaccine hesitancy in communities. This study aims to elucidate the determinants of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy in a rural area of the Indonesia-Philippines border island Sangihe. Methods: A mixed-methods study was conducted; a quantitative part involving a cross-sectional survey was carried out among participantes aged ≥ 18 years to determine the prevalence and determinants of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy. The qualitative part involved in-depth interviews to explore the perceptions towards the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Result: Among 557 participantes, the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy was 63.9% (95% CI: 59.8-67.9). In the adjusted analysis, three factors affected vaccine hesitancy: education (aOR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.22-0.70), knowledge of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (aOR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.41-3.34) and willingness to pay (aOR: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.20). The majority of reasons for refusing the vaccine included doubt regarding its safety and effectiveness, the fear of side effects, lack of information regarding the vaccine and local Christians' religious beliefs. Conclusion: This study found that most adults in the area were hesitant about the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Lack of knowledge, a low level of education and misinformation were factors that greatly affected vaccination hesitancy. The government, by involving religious leaders, is expected to pay serious attention to the dissemination of accurate and convincing information to the public regarding the safety and importance of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Hesitancy , Indonesia , Philippines , COVID-19/prevention & control
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 957630, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119698

ABSTRACT

Objective: This research aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice toward COVID-19 among East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) population and identify associated sociodemographic factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed among communities in 22 regencies of NTT between October-November 2021 using a structured and validated questionnaire that consists of 22-items of knowledge, 6-items of attitude and 13-items of practice related COVID-19 questions. A cut off point of at least 70% was employed to categorize good knowledge, attitude, and practice. Results: The percentages of survey respondents showing good knowledge, attitude and practice toward COVID-19 were 79.8, 72.7, and 94.6%, respectively. There was a significant positive, though weak, linear correlation between knowledge and practice scores (ρ = 0.097; p = 0.049). Knowledge was strongly associated with regency of residence (Cramer's V = 0.266; p = 0.010), education (Cramer's V = 0.312; p < 0.001), and occupation (Cramer's V = 0.313; p < 0.001). Attitude and practice had strong relationship with regency of residence (Cramer's V = 0.289; p = 0.024) and education (Cramer's V = 0.272; p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Nearly all survey participants showed good precautionary behaviors, but there was still a quarter of respondents indicated poor knowledge and attitude. There was also a positive relationship between knowledge and practice scores thereby indicating the importance of local public health advocates to distribute information uniformly especially to the groups with inadequate knowledge toward COVID-19 as a means to control the virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Indonesia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 73, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding blood culture utilization and antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). In addition, there has been a concern for increasing AMR infections among COVID-19 cases in LMICs. Here, we investigated epidemiology of AMR bloodstream infections (BSI) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Indonesian national referral hospital. METHODS: We evaluated blood culture utilization rate, and proportion and incidence rate of AMR-BSI caused by WHO-defined priority bacteria using routine hospital databases from 2019 to 2020. A patient was classified as a COVID-19 case if their SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR result was positive. The proportion of resistance was defined as the ratio of the number of patients having a positive blood culture for a WHO global priority resistant pathogen per the total number of patients having a positive blood culture for the given pathogen. Poisson regression models were used to assess changes in rate over time. RESULTS: Of 60,228 in-hospital patients, 8,175 had at least one blood culture taken (total 17,819 blood cultures), giving a blood culture utilization rate of 30.6 per 1,000 patient-days. A total of 1,311 patients were COVID-19 cases. Blood culture utilization rate had been increasing before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (both p < 0.001), and was higher among COVID-19 cases than non-COVID-19 cases (43.5 vs. 30.2 per 1,000 patient-days, p < 0.001). The most common pathogens identified were K. pneumoniae (23.3%), Acinetobacter spp. (13.9%) and E. coli (13.1%). The proportion of resistance for each bacterial pathogen was similar between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases (all p > 0.10). Incidence rate of hospital-origin AMR-BSI increased from 130.1 cases per 100,000 patient-days in 2019 to 165.5 in 2020 (incidence rate ratio 1.016 per month, 95%CI:1.016-1.017, p < 0.001), and was not associated with COVID-19 (p = 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: In our setting, AMR-BSI incidence and etiology were similar between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases. Incidence rates of hospital-origin AMR-BSI increased in 2020, which was likely due to increased blood culture utilization. We recommend increasing blood culture utilization and generating AMR surveillance reports in LMICs to inform local health care providers and policy makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Sepsis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Blood Culture , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Escherichia coli , Hospitals , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sepsis/microbiology
6.
Acta Med Acad ; 51(2): 69-78, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The longevity of vaccine effectiveness and antibody titer after the Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccination booster in healthcare workers in Indonesia is not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of healthcare workers at the Universitas Indonesia Hospital after Moderna mRNA COVID-19 booster vaccination. An Immunology Analyzer with Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) test was used to examine Anti SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD levels. Antibody levels were classified into two systems (3 categories, and 2 categories). RESULTS: There were 31 male subjects (75.6%), 33 subjects (80.5%) aged 25-39 years, 17 subjects (41.5%) with overweight BMI, 35 subjects (85.4%) without comorbidities, and 29 subjects without previous history of COVID-19 infection (70.7%) who had antibody titer >1000 AU/ml. There were 27 subjects (65.9%) who had a booster shot ≥6 months after the second vaccination with antibody titer >1000 AU/ml. In this study, there was no significant correlation between antibody titer with factors such as gender, age, BMI, comorbidities, history of COVID-19 infection and time between the 2nd vaccination and booster vaccination. CONCLUSION: There is no significant correlation between antibody titer with factors such as gender, age, BMI, comorbidities, history of COVID-19 infection and time between the 2nd vaccination and booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Indonesia , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination , Hospitals , RNA, Messenger
8.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081985

ABSTRACT

Reports on T-cell cross-reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in unexposed individuals have been linked with prior exposure to the human common cold coronaviruses (HCCCs). Several studies suggested that cross-reactive T-cells response to live attenuated vaccines (LAVs) such as BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin), OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine), and MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) can limit the development and severity of COVID-19. This study aims to identify potential cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2, HCCCs, and LAVs in the context of T-cell epitopes peptides presented by HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) alleles of the Indonesian population. SARS-CoV-2 derived T-cell epitopes were predicted using immunoinformatics tools and assessed for their conservancy, variability, and population coverage. Two fully conserved epitopes with 100% similarity and nine heterologous epitopes with identical T-cell receptor (TCR) contact residues were identified from the ORF1ab fragment of SARS-CoV-2 and all HCCCs. Cross-reactive epitopes from various proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and LAVs were also identified (15 epitopes from BCG, 7 epitopes from MMR, but none from OPV). A majority of the identified epitopes were observed to belong to ORF1ab, further suggesting the vital role of ORF1ab in the coronaviruses family and suggesting it as a candidate for a potential universal coronavirus vaccine that protects against severe disease by inducing cell mediated immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Cold , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Alleles , BCG Vaccine , Indonesia/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274793, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) surveillance as an early warning system (EWS) for monitoring community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, where diagnostic testing capacity is limited, needs further exploration. We explored the feasibility to conduct a WBE surveillance in Indonesia, one of the global epicenters of the COVID-19 pandemic in the middle of 2021, with the fourth largest population in the world where sewer and non-sewered sewage systems are implemented. The feasibility and resource capacity to collect samples on a weekly or fortnightly basis with grab and/or passive sampling methods, as well as to conduct qualitative and quantitative identification of SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) using real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) testing of environmental samples were explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We initiated a routine surveillance of wastewater and environmental sampling at three predetermined districts in Special Region of Yogyakarta Province. Water samples were collected from central and community wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), including manholes flowing to the central WWTP, and additional soil samples were collected for the near source tracking (NST) locations (i.e., public spaces where people congregate). RESULTS: We began collecting samples in the Delta wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia in July 2021. From a 10-week period, 54% (296/544) of wastewater and environmental samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The sample positivity rate decreased in proportion with the reported incidence of COVID-19 clinical cases in the community. The highest positivity rate of 77% in week 1, was obtained for samples collected in July 2021 and decreased to 25% in week 10 by the end of September 2021. CONCLUSION: A WBE surveillance system for SARS-CoV-2 in Indonesia is feasible to monitor the community burden of infections. Future studies testing the potential of WBE and EWS for signaling early outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions in this setting are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sewage , Soil , Waste Water/analysis , Water/analysis
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071426

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused detrimental impacts on different population groups throughout the world. This study aimed to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic's mandatory lockdown protocols on individual and social activities and mental health conditions of community-dwelling older people in Jakarta, Indonesia. A qualitative design using one-on-one in-depth interviews was employed to collect data from the participants (n = 24) who were recruited using the snowball sampling technique. Data analysis was guided by the five steps proposed in a qualitative data analysis framework, including familiarisation with the data, identification of a thematic framework, indexing the data, charting the data and mapping and interpreting the data. The findings showed that before the COVID-19 outbreak participants engaged in different kinds of regular individual and social activities. However, the COVID-19 outbreak and its mandatory lockdown protocols significantly influenced both their activities and social life, which led to social disconnection and financial difficulties for them. COVID-19 outbreak, mandatory lockdown protocols, and the disruption of individual and social activities of the participants also caused mental health challenges to them, including feelings of loneliness, loss, sadness, stress, and anger. The findings suggest that there is a need for intervention programs addressing the socio-economic and mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older populations to help them cope with these challenges. Future studies involving large-scale older populations to comprehensively understand COVID-19 impacts on them are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Indonesia/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066020

ABSTRACT

Globalization has prompted cross-cultural migration in search of employment opportunities, and poor adaptation during acculturation is widely known to cause additional psychosocial stress. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate migrant workers' perceptions of acculturation, identify work-related stressors, and understand the respective coping strategies among male Indonesians in the manufacturing industry, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Fifteen workers were recruited and interviewed on their acculturation experiences. We found that the workers were susceptible to forced adaptation to stressful conditions relating to work organization, economic distress, interaction with the manpower agencies, language barriers, and so on. During the pandemic, workers experienced overload, economic hardship, suspended home visits, isolation, discrimination, and fear of cluster infection in the crowded dormitory. We also found that workers were able to adopt coping strategies by capitalizing on resources at the individual, institutional, and governmental policy levels to actively solve problems, increase emotional support, and fortify self-appraisals. The identified coping strategies could inform policy development to assist with positive adaptation and promote the well-being of the migrant worker population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Acculturation , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Manufacturing Industry , Pandemics , Taiwan/epidemiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065934

ABSTRACT

Globally, 67% of the population has received at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose, but coverage varies across countries. This study aimed to compare people's willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination across Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam, where vaccination intention tends to be high, to determine factors associated with willingness, and to obtain suggestions for developing strategies. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Japan International Cooperation Agency survey "Building Resilience: COVID-19 Impact and Responses in Urban Areas-Case of Southeast Asia," including1842 unvaccinated participants from Thailand (n = 461), Indonesia (n = 246), the Philippines (n = 609), and Vietnam (n = 526). Vaccination willingness was high in all countries (69.6%), but the social and psychological factors motivating people to undergo vaccination differed among these countries. The highest vaccination willingness was in the Philippines, followed by Vietnam and Indonesia, whereas the lowest vaccination willingness was in Thailand. Vaccination willingness was affected by not only sociodemographic attributes, but also risk perception and beliefs, which, in turn, were shaped by social factors such as infection trends and vaccine policies. To achieve effective vaccination promotion programs, a system allowing the flexible modification of promotion methods in response to social conditions must be established.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Asia, Southeastern , COVID-19/prevention & control , Developing Countries , Humans , Indonesia , Philippines , Thailand , Vaccination , Vietnam
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(11): e40089, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 cases are soaring in Asia. Indonesia, Southeast Asia's most populous country, is now ranked second in the number of cases and deaths in Asia, after India. The compliance toward mask wearing, social distancing, and hand washing needs to be monitored to assess public behavioral changes that can reduce transmission. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate this compliance in Indonesia between October 2020 and May 2021 and demonstrate the use of the Bersatu Lawan COVID-19 (BLC) mobile app in monitoring this compliance. METHODS: Data were collected in real time by the BLC app from reports submitted by personnel of military services, police officers, and behavioral change ambassadors. Subsequently, the data were analyzed automatically by the system managed by the Indonesia National Task Force for the Acceleration of COVID-19 Mitigation. RESULTS: Between October 1, 2020, and May 2, 2021, the BLC app generated more than 165 million reports, with 469 million people monitored and 124,315,568 locations under observation in 514 districts/cities in 34 provinces in Indonesia. This paper grouped them into 4 colored zones, based on the degree of compliance, and analyzed variations among regions and locations. CONCLUSIONS: Compliance rates vary among the 34 provinces and among the districts and cities of those provinces. However, compliance to mask wearing seems slightly higher than social distancing. This finding suggests that policy makers need to promote higher compliance in other measures, including social distancing and hand washing, whose efficacies have been proven to break the chain of transmission when combined with masks wearing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Masks , Indonesia/epidemiology
14.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 464-473, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054022

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate stress levels among the health care workers (HCWs) of the radiation oncology community in Asian countries. METHODS: HCWs of the radiation oncology departments from 29 tertiary cancer care centers of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Nepal were studied from May 2020 to July 2020. A total of 758 eligible HCWs were identified. The 7-Item Generalized Anxiety Disorder, 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire, and 22-Item Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used for assessing anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done to identify the causative factors affecting mental health. RESULTS: A total of 758 participants from 794 HCWs were analyzed. The median age was 31 years (IQR, 27-28). The incidence of moderate to severe levels of anxiety, depression, and stress was 34.8%, 31.2%, and 18.2%, respectively. Severe personal concerns were noticed by 60.9% of the staff. On multivariate analysis, the presence of commonly reported symptoms of COVID-19 during the previous 2 weeks, contact history (harzard ratio [HR], 2.04; CI, 1.15 to 3.63), and compliance with precautionary measures (HR, 1.69; CI, 1.19 to 2.45) for COVID-19 significantly predicted for increasing anxiety (HR, 2.67; CI, 1.93 to 3.70), depression (HR, 3.38; CI 2.36 to 4.84), and stress (HR, 2.89; CI, 1.88 to 4.43) (P < .001). A significant regional variation was also noticed for anxiety, stress, and personal concerns. CONCLUSION: This survey conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic revealed that a significant proportion of HCWs in the radiation oncology community experiences moderate to severe levels of anxiety, depression, and stress. This trend is alarming and it is important to identify and intervene at the right time to improve the mental health of HCWs to avoid any long-term impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Radiation Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/prevention & control , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , Radiation Oncology/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
15.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275153, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054359

ABSTRACT

The Indonesian government has issued various policies to control COVID-19. However, COVID-19 new cases continued to increase, and there remain uncertainties as to the future trajectory. We aimed to investigate how medical and health academics view the Indonesian government's handling of COVID-19 and which areas of health systems need to be prioritized to improve the government's response to COVID-19. We conducted a modified Delphi study adapting the COVID-19 assessment scorecard (COVID-SCORE) as the measurement criteria. We invited medical and health academics from ten universities across Indonesia to take part in the two-round Delphi study. In the first round, participants were presented with 20 statements of COVID-SCORE and asked to rate their agreement with each statement using a five-point Likert scale. All participants who completed the first cycle were invited to participate in the second cycle. They had the opportunity to revise their answers based on the previous cycle's results and ranked a list of actions to improve government response. We achieved a moderate consensus level for five statements, a low consensus level for 13 statements and no consensus for two statements. The prioritization suggested that top priorities for improving the government's response to COVID-19 in Indonesia encompass: (1) strengthening capacity to ensure consistent, credible and targeted communication while adopting a more inclusive and empathic communication style to address public concerns; (2) ensuring universal access to reliable COVID-19 testing by expanding lab infrastructure, facilitating operational readiness, and scaling up implementation of proven alternative/complementary tests to RT-PCR; and (3) boosting contact tracing implementation capacity and facilitating contact tracing for all positive cases, involving key stakeholders in further development of the existing contact tracing system (i.e. PeduliLindungi) as well as its evaluation and quality assurance. Ultimately, our study highlights the importance of strengthening health system functions during the pandemic and improving health system resilience for dealing with future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Delphi Technique , Government , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology
16.
AIDS Res Ther ; 19(1): 47, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality due to COVID-19. Health professionals should be able to assess PLHIV who are more likely to develop severe COVID-19 and provide appropriate medical treatment. This study aimed to assess clinical factors associated with COVID-19 severity and developed a scoring system to predict severe COVID-19 infection among PLHIV. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated PLHIV at four hospitals diagnosed with COVID-19 during the first and second wave COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. The independent risk factors related to the severity of COVID-19 were identified with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: 342 PLHIV were diagnosed with COVID-19, including 23 with severe-critical diseases. The cumulative incidence up to December 2021 was 0.083 (95% CI 0.074-0.092). Twenty-three patients developed severe-critical COVID-19, and the mortality rate was 3.2% (95% CI 1.61%-5.76%). Having any comorbidity, CD4 count of < 200 cells/mm3, not being on ART, and active opportunistic infection were independent risk factors for developing severe COVID-19. SCOVHIV score was formulated to predict severity, with 1 point for each item. A minimum score of 3 indicated a 58.4% probability of progressing to severe COVID-19. This scoring system had a good discrimination ability with the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.856 (95% CI 0.775-0.936). CONCLUSION: SCOVHIV score, a four-point scoring system, had good accuracy in predicting COVID-19 severity in PLHIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Indonesia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
17.
Qual Health Res ; 32(13): 1993-2005, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053677

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease that has widened the gap between victims and non-victims in society. Understanding how individuals support and assist COVID-19 sufferers in a pandemic crisis is critical. Thus, this study aims to qualitatively evaluate the prosocial intention and types of prosocial behavior toward COVID-19 victims by low socioeconomic individuals from India and Indonesia's collectivistic societies. We conducted semi-structured and in-depth interviews during the lockdown from March to May 2020, via phone and in-person, using a purposive selection of respondents (total n = 50). The data were analyzed using the qualitative synthesis method. Five themes were discovered: 1) too scared to help, 2) love to help but scared: moral dilemma, 3) informing authority who knows how to handle, 4) caring, sharing, and supporting, but with a distance, and 5) helping at one's personal health risk. This study highlights that prosocial intentions range from minor acts of kindness to self-harm and out-of-bounds acts of kindness for COVID-19 victims.


Subject(s)
Altruism , COVID-19 , Humans , Social Behavior , Indonesia/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043727

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic globally impacted physical, spiritual, and mental health (MH). The consequences significantly affected students' quality of life (QoL) too. This cross-sectional study assessed MH status and its relationship to the QoL of college students in Indonesia. This study collected data (September 2021-April 2022) online using the depression, anxiety, and stress scale-21 (DASS-21) to measure MH and the world health organization quality-of-life scale (WHOQoL-BREF) to measure the QoL. The data were analysed using SPSS with a bivariate and multivariate linear regression test. A total of 606 respondents participated in this study, with the majority being women (81.0%), aged 21-27 years (44.3%), and unmarried (98.5%) respondents. We observed 24.4% (n = 148) moderate depression, 18.3% (n = 111) very severe anxiety, and 21.1% (n = 128) moderate stress status. The QoL measurement determined that a moderate QoL in the physical and environmental health domains (>70%) and poor QoL in the psychological health domain (58.3%) were found. Gender, age, family support, history of COVID-19 diagnosis, family with COVID-19 diagnosis, vaccination status, and physical symptoms are significantly associated with MH status and QoL (p-value < 0.05). This study demonstrated that COVID-19 was negatively related to college students' MH and QoL. Targeted interventions may be needed to ameliorate both MH and QoL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Quality of Life/psychology , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274966, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039438

ABSTRACT

Effective strategies to encourage COVID-19 vaccination should consider how health communication can be tailored to specific contexts. Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of three specific messaging appeals from two kinds of messengers on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in diverse countries. We surveyed 953 online participants in five countries (India, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, and Ukraine). We assessed participants' perceptions of three messaging appeals of vaccination-COVID-19 disease health outcomes, social norms related to COVID-19 vaccination, and economic impact of COVID-19-from two messengers, healthcare providers (HCP), and peers. We examined participants' ad preference and vaccine hesitancy using multivariable multinomial logistic regression. Participants expressed a high level of approval for all the ads. The healthcare outcome-healthcare provider ad was most preferred among participants from India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Ukraine. Participants in Kenya reported a preference for the health outcome-peer ad. The majority of participants in each country expressed high levels of vaccine hesitancy. However, in a final logistic regression model participant characteristics were not significantly related to vaccine hesitancy. These findings suggest that appeals related to health outcomes, economic benefit, and social norms are all acceptable to diverse general populations, while specific audience segments (i.e., mothers, younger adults, etc.) may have preferences for specific appeals over others. Tailored approaches, or approaches that are developed with the target audience's concerns and preferences in mind, will be more effective than broad-based or mass appeals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Kenya , Nigeria , Ukraine/epidemiology , Vaccination
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