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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010268, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753212

ABSTRACT

Next generation sequencing has revealed the presence of numerous RNA viruses in animal reservoir hosts, including many closely related to known human pathogens. Despite their zoonotic potential, most of these viruses remain understudied due to not yet being cultured. While reverse genetic systems can facilitate virus rescue, this is often hindered by missing viral genome ends. A prime example is Lloviu virus (LLOV), an uncultured filovirus that is closely related to the highly pathogenic Ebola virus. Using minigenome systems, we complemented the missing LLOV genomic ends and identified cis-acting elements required for LLOV replication that were lacking in the published sequence. We leveraged these data to generate recombinant full-length LLOV clones and rescue infectious virus. Similar to other filoviruses, recombinant LLOV (rLLOV) forms filamentous virions and induces the formation of characteristic inclusions in the cytoplasm of the infected cells, as shown by electron microscopy. Known target cells of Ebola virus, including macrophages and hepatocytes, are permissive to rLLOV infection, suggesting that humans could be potential hosts. However, inflammatory responses in human macrophages, a hallmark of Ebola virus disease, are not induced by rLLOV. Additional tropism testing identified pneumocytes as capable of robust rLLOV and Ebola virus infection. We also used rLLOV to test antivirals targeting multiple facets of the replication cycle. Rescue of uncultured viruses of pathogenic concern represents a valuable tool in our arsenal for pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Ebolavirus/genetics , Filoviridae Infections/virology , Filoviridae/genetics , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genetic Complementation Test , Genome, Viral , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Inclusion Bodies/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Macrophages/virology , RNA, Viral , Reverse Genetics , Vero Cells , Virion/genetics
3.
J Virol ; 96(2): e0106321, 2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476388

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 affects multiple organs. Clinical data from the Mount Sinai Health System show that substantial numbers of COVID-19 patients without prior heart disease develop cardiac dysfunction. How COVID-19 patients develop cardiac disease is not known. We integrated cell biological and physiological analyses of human cardiomyocytes differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the presence of interleukins (ILs) with clinical findings related to laboratory values in COVID-19 patients to identify plausible mechanisms of cardiac disease in COVID-19 patients. We infected hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from healthy human subjects with SARS-CoV-2 in the absence and presence of IL-6 and IL-1ß. Infection resulted in increased numbers of multinucleated cells. Interleukin treatment and infection resulted in disorganization of myofibrils, extracellular release of troponin I, and reduced and erratic beating. Infection resulted in decreased expression of mRNA encoding key proteins of the cardiomyocyte contractile apparatus. Although interleukins did not increase the extent of infection, they increased the contractile dysfunction associated with viral infection of cardiomyocytes, resulting in cessation of beating. Clinical data from hospitalized patients from the Mount Sinai Health System show that a significant portion of COVID-19 patients without history of heart disease have elevated troponin and interleukin levels. A substantial subset of these patients showed reduced left ventricular function by echocardiography. Our laboratory observations, combined with the clinical data, indicate that direct effects on cardiomyocytes by interleukins and SARS-CoV-2 infection might underlie heart disease in COVID-19 patients. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 infects multiple organs, including the heart. Analyses of hospitalized patients show that a substantial number without prior indication of heart disease or comorbidities show significant injury to heart tissue, assessed by increased levels of troponin in blood. We studied the cell biological and physiological effects of virus infection of healthy human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes in culture. Virus infection with interleukins disorganizes myofibrils, increases cell size and the numbers of multinucleated cells, and suppresses the expression of proteins of the contractile apparatus. Viral infection of cardiomyocytes in culture triggers release of troponin similar to elevation in levels of COVID-19 patients with heart disease. Viral infection in the presence of interleukins slows down and desynchronizes the beating of cardiomyocytes in culture. The cell-level physiological changes are similar to decreases in left ventricular ejection seen in imaging of patients' hearts. These observations suggest that direct injury to heart tissue by virus can be one underlying cause of heart disease in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Myocytes, Cardiac , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/immunology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/immunology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology
4.
J Toxicol Sci ; 46(9): 425-435, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389030

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells by binding with the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). While ACE2 is expressed in multiple cell types, it has been implicated in the clinical progression of COVID-19 as an entry point for SARS-CoV-2 into respiratory cells. Human respiratory cells, such as airway and alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells, are considered essential for COVID-19 research; however, primary human respiratory cells are difficult to obtain. In the present study, we generated ATII and club cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for SARS-CoV-2 infection and drug testing. The differentiated cells expressed ATII markers (SFTPB, SFTPC, ABCA3, SLC34A2) or club cell markers (SCGB1A1 and SCGB3A2). Differentiated cells, which express ACE2 and TMPRSS2, were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir treatment decreased intracellular SARS-CoV-2 viral replication and, furthermore, treatment with bleomycin showed cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that hiPSC-derived AT2 and club cells provide a useful in vitro model for drug development.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bleomycin/toxicity , Cell Differentiation , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Toxicity Tests , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
FEBS Open Bio ; 11(5): 1452-1464, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168813

ABSTRACT

Human pathogenic RNA viruses are threats to public health because they are prone to escaping the human immune system through mutations of genomic RNA, thereby causing local outbreaks and global pandemics of emerging or re-emerging viral diseases. While specific therapeutics and vaccines are being developed, a broad-spectrum therapeutic agent for RNA viruses would be beneficial for targeting newly emerging and mutated RNA viruses. In this study, we conducted a screen of repurposed drugs using Sendai virus (an RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae), with human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to explore existing drugs that may present anti-RNA viral activity. Selected hit compounds were evaluated for their efficacy against two important human pathogens: Ebola virus (EBOV) using Huh7 cells and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using Vero E6 cells. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), including raloxifene, exhibited antiviral activities against EBOV and SARS-CoV-2. Pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, also exhibited antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2, and both raloxifene and pioglitazone presented a synergistic antiviral effect. Finally, we demonstrated that SERMs blocked entry steps of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells. These findings suggest that the identified FDA-approved drugs can modulate host cell susceptibility against RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , RNA Viruses/drug effects , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Repositioning/methods , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Ebolavirus/physiology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Pioglitazone/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/physiology , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/pharmacology , Sendai virus/drug effects , Sendai virus/physiology , Vero Cells
6.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(590)2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136062

ABSTRACT

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes cardiac dysfunction in up to 25% of patients, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Exposure of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived heart cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) revealed productive infection and robust transcriptomic and morphological signatures of damage, particularly in cardiomyocytes. Transcriptomic disruption of structural genes corroborates adverse morphologic features, which included a distinct pattern of myofibrillar fragmentation and nuclear disruption. Human autopsy specimens from patients with COVID-19 reflected similar alterations, particularly sarcomeric fragmentation. These notable cytopathic features in cardiomyocytes provide insights into SARS-CoV-2-induced cardiac damage, offer a platform for discovery of potential therapeutics, and raise concerns about the long-term consequences of COVID-19 in asymptomatic and severe cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Autopsy , Cells, Cultured , Heart/virology , Humans , Myocardium/pathology , Transcriptome
7.
Comput Biol Med ; 131: 104293, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Up to 20%-30% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 have evidence of cardiac dysfunction. Xuebijing injection is a compound injection containing five traditional Chinese medicine ingredients, which can protect cells from SARS-CoV-2-induced cell death and improve cardiac function. However, the specific protective mechanism of Xuebijing injection on COVID-19-induced cardiac dysfunction remains unclear. METHODS: The therapeutic effect of Xuebijing injection on COVID-19 was validated by the TCM Anti COVID-19 (TCMATCOV) platform. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data from GSE150392 was used to find differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) infected with SARS-CoV-2. Data from GSE151879 was used to verify the expression of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and central hub genes in both human embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) and adult human CMs with SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: A total of 97 proteins were identified as the therapeutic targets of Xuebijing injection for COVID-19. There were 22 DEGs in SARS-CoV-2 infected hiPSC-CMs overlapped with the 97 therapeutic targets, which might be the therapeutic targets of Xuebijing injection on COVID-19-induced cardiac dysfunction. Based on the bioinformatics analysis, 7 genes (CCL2, CXCL8, FOS, IFNB1, IL-1A, IL-1B, SERPINE1) were identified as central hub genes and enriched in pathways including cytokines, inflammation, cell senescence and oxidative stress. ACE2, the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, and the 7 central hub genes were differentially expressed in at least two kinds of SARS-CoV-2 infected CMs. Besides, FOS and quercetin exhibited the tightest binding by molecular docking analysis. CONCLUSION: Our study indicated the underlying protective effect of Xuebijing injection on COVID-19, especially on COVID19-induced cardiac dysfunction, which provided the theoretical basis for exploring the potential protective mechanism of Xuebijing injection on COVID19-induced cardiac dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/pathology , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology
8.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 505-518, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081358

ABSTRACT

The host response to SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, demonstrates significant interindividual variability. In addition to showing more disease in males, the elderly, and individuals with underlying comorbidities, SARS-CoV-2 can seemingly afflict healthy individuals with profound clinical complications. We hypothesize that, in addition to viral load and host antibody repertoire, host genetic variants influence vulnerability to infection. Here we apply human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based models and CRISPR engineering to explore the host genetics of SARS-CoV-2. We demonstrate that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs4702), common in the population and located in the 3' UTR of the protease FURIN, influences alveolar and neuron infection by SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Thus, we provide a proof-of-principle finding that common genetic variation can have an impact on viral infection and thus contribute to clinical heterogeneity in COVID-19. Ongoing genetic studies will help to identify high-risk individuals, predict clinical complications, and facilitate the discovery of drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , 3' Untranslated Regions/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , Female , Furin/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Male , Neurons/virology , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
9.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 437-445, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084274

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a transmissible respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and has become a global health emergency. There is an urgent need for robust and practical in vitro model systems to investigate viral pathogenesis. Here, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived lung organoids (LORGs), cerebral organoids (CORGs), neural progenitor cells (NPCs), neurons, and astrocytes. LORGs containing epithelial cells, alveolar types 1 and 2, highly express ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces interferons, cytokines, and chemokines and activates critical inflammasome pathway genes. Spike protein inhibitor, EK1 peptide, and TMPRSS2 inhibitors (camostat/nafamostat) block viral entry in LORGs. Conversely, CORGs, NPCs, astrocytes, and neurons express low levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and correspondingly are not highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Infection in neuronal cells activates TLR3/7, OAS2, complement system, and apoptotic genes. These findings will aid in understanding COVID-19 pathogenesis and facilitate drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Lung/virology , Neural Stem Cells/virology , Organoids/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Apoptosis/physiology , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Lung/metabolism , Neural Stem Cells/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/virology , Organoids/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Stem Cells/metabolism , Stem Cells/virology
10.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 478-492, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082779

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients often develop severe cardiovascular complications, but it remains unclear if these are caused directly by viral infection or are secondary to a systemic response. Here, we examine the cardiac tropism of SARS-CoV-2 in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) and smooth muscle cells (hPSC-SMCs). We find that that SARS-CoV-2 selectively infects hPSC-CMs through the viral receptor ACE2, whereas in hPSC-SMCs there is minimal viral entry or replication. After entry into cardiomyocytes, SARS-CoV-2 is assembled in lysosome-like vesicles and egresses via bulk exocytosis. The viral transcripts become a large fraction of cellular mRNA while host gene expression shifts from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism and upregulates chromatin modification and RNA splicing pathways. Most importantly, viral infection of hPSC-CMs progressively impairs both their electrophysiological and contractile function, and causes widespread cell death. These data support the hypothesis that COVID-19-related cardiac symptoms can result from a direct cardiotoxic effect of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Cells, Cultured , Humans , RNA Splicing/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Internalization
11.
Histol Histopathol ; 35(10): 1077-1082, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024809

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak began in the city of Wuhan, whereupon it rapidly spread throughout China and subsequently across the world. Rapid transmission of COVID-19 has caused wide-spread panic. Many established medications have been used to treat the disease symptoms; however, no specific drugs or vaccines have been developed. Organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may serve as suitable infection models for ex vivo mimicking of the viral life cycle and drug screening. Human iPSC-3D organoids, self-organised tissues with multiple cell environments, have a similar structure and function as real human organs; hence, these organoids allow greater viral infection efficiency, mimic the natural host-virus interactions, and are suitable for long-term experimentation. Here, we suggest the use of a functional human iPSC-organoid that could act as a reliable and feasible ex vivo infection model for investigation of the virus. This approach will provide much needed insight into the underlying molecular dynamics of COVID-19 for the development of novel treatment and prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , In Vitro Techniques , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Models, Biological , Organoids/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Cell Stem Cell ; 28(2): 331-342.e5, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009887

ABSTRACT

ApoE4, a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease, has been associated with increased risk for severe COVID-19. However, it is unclear whether ApoE4 alters COVID-19 susceptibility or severity, and the role of direct viral infection in brain cells remains obscure. We tested the neurotropism of SARS-CoV2 in human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) models and observed low-grade infection of neurons and astrocytes that is boosted in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures and organoids. We then generated isogenic ApoE3/3 and ApoE4/4 hiPSCs and found an increased rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in ApoE4/4 neurons and astrocytes. ApoE4 astrocytes exhibited enlarged size and elevated nuclear fragmentation upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we show that remdesivir treatment inhibits SARS-CoV2 infection of hiPSC neurons and astrocytes. These findings suggest that ApoE4 may play a causal role in COVID-19 severity. Understanding how risk factors impact COVID-19 susceptibility and severity will help us understand the potential long-term effects in different patient populations.


Subject(s)
Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tropism/physiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes/drug effects , Astrocytes/pathology , Astrocytes/virology , Cell Differentiation , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Nerve Degeneration/pathology , Neurites/pathology , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/pathology , Organoids/virology , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Synapses/pathology , Vero Cells
13.
Mol Cell ; 80(6): 1104-1122.e9, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933377

ABSTRACT

Human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causative pathogen of the COVID-19 pandemic, exerts a massive health and socioeconomic crisis. The virus infects alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AT2s), leading to lung injury and impaired gas exchange, but the mechanisms driving infection and pathology are unclear. We performed a quantitative phosphoproteomic survey of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived AT2s (iAT2s) infected with SARS-CoV-2 at air-liquid interface (ALI). Time course analysis revealed rapid remodeling of diverse host systems, including signaling, RNA processing, translation, metabolism, nuclear integrity, protein trafficking, and cytoskeletal-microtubule organization, leading to cell cycle arrest, genotoxic stress, and innate immunity. Comparison to analogous data from transformed cell lines revealed respiratory-specific processes hijacked by SARS-CoV-2, highlighting potential novel therapeutic avenues that were validated by a high hit rate in a targeted small molecule screen in our iAT2 ALI system.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Cytoskeleton , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Protein Transport , Proteome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction , Vero Cells
15.
Circ J ; 84(11): 2027-2031, 2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-795948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with myocardial injury, but there is a paucity of experimental platforms for the condition.Methods and Results:Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) infected by SARS-CoV-2 for 3 days ceased beating and exhibited cytopathogenic changes with reduced viability. Active viral replication was evidenced by an increase in supernatant SARS-CoV-2 and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocaspid protein within hiPSC-CMs. Expressions of BNP, CXCL1, CXCL2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were upregulated, while ACE2 was downregulated. CONCLUSIONS: Our hiPSC-CM-based in-vitro SARS-CoV-2 myocarditis model recapitulated the cytopathogenic effects and cytokine/chemokine response. It could be exploited as a drug screening platform.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Myocarditis/complications , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocarditis/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
16.
Stem Cells Dev ; 29(21): 1365-1369, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739007

ABSTRACT

The lung is the most vulnerable target for the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and respiratory failure causing acute respiratory distress syndrome is its foremost outcome. However, the current primary in vitro models in use for SARS-CoV-2 display apparent limitations for modeling such complex human respiratory disease. Although patient cells can directly model the effects of a drug, their availability and capacity for expansion are limited compared with transformed/immortalized cells or tumor-derived cell lines. An additional caveat is that the latter may harbor genetic and metabolic abnormalities making them unsuitable for drug screening. Therefore, it is important to create physiologically relevant human-cell models that can replicate the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2, thus facilitating drug testing. In this study, we show preliminary data on how human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived lung epithelial cell system could emerge as a relevant and sensitive platform for modeling SARS-CoV-2 infection and drug screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Drug Repositioning , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line , Humans , Lung/cytology , Models, Biological , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control
17.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(17): 2489-2491, 2020 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728963

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a severe public health problem with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. A mounting number of clinical investigations illustrate that COVID-19 patients suffer from neurologic conditions in addition to respiratory symptoms. In a recent article, Yuen and colleagues present the first experimental evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human central nervous system using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived platform including human neural progenitor cells, neurospheres, and three-dimensional brain organoids (Yuen, K.Y., and Huang, J.D. et al. (2020) Cell Res. DOI: 10.1038/s41422-020-0390-x).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Brain/virology , COVID-19 , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Organoids/pathology , Organoids/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
ALTEX ; 37(4): 665-671, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614583

ABSTRACT

Reports from Wuhan suggest that 36% of COVID-19 patients show neurological symptoms, and cases of viral encephalitis have been reported, suggesting that the virus is neurotropic under unknown circumstances. This is well established for other coronaviruses. In order to understand why some patients develop such symptoms and others do not, we address herein the infectability of the central nervous system (CNS). Reports that the ACE2 receptor ­ critical for virus entry into lung cells ­ is found in different neurons support this expectation. We employed a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)- derived BrainSphere model, which we used earlier for Zika, Dengue, HIV and John Cunningham virus infection studies. We detected the expression of the ACE2 receptor, but not TMPRSS2, in the model. Incubating the BrainSpheres for 6 hours with SARS-CoV-2 at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1 led to infection of a fraction of neural cells with replication of the virus evident at 72 hpi. Virus particles were found in the neuronal cell body extending into apparent neurite structures. PCR measurements corroborated the replication of the virus, suggesting at least a tenfold increase in virus copies per total RNA. Leveraging state-of-the-art 3D organotypic cell culture, which has been shown to allow both virus infection and modeling of (developmental) neurotoxicity but is at the same time simple enough to be transferred and used in a BSL-3 environment, we demonstrate, for the first time, the potential critically important neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Neurons/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Tropism , COVID-19 , Humans , Models, Biological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Cell Stem Cell ; 27(1): 125-136.e7, 2020 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610467

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an urgent need for physiological models to study SARS-CoV-2 infection using human disease-relevant cells. COVID-19 pathophysiology includes respiratory failure but involves other organ systems including gut, liver, heart, and pancreas. We present an experimental platform comprised of cell and organoid derivatives from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). A Spike-enabled pseudo-entry virus infects pancreatic endocrine cells, liver organoids, cardiomyocytes, and dopaminergic neurons. Recent clinical studies show a strong association with COVID-19 and diabetes. We find that human pancreatic beta cells and liver organoids are highly permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, further validated using adult primary human islets and adult hepatocyte and cholangiocyte organoids. SARS-CoV-2 infection caused striking expression of chemokines, as also seen in primary human COVID-19 pulmonary autopsy samples. hPSC-derived cells/organoids provide valuable models for understanding the cellular responses of human tissues to SARS-CoV-2 infection and for disease modeling of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Models, Biological , Organoids/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Tropism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Autopsy , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Hepatocytes/pathology , Hepatocytes/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Liver/pathology , Mice , Pancreas/pathology , Pancreas/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization
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