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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(16): 46647-46656, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238783

ABSTRACT

The study aims to explore the importance of the tourism business model with the emergence of the blockchain platform in China. The study focused on the importance of the tourism business model of china, studied the need to improve the tourism business infrastructure, and traced the value of the blockchain system in the tourism industry of china. For this, the researchers used a semi-structured interview approach to conduct a qualitative research design. About nine Chinese tourism and travel industry experts were interwar after initial screening using purposive sampling techniques. The respondents' responses were analyzed by applying a thematic analysis approach, and by this, the researchers extracted the main themes on study topicality to fill the gap in the literature. The study's novelty is in its topicality and context, for which it also provides viable, practical directions for stakeholders.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Tourism , Travel , Industry , China
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(11)2023 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237217

ABSTRACT

The fish industry experiences substantial illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) activities within traditional supply chain systems. Blockchain technology and the Internet of Things (IoT) are expected to transform the fish supply chain (SC) by incorporating distributed ledger technology (DLT) to build trustworthy, transparent, decentralized traceability systems that promote secure data sharing and employ IUU prevention and detection methods. We have reviewed current research efforts directed toward incorporating Blockchain in fish SC systems. We have discussed traceability in both traditional and smart SC systems that make use of Blockchain and IoT technologies. We demonstrated the key design considerations in terms of traceability in addition to a quality model to consider when designing smart Blockchain-based SC systems. In addition, we proposed an Intelligent Blockchain IoT-enabled fish SC framework that uses DLT for the trackability and traceability of fish products throughout harvesting, processing, packaging, shipping, and distribution to final delivery. More precisely, the proposed framework should be able to provide valuable and timely information that can be used to track and trace the fish product and verify its authenticity throughout the chain. Unlike other work, we have investigated the benefits of integrating machine learning (ML) into Blockchain IoT-enabled SC systems, focusing the discussion on the role of ML in fish quality, freshness assessment and fraud detection.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Internet of Things , Animals , Fish Products , Fishes , Industry
3.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286528, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244334

ABSTRACT

While spillover across equity markets has been extensively investigated, volatility spillover across sectors has largely been under-examined in the current literature. This paper estimates the sectoral volatility using the ARMA-GARCH model and its spillover across Australian sectors on the VAR framework during the 2010-2021 period. We then identify breakpoints in market volatility during the Covid-19 pandemic using a wavelet methodology. We find that volatility spillover across Australian sectors is very significant at 60 per cent from 2010 to 2019, reaching 90 per cent during the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020. The spillover then reverts to its pre-pandemic level in 2021. Consumer Staples and Industrials are the significant risk transmitters, whereas Financials and Real estates are the most significant risk absorbers. Our findings also indicate that Real Estate, Health Care, and Financials record the most significant increase in volatility of more than 300 per cent. Policy implications regarding risk management across Australian sectors have emerged, particularly during extreme events such as the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Facilities , Industry
4.
Am J Ind Med ; 66(7): 587-600, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While the occupational risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection for healthcare personnel in the United States has been relatively well characterized, less information is available on the occupational risk for workers employed in other settings. Even fewer studies have attempted to compare risks across occupations and industries. Using differential proportionate distribution as an approximation, we evaluated excess risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by occupation and industry among non-healthcare workers in six states. METHODS: We analyzed data on occupation and industry of employment from a six-state callback survey of adult non-healthcare workers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and population-based reference data on employment patterns, adjusted for the effect of telework, from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. We estimated the differential proportionate distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection by occupation and industry using the proportionate morbidity ratio (PMR). RESULTS: Among a sample of 1111 workers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, significantly higher-than-expected proportions of workers were employed in service occupations (PMR 1.3, 99% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.5) and in the transportation and utilities (PMR 1.4, 99% CI 1.1-1.8) and leisure and hospitality industries (PMR 1.5, 99% CI 1.2-1.9). CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of significant differences in the proportionate distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection by occupation and industry among respondents in a multistate, population-based survey, highlighting the excess risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection borne by some worker populations, particularly those whose jobs require frequent or prolonged close contact with other people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Occupations , Industry , Health Personnel
5.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 20(6): 597-604, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the trends in industry payments to radiologists and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including trends in different categories of payments. METHODS: The Open Payments Database from CMS was accessed and analyzed for the period from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2021. Payments were grouped into six categories: consulting fees, education, gifts, research, speaker fees, and royalties or ownership. The total number, value, and types of industry payments to radiologists were subsequently determined and compared pre- and postpandemic from 2016 to 2021. RESULTS: The total number of industry payments and the number of radiologists receiving these payments dropped by 50% and 32%, respectively, between 2019 and 2020, with only partial recovery in 2021. However, the mean payment value and total payment value increased by 177% and 37%, respectively, between 2019 and 2020. Gifts and speaker fees experienced the largest decreases between 2019 and 2020 (54% and 63%, respectively). Research and education grants were also disrupted, with the number of payments decreasing by 37% and 36% and payment value decreasing by 37% and 25%, respectively. However, royalty or ownership increased during the first year of the pandemic (8% for number of payments and 345% for value of payments). CONCLUSIONS: There was significant decline in overall industry payments coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic, with biggest declines in gifts and speaker fees. The impact on the different categories of payments and recovery in the last 2 years has been heterogeneous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Radiologists , Industry , Databases, Factual , Conflict of Interest
6.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280110, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295853

ABSTRACT

Corporations across sectors engage in the conduct, sponsorship, and dissemination of scientific research. Industry sponsorship of research, however, is associated with research agendas, outcomes, and conclusions that are favourable to the sponsor. The legalization of cannabis in Canada provides a useful case study to understand the nature and extent of the nascent cannabis industry's involvement in the production of scientific evidence as well as broader impacts on equity-oriented research agendas. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive, meta-research study to describe the characteristics of research that reports funding from, or author conflicts of interest with, Canadian cannabis companies. From May to August 2021, we sampled licensed, prominent Canadian cannabis companies, identified their subsidiaries, and searched each company name in the PubMed conflict of interest statement search interface. Authors of included articles disclosed research support from, or conflicts of interest with, Canadian cannabis companies. We included 156 articles: 82% included at least one author with a conflict of interest and 1/3 reported study support from a Canadian cannabis company. More than half of the sampled articles were not cannabis focused, however, a cannabis company was listed amongst other biomedical companies in the author disclosure statement. For articles with a cannabis focus, prevalent topics included cannabis as a treatment for a range of conditions (15/72, 21%), particularly chronic pain (6/72, 8%); as a tool in harm reduction related to other substance use (10/72, 14%); product safety (10/72, 14%); and preclinical animal studies (6/72, 8%). Demographics were underreported in empirical studies with human participants, but most included adults (76/84, 90%) and, where reported, predominantly white (32/39, 82%) and male (49/83, 59%) participants. The cannabis company-funded studies included people who used drugs (37%) and people prescribed medical cannabis (22%). Canadian cannabis companies may be analogous to peer industries such as pharmaceuticals, alcohol, tobacco, and food in the following three ways: sponsoring research related to product development, expanding indications of use, and supporting key opinion leaders. Given the recent legalization of cannabis in Canada, there is ample opportunity to create a policy climate that can mitigate the harms of criminalization as well as impacts of the "funding effect" on research integrity, research agendas, and the evidence base available for decision-making, while promoting high-priority and equity-oriented independent research.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Research Support as Topic , Humans , Male , Canada , Conflict of Interest , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food , Industry
7.
Lancet ; 401(10383): 1194-1213, 2023 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295568

ABSTRACT

Although commercial entities can contribute positively to health and society there is growing evidence that the products and practices of some commercial actors-notably the largest transnational corporations-are responsible for escalating rates of avoidable ill health, planetary damage, and social and health inequity; these problems are increasingly referred to as the commercial determinants of health. The climate emergency, the non-communicable disease epidemic, and that just four industry sectors (ie, tobacco, ultra-processed food, fossil fuel, and alcohol) already account for at least a third of global deaths illustrate the scale and huge economic cost of the problem. This paper, the first in a Series on the commercial determinants of health, explains how the shift towards market fundamentalism and increasingly powerful transnational corporations has created a pathological system in which commercial actors are increasingly enabled to cause harm and externalise the costs of doing so. Consequently, as harms to human and planetary health increase, commercial sector wealth and power increase, whereas the countervailing forces having to meet these costs (notably individuals, governments, and civil society organisations) become correspondingly impoverished and disempowered or captured by commercial interests. This power imbalance leads to policy inertia; although many policy solutions are available, they are not being implemented. Health harms are escalating, leaving health-care systems increasingly unable to cope. Governments can and must act to improve, rather than continue to threaten, the wellbeing of future generations, development, and economic growth.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Industry , Humans , Policy , Tobacco , Government , Health Policy
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(23): 64111-64122, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295342

ABSTRACT

The drastic influence of the COVID-19 crisis halted almost every industry and economy and made the quality of doing business in the oil industry and stock markets large. Also, COVID-19 diminished financial and economic performance to a greater extent. This issue still warrants modern solutions. Thus, preceding research inquired about the financialization perspective of oil prices, green bonds, and stock market movement in the COVID-19 crisis. For this, E7 economies' data is selected to analyze the empirical findings of the research. The findings revealed that the green bonds have a weak link to crude oil, a weak correlation to stocks in the E7 settings, and a strong correlation to gold prices. While stock market return is also little correlated in COVID-19, stock volatility is highly significant in both directions with oil prices and green bonds movement. The hedging ratio has also shown a significant connection with oil prices and green bonds movement in determining the financialization of E7 economies. Hence, the study directs the implications for important industrial planning and policymaking decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Commerce , Empirical Research , Gold , Industry
9.
Am J Public Health ; 113(6): 647-656, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295257

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess the risk of COVID-19 by occupation and industry in the United States. Methods. Using the 2020-2021 National Health Interview Survey, we estimated the risk of having had a diagnosis of COVID-19 by workers' industry and occupation, with and without adjustment for confounders. We also examined COVID-19 period prevalence by the number of workers in a household. Results. Relative to workers in other industries and occupations, those in the industry "health care and social assistance" (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.23; 95% confidence interval = 1.11, 1.37), or in the occupations "health practitioners and technical," "health care support," or "protective services" had elevated risks of COVID-19. However, compared with nonworkers, workers in 12 of 21 industries and 11 of 23 occupations (e.g., manufacturing, food preparation, and sales) were at elevated risk. COVID-19 prevalence rose with each additional worker in a household. Conclusions. Workers in several industries and occupations with public-facing roles and adults in households with multiple workers had elevated risk of COVID-19. Public Health Implications. Stronger workplace protections, paid sick leave, and better health care access might mitigate working families' risks from this and future pandemics. (Am J Public Health. 2023;113(6):647-656. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2023.307249).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupations , Industry , Workplace , Employment
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 5165, 2023 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287771

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic provides an opportunity to investigate how a new and long-lasting threat affects public risk perception and social distancing behavior, which is important for pandemic risk management and recovery of the tertiary industry. We have found that the mechanism that perception decides behavior changes over time. At the beginning of the pandemic, risk directly shapes people's willingness of going out. But under a persistent threat, perception no longer plays the direct role of shape people's willingness. Instead, perception indirectly influences the willingness by shaping people's judgment about the necessity of traveling. Switching from direct to indirect influence, perception's effect is enlarged, which partially prevents people from returning to normal life even if the governmental ban is removed in a zero-COVID community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Government , Industry
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287202

ABSTRACT

Resource-based cities (RBCs) are not only important for ensuring national resource and energy security, but they also face serious ecological and environmental problems. To achieve China's carbon peaking and neutrality goals in the coming years, RBCs' achievement of a low-carbon transformation has become increasingly significant. The core of this study is an investigation as to whether governance, including environmental regulations, can facilitate the low-carbon transformation of RBCs. Based on RBC data from 2003 to 2019, we establish a dynamic panel model to research the influence and mechanism of environmental regulations on low-carbon transformation. We found that China's environmental regulations facilitate a low-carbon transformation in RBCs. Mechanism analysis identified that the environmental regulations facilitate the low-carbon transformation in RBCs by strengthening foreign direct investment, enhancing green technology innovation and promoting industrial structure upgrading. Heterogeneity analysis found that the environmental regulations play a greater role in facilitating the low-carbon transformation of RBCs in regions with more developed economies and less dependence on resources. Our research provides theoretical and policy implications for environmental regulations for the low-carbon transformation of RBCs in China, applicable to other resource-based areas.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Industry , Cities , China , Internationality , Economic Development , Carbon Dioxide
12.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0282854, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287065

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has drawn attention to the strategic responses of Chinese firms on digital transformation and led to a call for enhancing competitive advantage via accelerating digital transformation. Besides the physical health issue, the pandemic has triggered an extraordinary social and economic crisis in which service industries have been attacked hard. In this situation, firms are meeting increasing competitive pressure, which urges them to achieve better performance with the help of digital transformation. Based on the technology-organization-environment framework and dynamic capabilities theory, this research proposed two studies with two methods, including a structural equation model and a regression discontinuity design with a fixed-effect model. The findings suggest digital transformation mediates the relationship between competitive pressure and firm performance among Chinese small- and medium-sized enterprises and large firms after the outbreak of COVID-19, respectively. It confirms that digital transformation is a practical strategic decision for Chinese service firms to respond to increasing competitive pressure in the COVID-19 pandemic. Besides, the results also illustrate the moderating effects of absorptive, innovative, and adaptive capability on the relationship between digital transformation and firm performance among large firms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce , Industry , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics
13.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281906, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269643

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the sales of vehicles in the US are examined to understand if the shock caused by the current COVID-19 pandemic has had permanent or transitory effects on its subsequent evolution. Using monthly data from January 1976 until April 2021 and fractional integration methods, our results indicate that the series reverts and the shocks tend to disappear in the long run, even when they appear to be long lived. The results also indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic has not increased the degree of persistence of the series but, unexpectedly, has slightly reduced its dependence. Thus, shocks are transitory, long lived but, as time goes by, the recovery seems to be faster, which is possibly a sign of the strength of the industry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Commerce , Industry , Excipients
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254704

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the industry immensely and, in some cases, irreversibly. This research pioneers in studying how the pandemic have influenced the survival and spatial distribution of the health-related manufacturing industry (HRMI) in Taiwan. Eight categories of HRMI are examined, with their change in survival performances and spatial concentration between 2018 and 2020. Average Nearest Neighbour and Local Indicators of Spatial Association are conducted, to visualise the distribution of industrial clusters. We found the pandemic did not shock the HRMI in Taiwan, but actually induced its growth and spatial concentration to a certain extent. Additionally, due to it being a knowledge-intensive industry, the HRMI mainly concentrate in metropolitan areas with which universities and science parks may have largely supported. However, the spatial concentration and cluster scope growth do not necessarily accompany the improvement of spatial survival, which may be resulted from the different life cycle stages an industry category is in. This research fills in the gap of medical studies with literatures and data from the field of spatial studies. It provides interdisciplinary insights under the condition of pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Industry , Manufacturing Industry , Taiwan , China , Economic Development
15.
J Occup Environ Med ; 65(5): e319-e329, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242504

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize the distribution and award status of COVID-19-related workers' compensation (WC) claims in New York State (NYS) for 2020 and 2021. METHODS: Characteristics and filing rates of COVID-19 claims were described by industry, time of illness, and award status. Nursing care facilities' claims were compared with the recorded nursing home staff COVID-19 infections and deaths reported by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) during the same period. RESULTS: Of 29,814 COVID-19 claims, 21.9% were awarded benefits, although 86.8% of the claimants worked in essential industries. Of the 46,505 CMS-recorded COVID-19 infections, 1.4% resulted in a claim and 7.2% of the 111 CMS-recorded deaths received death benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The NYS WC program has provided very modest support to essential workers for the likely work-related burden of the pandemic in NYS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , United States/epidemiology , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Medicare , New York/epidemiology , Workers' Compensation , Industry
16.
J Law Med ; 29(4): 1288-1297, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241784

ABSTRACT

In April 2020 American President Donald Trump publicly stated that consuming disinfectant could cure COVID-19. This apparently shocking statement was not so shocking to many: some people believe that consuming Miracle Mineral Solution (MMS), a name for chlorine dioxide, an industrial bleach, can cure many illnesses. This article is a case note about Stanley v Finnegan, 447 F Supp 3d 771, 777 (WD Ark, 2020), in which parents sued their local county and sheriff in Arkansas for taking their children away after they encouraged their children to consume MMS. This case is particularly important in the current COVID-19 world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Disinfectants , Child , Humans , United States , Industry
17.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 16(3): 210-217, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244978

ABSTRACT

Effective communication with internal and external stakeholders is an indispensable component of a successful response to crises both brief and long-lasting. Employee communication must increase in volume and frequency, and effectively inform, educate and empower employees. The development, testing and delivery of clear and easy-to-understand messages must be prioritised along with the enablement of continuous employee feedback. Drawing on industry best practice, personal experience and an extensive review of the literature, this paper concludes that the systematic planning, implementation and evaluation of a company's employee communication must be conducted on an ongoing, company-wide basis so that management can rely on it to minimise crisis-related damage, seize the opportunities a crisis may present, and convert the resulting organisational change into competitive advantages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disaster Planning , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Industry , Communication
18.
OMICS ; 26(11): 589-593, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227769

ABSTRACT

Big data and data deluge are topics that are well known in the field of systems science. Digital transformation of big data and omics fields is also underway at present. These changes are impacting life sciences broadly, and high-throughput omics inquiries specifically. On the other hand, digital transformation also calls for rethinking citizenship and moving toward critically informed digital citizenship. Past approaches to digital citizenship have tended to frame the digital health issues narrowly, around technocracy, digital literacy, and technical competence in deployment and use of digital technologies. However, digital citizenship also calls for questioning the means and ends of digital transformation, the frames in which knowledge is produced in the current era. In this context, Industry 4.0 has been one of the innovation frameworks for automation through big data, and embedded sensors connected by wireless communication. Industry 4.0 and the attendant "smart" technologies relate to various automation approaches deployed as part of the public health responses to the COVID-19 pandemic as well. This article argues that there is a growing need to steer digital transformation toward critically informed digital citizenship, so that the provenance of digital data and knowledge is held to account from scientific design to implementation science, whether they concern academic or Industry 4.0 paradigms of innovation. There are enormous potentials and expectations from digital transformation in an era of COVID-19 and digital health. For this potential to materialize in ways that are efficient, democratic, and socially just, critical digital citizenship offers new ways forward. Systems science scholarship stands to benefit from a broadening of the focus on high-throughput omics technologies to a realm of critical digital citizenship, so the digital health innovations are well situated in their societal and political contexts.


Subject(s)
Big Data , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Citizenship , Industry
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1055406, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234605

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has damaged developing as well as developed economies and reduced the profitability of several companies. Technological advancement plays a vital role in the company's performance in this current situation. All activities carry on virtually. In this study, the financial performance of enterprises in the South Asian banking industry will be compared before and after the COVID-19 epidemic. Furthermore, the full influence of the pandemic will take place in the long run. This study also explains the technological effect on improving performance, especially during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. It has an impact on people's social lives as well as the economic world. This study examined a sample of 34 banks from the South Asian region from 2016 to 2021. A Wilcox rank test was used to determine whether there was a significant difference before and after the epidemic era. The overall conclusion of this study is that the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant influence on the bank's financial performance, particularly in terms of profitability. But technological advancement has a positive effect on organizational performance, ultimately increasing the financial performance of South Asian banks. And there is a big difference between pre-pandemic and post-pandemic organizational performance. The findings of this study have significant policy implications since it is clear that cooperation among governments, banks, regulatory agencies, and central banks is necessary to address the financial and economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Asian People , Government , Industry
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(2)2023 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227659

ABSTRACT

Work is a recognized social determinant of health. This became most apparent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Workers, particularly those in certain industries and occupations, were at risk due to interaction with the public and close proximity to co-workers. The purpose of this study was to assess how states collected work and employment data on COVID-19 cases, characterizing the need for systematic collection of case-based specific work and employment data, including industry and occupation, of COVID-19 cases. A survey was distributed among state occupational health contacts and epidemiologists in all 50 states to assess current practices in state public health surveillance systems. Twenty-seven states collected some kind of work and employment information from COVID-19 cases. Most states (93%) collected industry and/or occupation information. More than half used text-only fields, a predefined reference or dropdown list, or both. Use of work and employment data included identifying high risk populations, prioritizing vaccination efforts, and assisting with reopening plans. Reported barriers to collecting industry and occupation data were lack of staffing, technology issues, and funding. Scientific understanding of work-related COVID-19 risk requires the systematic, case-based collection of specific work and employment data, including industry and occupation. While this alone does not necessarily indicate a clear workplace exposure, collection of these data elements can help to determine and further prevent workplace outbreaks, thereby ensuring the viability of the nation's critical infrastructure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Determinants of Health , Occupations , Industry
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