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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 723252, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775838

ABSTRACT

Background: Child mortality is an important indication of an effective public health system. Data sources available for the estimation of child mortality in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are limited. Objective: The objective of this study was to provide child mortality estimates at the sub-national level in PNG using new data from the integrated Health and Demographic Surveillance System (iHDSS). Method: Using direct estimation and indirect estimation methods, household vital statistics and maternal birth history data were analysed to estimate three key child health indicators: Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR), Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR) for the period 2014-2017. Differentials of estimates were evaluated by comparing the mean relative differences between the two methods. Results: The direct estimations showed U5MR of 93, IMR of 51 and NMR of 34 per 1000 live births for all the sites in the period 2014-2017. The indirect estimations reported an U5MR of 105 and IMR of 67 per 1000 live births for all the sites in 2014. The mean relative differences in U5MR and IMR estimates between the two methods were 3 and 24 percentage points, respectively. U5MR estimates varied across the surveillance sites, with the highest level observed in Hela Province (136), and followed by Eastern Highlands (122), Madang (105), and Central (42). Discussion: The indirect estimations showed higher estimates for U5MR and IMR than the direct estimations. The differentials between IMR estimates were larger than between U5MR estimates, implying the U5MR estimates are more reliable than IMR estimates. The variations in child mortality estimates between provinces highlight the impact of contextual factors on child mortality. The high U5MR estimates were likely associated with inequality in socioeconomic development, limited access to healthcare services, and a result of the measles outbreaks that occurred in the highlands region from 2014-2017. Conclusion: The iHDSS has provided reliable data for the direct and indirect estimations of child mortality at the sub-national level. This data source is complementary to the existing national data sources for monitoring and reporting child mortality in PNG.


Subject(s)
Child Mortality , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Papua New Guinea/epidemiology
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 761, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing spread coronavirus disease worldwide has caused major disruptions and led to lockdowns. Everyday lifestyle changes and antenatal care inaccessibility during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have variable results that affect pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the alterations in stillbirth, neonatal-perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and birth weight during the COVID-19 national lockdown. METHODS: We used the data from the Jordan stillbirths and neonatal death surveillance system to compare pregnancy outcomes (gestational age, birth weight, small for gestational age, stillbirth, neonatal death, and perinatal death) between two studied periods (11 months before the pandemic (May 2019 to March 2020) vs. 9 months during the pandemic (April 2020 to March 1st 2020). Separate multinomial logistic and binary logistic regression models were used to compare the studied outcomes between the two studied periods after adjusting for the effects of mother's age, income, education, occupation, nationality, health sector, and multiplicity. RESULTS: There were 31106 registered babies during the study period; among them, 15311 (49.2%) and 15795 (50.8%) births occurred before and during the COVID-19 lockdown, respectively. We found no significant differences in preterm birth and stillbirth rates, neonatal mortality, or perinatal mortality before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings report a significantly lower incidence of extreme low birth weight (ELBW) infants (<1kg) during the COVID-19 lockdown period than that before the lockdown (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.3-0.5: P value <0.001) CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 lockdown period, the number of infants born with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) decreased significantly. More research is needed to determine the impact of cumulative socio-environmental and maternal behavioral changes that occurred during the pandemic on the factors that contribute to ELBW infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Jordan , Perinatal Mortality , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology
3.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(4): 1038-1044, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity (FI) affects approximately 11·1 % of US households and is related to worsened infant outcomes. Evidence in lower income countries links FI and infant mortality rates (IMR), but there are limited data in the USA. This study examines the relationship between FI and IMR in North Carolina (NC). DESIGN: NC county-level health data were used from the 2019 Robert Woods Johnson Foundation County Health Rankings. The dependent variable was county-level IMR. Eighteen county-level independent variables were selected and a multivariable linear regression was performed. The independent variable, FI, was based on the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Security Supplement to the Current Population Survey. SETTING: NC counties. PARTICIPANTS: Residents of NC, county-level data. RESULTS: The mean NC county-level IMR was 7·9 per 1000 live births compared with 5·8 nationally. The average percentage of county population reporting FI was 15·4 % in the state v. 11·8 % nationally. Three variables statistically significantly predicted county IMR: percent of county population reporting FI; county population and percent population with diabetes (P values, respectively, < 0·04; < 0·05; < 0·03). These variables explained 42·4 % of the variance of county-level IMR. With the largest standardised coefficient (0·247), FI was the strongest predictor of IMR. CONCLUSIONS: FI, low birth weight and diabetes are positively correlated with infant mortality. While correlation is not causation, addressing FI as part of multifaceted social determinants of health might improve county-level IMR in NC.


Subject(s)
Income , Infant Mortality , Family Characteristics , Food Insecurity , Humans , Infant , North Carolina/epidemiology , United States
4.
Scand J Public Health ; 50(1): 6-15, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724283

ABSTRACT

Background: All-cause mortality is a global indicator of the overall health of the population, and its relation to the macro economy is thus of vital interest. The main aim was to estimate the short-term and the long-term impact of macroeconomic change on all-cause mortality. Variations in the unemployment rate were used as indicator of temporary fluctuations in the economy. Methods: We used time-series data for 21 OECD countries spanning the period 1960-2018. We used four outcomes: total mortality (0+), infant mortality (<1), mortality in the age-group 20-64, and old-age mortality (65+). Data on GDP/capita were obtained from the Maddison Project. Unemployment data (% unemployed in the work force) were sourced from Eurostat. We applied error correction modelling to estimate the short-term and the long-term impact of macroeconomic change on all-cause mortality. Results: We found that increases in unemployment were statistically significantly associated with decreases in all mortality outcomes except old-age mortality. Increases in GDP were associated with significant lowering long-term effects on mortality. Conclusions: Our findings, based on data from predominantly affluent countries, suggest that an increase in unemployment leads to a decrease in all-cause mortality. However, economic growth, as indicated by increased GDP, has a long-term protective health impact as indexed by lowered mortality.


Subject(s)
Infant Mortality , Unemployment , Economic Recession , Humans , Mortality
5.
Trials ; 23(1): 95, 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Child mortality remains unacceptably high, with Northern Nigeria reporting some of the highest rates globally (e.g. 192/1000 live births in Jigawa State). Coverage of key protect and prevent interventions, such as vaccination and clean cooking fuel use, is low. Additionally, knowledge, care-seeking and health system factors are poor. Therefore, a whole systems approach is needed for sustainable reductions in child mortality. METHODS: This is a cluster randomised controlled trial, with integrated process and economic evaluations, conducted from January 2021 to September 2022. The trial will be conducted in Kiyawa Local Government Area, Jigawa State, Nigeria, with an estimated population of 230,000. Clusters are defined as primary government health facility catchment areas (n = 33). The 33 clusters will be randomly allocated (1:1) in a public ceremony, and 32 clusters included in the impact evaluation. The trial will evaluate a locally adapted 'whole systems strengthening' package of three evidence-based methods: community men's and women's groups, Partnership Defined Quality Scorecard and healthcare worker training, mentorship and provision of basic essential equipment and commodities. The primary outcome is mortality of children aged 7 days to 59 months. Mortality will be recorded prospectively using a cohort design, and secondary outcomes measured through baseline and endline cross-sectional surveys. Assuming the following, we will have a minimum detectable effect size of 30%: (a) baseline mortality of 100 per 1000 livebirths, (b) 4480 compounds with 3 eligible children per compound, (c) 80% power, (d) 5% significance, (e) intra-cluster correlation of 0.007 and (f) coefficient of variance of cluster size of 0.74. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat, comparing intervention and control clusters, adjusting for compound and trial clustering. DISCUSSION: This study will provide robust evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based participatory learning and action, with integrated health system strengthening and accountability mechanisms, to reduce child mortality. The ethnographic process evaluation will allow for a rich understanding of how the intervention works in this context. However, we encountered a key challenge in calculating the sample size, given the lack of timely and reliable mortality data and the uncertain impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 39213655 . Registered on 11 December 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant Mortality , Male , Maternal Mortality , Nigeria , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(1): e114-e123, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630866

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sierra Leone's child and maternal mortality rates are among the highest in the world. However, little is known about the causes of premature mortality in the country. To rectify this, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone launched the Sierra Leone Sample Registration System (SL-SRS) of births and deaths. Here, we report cause-specific mortality from the first SL-SRS round, representing deaths from 2018 to 2020. METHODS: The Countrywide Mortality Surveillance for Action platform established the SL-SRS, which involved conducting electronic verbal autopsies in 678 randomly selected villages and urban blocks throughout the country. 61 surveyors, in teams of four or five, enrolled people and ascertained deaths of individuals younger than 70 years in 2019-20, capturing verbal autopsies on deaths from 2018 to 2020. Centrally, two trained physicians independently assigned causes of death according to the International Classification of Diseases (tenth edition). SL-SRS death proportions were applied to 5-year mortality averages from the UN World Population Prospects (2019) to derive cause-specific death totals and risks of death nationally and in four Sierra Leone regions, with comparisons made with the Western region where Freetown, the capital, is located. We compared SL-SRS results with the cause-specific mortality estimates for Sierra Leone in the 2019 WHO Global Health Estimates. FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2019, and Dec 15, 2020, we enrolled 343 000 people and ascertained 8374 deaths of individuals younger than 70 years. Malaria was the leading cause of death in children and adults, nationally and in each region, representing 22% of deaths under age 70 years in 2020. Other infectious diseases accounted for an additional 16% of deaths. Overall maternal mortality ratio was 510 deaths per 100 000 livebirths (95% CI 483-538), and neonatal mortality rate was 31·1 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% CI 30·4-31·8), both among the highest rates in the world. Haemorrhage was the major cause of maternal mortality and birth asphyxia or trauma was the major cause of neonatal mortality. Excess deaths were not detected in the months of 2020 corresponding to the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Half of the deaths occurred in rural areas and at home. If the Northern, Eastern, and Southern regions of Sierra Leone had the lower death rates observed in the Western region, about 20 000 deaths (just over a quarter of national total deaths in people younger than 70 years) would have been avoided. WHO model-based data vastly underestimated malaria deaths and some specific causes of injury deaths, and substantially overestimated maternal mortality. INTERPRETATION: Over 60% of individuals in Sierra Leone die prematurely, before age 70 years, most from preventable or treatable causes. Nationally representative mortality surveys such as the SL-SRS are of high value in providing reliable cause-of-death information to set public health priorities and target interventions in low-income countries. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Queen Elizabeth Scholarship Program.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Mortality, Premature , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child Mortality , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Malaria/mortality , Male , Maternal Mortality , Middle Aged , Sierra Leone/epidemiology
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the early COVID-19 pandemic travel in Uganda was tightly restricted which affected demand for and access to care for pregnant women and small and sick newborns. In this study we describe changes to neonatal outcomes in one rural central Ugandan newborn unit before and during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We report outcomes from admissions captured in an electronic dataset of a well-established newborn unit before (September 2019 to March 2020) and during the early COVID-19 period (April-September 2020) as well as two seasonally matched periods one year prior. We report excess mortality as the percent change in mortality over what was expected based on seasonal trends. FINDINGS: The study included 2,494 patients, 567 of whom were admitted during the early COVID-19 period. During the pandemic admissions decreased by 14%. Patients born outside the facility were older on admission than previously (median 1 day of age vs. admission on the day of birth). There was an increase in admissions with birth asphyxia (22% vs. 15% of patients). Mortality was higher during COVID-19 than previously [16% vs. 11%, p = 0.017]. Patients born outside the facility had a relative increase of 55% above seasonal expected mortality (21% vs. 14%, p = 0.028). During this period patients had decreased antenatal care, restricted transport and difficulty with expenses and support. The hospital had difficulty with maternity staffing and supplies. There was significant community and staff fear of COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: Increased newborn mortality during the early COVID-19 pandemic at this facility was likely attributed to disruptions affecting maternal and newborn demand for, access to and quality of perinatal healthcare. Lockdown conditions and restrictions to public transit were significant barriers to maternal and newborn wellbeing, and require further focus by national and regional health officials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Rural/statistics & numerical data , Infant Mortality , Adult , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Female , Hospitals, Rural/organization & administration , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Age , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
N Engl J Med ; 385(26): 2476-2477, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575255
9.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 37(2): 1131-1156, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549200

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted in Indian states to examine the effect of monetary and non-monetary factors on Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Life Expectancy at Birth (LEB) by using the panel regression model. In addition, an attempt was also made to analysis the unequal pattern of health infrastructure and services across states over time with the help of a composite index on health infrastructure and services. It was found that the index value of the best performing state Chhattisgarh is more than fourth six times that of the worst performing state. The study also showed that, despite the higher level of average per capita public health expenditure and moderately better health infrastructure, the COVID 19 induced death rate was high in Punjab, Sikkim, Delhi and Goa. The panel regression results revealed that, an average increase of 1% in the monetary factor, public health expenditure to Gross State Domestic Product ratio (PHEGSDPR), would decrease the average of IMR by about 10%. Moreover, the elasticity of IMR with respect to non-monetary factor, health infrastructure and services per 0.1 million population (HISPLP), was negative and significant. Likewise, the explanatory variables, HISPLP and PHEGSDPR have a positive and significant effect on the LEB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Life Expectancy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(3): 1175-1184, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516855

ABSTRACT

Using provisional or opportunistic data, three nationwide studies (The Netherlands, the USA and Denmark) have identified a reduction in preterm or extremely preterm births during periods of COVID-19 restrictions. However, none of the studies accounted for perinatal deaths. To determine whether the reduction in extremely preterm births, observed in Denmark during the COVID-19 lockdown, could be the result of an increase in perinatal deaths and to assess the impact of extended COVID-19 restrictions, we performed a nationwide Danish register-based prevalence proportion study. We examined all singleton pregnancies delivered in Denmark during the COVID-19 strict lockdown calendar periods (March 12-April 14, 2015-2020, N = 31,164 births) and the extended calendar periods of COVID-19 restrictions (February 27-September 30, 2015-2020, N = 214,862 births). The extremely preterm birth rate was reduced (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.86) during the strict lockdown period in 2020, while perinatal mortality was not significantly different. During the extended period of restrictions in 2020, the extremely preterm birth rate was marginally reduced, and a significant reduction in the stillbirth rate (OR 0.69, 0.50 to 0.95) was observed. No changes in early neonatal mortality rates were found.Conclusion: Stillbirth and extremely preterm birth rates were reduced in Denmark during the period of COVID-19 restrictions and lockdown, respectively, suggesting that aspects of these containment and control measures confer an element of protection. The present observational study does not allow for causal inference; however, the results support the design of studies to ascertain whether behavioural or social changes for pregnant women may improve pregnancy outcomes. What is Known: • The aetiologies of preterm birth and stillbirth are multifaceted and linked to a wide range of socio-demographic, medical, obstetric, foetal, psychosocial and environmental factors. • The COVID-19 lockdown saw a reduction in extremely preterm births in Denmark and other high-income countries. An urgent question is whether this reduction can be explained by increased perinatal mortality. What is New: • The reduction in extremely preterm births during the Danish COVID-19 lockdown was not a consequence of increased perinatal mortality, which remained unchanged during this period. • The stillbirth rate was reduced throughout the extended period of COVID-19 restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Perinatal Death , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 761, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing spread coronavirus disease worldwide has caused major disruptions and led to lockdowns. Everyday lifestyle changes and antenatal care inaccessibility during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have variable results that affect pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the alterations in stillbirth, neonatal-perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and birth weight during the COVID-19 national lockdown. METHODS: We used the data from the Jordan stillbirths and neonatal death surveillance system to compare pregnancy outcomes (gestational age, birth weight, small for gestational age, stillbirth, neonatal death, and perinatal death) between two studied periods (11 months before the pandemic (May 2019 to March 2020) vs. 9 months during the pandemic (April 2020 to March 1st 2020). Separate multinomial logistic and binary logistic regression models were used to compare the studied outcomes between the two studied periods after adjusting for the effects of mother's age, income, education, occupation, nationality, health sector, and multiplicity. RESULTS: There were 31106 registered babies during the study period; among them, 15311 (49.2%) and 15795 (50.8%) births occurred before and during the COVID-19 lockdown, respectively. We found no significant differences in preterm birth and stillbirth rates, neonatal mortality, or perinatal mortality before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings report a significantly lower incidence of extreme low birth weight (ELBW) infants (<1kg) during the COVID-19 lockdown period than that before the lockdown (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.3-0.5: P value <0.001) CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 lockdown period, the number of infants born with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) decreased significantly. More research is needed to determine the impact of cumulative socio-environmental and maternal behavioral changes that occurred during the pandemic on the factors that contribute to ELBW infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Jordan , Perinatal Mortality , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology
13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most of the deaths among neonates in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be prevented through universal access to basic high-quality health services including essential facility-based inpatient care. However, poor routine data undermines data-informed efforts to monitor and promote improvements in the quality of newborn care across hospitals. METHODS: Continuously collected routine patients' data from structured paper record forms for all admissions to newborn units (NBUs) from 16 purposively selected Kenyan public hospitals that are part of a clinical information network were analysed together with data from all paediatric admissions ages 0-13 years from 14 of these hospitals. Data are used to show the proportion of all admissions and deaths in the neonatal age group and examine morbidity and mortality patterns, stratified by birth weight, and their variation across hospitals. FINDINGS: During the 354 hospital months study period, 90 222 patients were admitted to the 14 hospitals contributing NBU and general paediatric ward data. 46% of all the admissions were neonates (aged 0-28 days), but they accounted for 66% of the deaths in the age group 0-13 years. 41 657 inborn neonates were admitted in the NBUs across the 16 hospitals during the study period. 4266/41 657 died giving a crude mortality rate of 10.2% (95% CI 9.97% to 10.55%), with 60% of these deaths occurring on the first-day of admission. Intrapartum-related complications was the single most common diagnosis among the neonates with birth weight of 2000 g or more who died. A threefold variation in mortality across hospitals was observed for birth weight categories 1000-1499 g and 1500-1999 g. INTERPRETATION: The high proportion of neonatal deaths in hospitals may reflect changing patterns of childhood mortality. Majority of newborns died of preventable causes (>95%). Despite availability of high-impact low-cost interventions, hospitals have high and very variable mortality proportions after stratification by birth weight.


Subject(s)
Hospitals , Infant Mortality , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kenya/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
14.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 101(1): 7-24, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Conflicting reports of increases and decreases in rates of preterm birth (PTB) and stillbirth in the general population during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have surfaced. The objective of our study was to conduct a living systematic review and meta-analyses of studies reporting pregnancy and neonatal outcomes by comparing the pandemic and pre-pandemic periods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase databases, reference lists of articles published up until August 14, 2021 and included English language studies that compared outcomes between the COVID-19 pandemic time period and the pre-pandemic time periods. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis using the inverse variance method. RESULTS: Forty-five studies with low-to-moderate risk of bias, reporting on 1 843 665 pregnancies during the pandemic period and 23 564 552 pregnancies during the pre-pandemic period, were included. There was significant reduction in unadjusted estimates of PTB (35 studies, unadjusted odds ratio [uaOR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98), but not in adjusted estimates (six studies, adjusted OR [aOR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.80-1.13). This reduction was noted in studies from single centers/health areas (25 studies, uaOR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.96) but not in regional/national studies (10 studies, uaOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95-1.02). There was reduction in spontaneous PTB (six studies, uaOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.96) and induced PTB (five studies, uaOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.97). There was no difference in the odds of stillbirth between the pandemic and pre-pandemic time periods (24 studies, uaOR 1.11, 95% CI 0.97-1.26 and four studies, aOR 1.06, 95% CI 0.81-1.38). There was an increase in mean birthweight during the pandemic period compared with the pre-pandemic period (six studies, mean difference 17 g, 95% CI 7-28 g). The odds of maternal mortality were increased (four studies, uaOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.26); however, only unadjusted estimates were available and the result was mostly influenced by one study from Mexico. There was significant publication bias for the outcome of PTB. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic may be associated with a reduction in PTB; however, referral bias cannot be excluded. There was no statistically significant difference in stillbirth between pandemic and pre-pandemic periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/trends , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality/trends , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Mortality/trends , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Publication Bias , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
15.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253110, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends inpatient hospital treatment of young infants up to two months old with any sign of possible serious infection. However, each sign may have a different risk of death. The current study aims to calculate the case fatality ratio for infants with individual or combined signs of possible serious infection, stratified by inpatient or outpatient treatment. METHODS: We analysed data from the African Neonatal Sepsis Trial conducted in five sites in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Nigeria. Trained study nurses classified sick infants as pneumonia (fast breathing in 7-59 days old), severe pneumonia (fast breathing in 0-6 days old), clinical severe infection [severe chest indrawing, high (> = 38°C) or low body temperature (<35.5°C), stopped feeding well, or movement only when stimulated] or critical illness (convulsions, not able to feed at all, or no movement at all), and referred them to a hospital for inpatient treatment. Infants whose caregivers refused referral received outpatient treatment. The case fatality ratio by day 15 was calculated for individual and combined clinical signs and stratified by place of treatment. An infant with signs of clinical severe infection or severe pneumonia was recategorised as having low- (case fatality ratio ≤2%) or moderate- (case fatality ratio >2%) mortality risk. RESULTS: Of 7129 young infants with a possible serious infection, fast breathing (in 7-59 days old) was the most prevalent sign (26%), followed by high body temperature (20%) and severe chest indrawing (19%). Infants with pneumonia had the lowest case fatality ratio (0.2%), followed by severe pneumonia (2.0%), clinical severe infection (2.3%) and critical illness (16.9%). Infants with clinical severe infection had a wide range of case fatality ratios for individual signs (from 0.8% to 11.0%). Infants with pneumonia had similar case fatality ratio for outpatient and inpatient treatment (0.2% vs. 0.3%, p = 0.74). Infants with clinical severe infection or severe pneumonia had a lower case fatality ratio among those who received outpatient treatment compared to inpatient treatment (1.9% vs. 6.5%, p<0.0001). We recategorised infants into low-mortality risk signs (case fatality ratio ≤2%) of clinical severe infection (high body temperature, or severe chest indrawing) or severe pneumonia and moderate-mortality risk signs (case fatality ratio >2%) (stopped feeding well, movement only when stimulated, low body temperature or multiple signs of clinical severe infection). We found that both categories had four times lower case fatality ratio when treated as outpatient than inpatient treatment, i.e., 1.0% vs. 4.0% (p<0.0001) and 5.3% vs. 22.4% (p<0.0001), respectively. In contrast, infants with signs of critical illness had nearly two times higher case fatality ratio when treated as outpatient versus inpatient treatment (21.7% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.097). CONCLUSIONS: The mortality risk differs with clinical signs. Young infants with a possible serious infection can be grouped into those with low-mortality risk signs (high body temperature, or severe chest indrawing or severe pneumonia); moderate-mortality risk signs (stopped feeding well, movement only when stimulated, low body temperature or multiple signs of clinical severe infection), or high-mortality risk signs (signs of critical illness). New treatment strategies that consider differential mortality risks for the place of treatment and duration of inpatient treatment could be developed and evaluated based on these findings. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry under ID ACTRN 12610000286044.


Subject(s)
Fever/complications , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infant Mortality/trends , Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Body Temperature , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infections/drug therapy , Infections/epidemiology , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology
16.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 63(1): 78-83, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women has important impacts on perinatal and neonatal outcomes. However, there are a limited number of studies investigating the effect of the pandemic period on newborns. With this study, we aimed to determine the impact of the 2020 COVID-19 outbreak on prenatal care, obstetric outcomes, neonatal mortality and morbidity. METHODS: The retrospective results of patients hospitalized to the Tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between 1 March and 30 May 2020, the first peak period of the pandemic in our country, were compared with the data of the same period of the previous year. RESULTS: A total of 307 cases were included in our study. The mean gestational weeks of the neonates hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit during the COVID-19 period were higher than those in the control group (p: 0.003). During the pandemic period, an increase was found in the frequency of pregnant women presenting to obstetric emergency services in emergencies requiring acute intervention (p: 0.01). Compared to the control group, there was an increase in the number of infants with small for gestational age (SGA) diagnosis, 5th-minute Apgar score of <7, and newborns with a diagnosis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who were treated with hypothermia in the study group (p < 0.05). No difference was found in terms of maternal and neonatal mortality (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, it was shown that pregnant women disrupted their regular antenatal care, and more pregnant women were admitted to the obstetric emergency department with emergencies requiring acute intervention. This led to an increase in the number of cases diagnosed with SGA and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. Our results will be useful for better management of current and future pandemic periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Morbidity , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 118-129, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478424

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding has a protective effect against acute respiratory and diarrheal infections. There are psychological and social effects due to physical isolation in the population in the mother-child group. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on infant mortality due to a decrease in the prevalence of breastfeeding during 2020 due to the physical isolation against the SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic in Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the population attributable risk approach taking into account the prevalence of breastfeeding and its potential decrease associated with the measures of physical isolation and the relative risk (RR) of the association between exclusive breastfeeding and the occurrence of acute infection consequences in the growth (weight for height) of children under the age of five through a mathematical modeling program. RESULTS: We found an increase of 11.39% in the number of cases of growth arrest in the age group of 6 to 11 months with a 50% decrease in breastfeeding prevalence, as well as an increase in the number of diarrhea cases in children between 1 and 5 months of age from 5% (5.67%) on, and an increased number of deaths in children under 5 years (9.04%) with a 50% decrease in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: A lower prevalence of breastfeeding has an impact on infant morbidity and mortality in the short and medium-term. As a public health policy, current maternal and childcare strategies must be kept in order to reduce risks in the pediatric population.


Introducción. La lactancia materna tiene un efecto protector frente a infecciones respiratorias y diarreicas agudas. Hay efectos psicológicos y sociales por el aislamiento físico en la población en el grupo materno-infantil. Objetivo. Evaluar el eventual impacto en la mortalidad infantil de la disminución en la prevalencia de la lactancia materna durante el 2020 a causa del aislamiento físico por la pandemia del SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó el enfoque de riesgo atribuible poblacional, teniendo en cuenta la prevalencia de la lactancia materna y su potencial disminución asociada con las medidas de aislamiento físico y el riesgo relativo (RR) de la asociación entre la lactancia materna exclusiva y el efecto de la aparición de infecciones agudas en el crecimiento (peso para la altura) de niños menores de cinco años mediante un programa de modelamiento matemático. Resultados. Se registró un aumento del número casos de detención del crecimiento en el grupo etario de 6 a 11 meses de 11,39 % al disminuir en 50 % la prevalencia de la lactancia materna, así como un mayor número de casos por diarrea en los cinco primeros meses a partir del 5 % (5,67 %), y un incremento en el número de muertes en menores de 5 años (9,04 %) al disminuirse en 50 % la prevalencia de la lactancia materna. Conclusiones. Se registró un impacto en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil a corto y mediano plazo al disminuir la prevalencia en la lactancia materna. Como política pública en salud, deben mantenerse las estrategias actuales de atención materno-infantil para disminuir riesgos en la población infantil.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Child Mortality , Child, Preschool , Colombia/epidemiology , Diarrhea, Infantile/epidemiology , Female , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Models, Theoretical , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
18.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 870-905, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential trajectories of child mortality for the next decade, we present the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 findings for all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in children younger than 5 years of age, with multiple scenarios for child mortality in 2030 that include the consideration of potential effects of COVID-19, and a novel framework for quantifying optimal child survival. METHODS: We completed all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality analyses from 204 countries and territories for detailed age groups separately, with aggregated mortality probabilities per 1000 livebirths computed for neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR). Scenarios for 2030 represent different potential trajectories, notably including potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact of improvements preferentially targeting neonatal survival. Optimal child survival metrics were developed by age, sex, and cause of death across all GBD location-years. The first metric is a global optimum and is based on the lowest observed mortality, and the second is a survival potential frontier that is based on stochastic frontier analysis of observed mortality and Healthcare Access and Quality Index. FINDINGS: Global U5MR decreased from 71·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 68·3-74·0) in 2000 to 37·1 (33·2-41·7) in 2019 while global NMR correspondingly declined more slowly from 28·0 deaths per 1000 live births (26·8-29·5) in 2000 to 17·9 (16·3-19·8) in 2019. In 2019, 136 (67%) of 204 countries had a U5MR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold and 133 (65%) had an NMR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold, and the reference scenario suggests that by 2030, 154 (75%) of all countries could meet the U5MR targets, and 139 (68%) could meet the NMR targets. Deaths of children younger than 5 years totalled 9·65 million (95% UI 9·05-10·30) in 2000 and 5·05 million (4·27-6·02) in 2019, with the neonatal fraction of these deaths increasing from 39% (3·76 million [95% UI 3·53-4·02]) in 2000 to 48% (2·42 million; 2·06-2·86) in 2019. NMR and U5MR were generally higher in males than in females, although there was no statistically significant difference at the global level. Neonatal disorders remained the leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in 2019, followed by lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, congenital birth defects, and malaria. The global optimum analysis suggests NMR could be reduced to as low as 0·80 (95% UI 0·71-0·86) deaths per 1000 livebirths and U5MR to 1·44 (95% UI 1·27-1·58) deaths per 1000 livebirths, and in 2019, there were as many as 1·87 million (95% UI 1·35-2·58; 37% [95% UI 32-43]) of 5·05 million more deaths of children younger than 5 years than the survival potential frontier. INTERPRETATION: Global child mortality declined by almost half between 2000 and 2019, but progress remains slower in neonates and 65 (32%) of 204 countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, are not on track to meet either SDG 3.2 target by 2030. Focused improvements in perinatal and newborn care, continued and expanded delivery of essential interventions such as vaccination and infection prevention, an enhanced focus on equity, continued focus on poverty reduction and education, and investment in strengthening health systems across the development spectrum have the potential to substantially improve U5MR. Given the widespread effects of COVID-19, considerable effort will be required to maintain and accelerate progress. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Child Mortality/trends , Global Health/trends , Infant Mortality/trends , Sustainable Development , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cause of Death/trends , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Life Tables , Male , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(5): 378-385, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394714

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As of 2018, the total world population of children < 5 years of age was roughly estimated at 679 million. Of these children, an estimated 5.3 million died of all causes in 2018, with an estimated 700,000 who died of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases; 99% of the children who died had lived in low- and middle-income countries. The infectious diseases that remain major causes of mortality for which vaccines have been shown to provide proven preventive success include, in order of prevalence, are those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rotavirus, Bordetella pertussis, measles virus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and influenza virus. Objective: The purpose of the present report was to address the global burden of these six vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in children < 5 years of age, together with implications for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in children. Methods: The current immunization strategies for the prevention of the six vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in children are reviewed as a framework for new strategies of vaccine prevention of COVID-19 in children. Results: The burden of addressing vaccine prevention of future infectious disease in children can be effectively pursued through knowledge gained from past experiences with vaccine usage in these six vaccine-preventable childhood infectious diseases. Conclusion: Issues with regard to the burden of disease mortality, disease transmission, and available vaccines as well as vaccine successes and shortcomings for specific pathogens can serve as important landmarks for effective use of future vaccines. Although much success has been made globally in preventing these childhood deaths, much remains to be done.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Mass Vaccination , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Mortality , Child, Preschool , Cost of Illness , Developing Countries , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prevalence , Vaccination Refusal , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control
20.
CMAJ ; 193(30): E1164-E1172, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Conflicting reports have emerged for rates of preterm births and stillbirths during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of these reports did not account for natural variation in these rates. We aimed to evaluate variations in preterm birth and stillbirth rates before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked population health administrative databases of pregnant people giving birth in any hospital in Ontario between July 2002 and December 2020. We calculated preterm birth and stillbirth rates. We assessed preterm birth at 22-28, 29-32 and 33-36 weeks' gestation, and stillbirths at term and preterm gestation. We used Laney control P' charts for the 18-year study period (6-mo observation periods) and interrupted time-series analyses for monthly rates for the most recent 4 years. RESULTS: We evaluated 2 465 387 pregnancies, including 13 781 that resulted in stillbirth. The mean preterm birth rate for our cohort was 7.96% (range 7.32%-8.59%). From January to December 2020, we determined that the preterm birth rate in Ontario was 7.87%, with no special cause variation. The mean stillbirth rate for the cohort was 0.56% (range 0.48%-0.70%). From January to December 2020, the stillbirth rate was 0.53%, with no special cause variation. We did not find any special cause variation for preterm birth or stillbirth subgroups. We found no changes in slope or gap between prepandemic and pandemic periods using interrupted time-series analyses. INTERPRETATION: In Ontario, Canada, we found no special cause variation (unusual change) in preterm birth or stillbirth rates, overall or by subgroups, during the first 12 months of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the previous 17.5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infant Mortality/trends , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Ontario , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
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