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1.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(3): 362-365, 2020 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684002

ABSTRACT

In a family experiencing coronavirus disease 2019, the parents and 2 children aged 2 and 5 years became infected but the youngest child was not infected. Both children initially shed infectious virus, but cleared the virus after 5 to 6 days in the nasopharynx. However, viral RNA was continuously detected in the children's stool for more than 4 weeks.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Family , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
2.
Med J Aust ; 212(11): C1-C2, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-632914
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1384, 2020 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, many have flagged racial and ethnic differences in health outcomes in western countries as an urgent global public health priority. Kuwait has a unique demographic profile with two-thirds of the population consisting of non-nationals, most of which are migrant workers. We aimed to explore whether there is a significant difference in health outcomes between non-Kuwaiti and Kuwaiti patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: We used a prospective COVID-19 registry of all patients (symptomatic and asymptomatic) in Kuwait who tested positive from February 24th to April 20th, 2020, collected from Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah Hospital, the officially-designated COVID-19 healthcare facility in the country. We ran separate logistic regression models comparing non-Kuwaitis to Kuwaitis for death, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pneumonia. RESULTS: The first 1123 COVID-19 positive patients in Kuwait were all recruited in the study. About 26% were Kuwaitis and 73% were non-Kuwaiti. With adjustments made to age, gender, smoking and selected co-morbidities, non-Kuwaitis had two-fold increase in the odds of death or being admitted to the intensive care unit compared to Kuwaitis (OR: 2.14, 95% CI 1.12-4.32). Non-Kuwaitis had also higher odds of ARDS (OR:2.44, 95% CI 1.23-5.09) and pneumonia (OR: 2.24, 95% CI 1.27-4.12). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report on COVID-19 outcomes between Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti patients. The current pandemic may have amplified the differences of health outcomes among marginalized subpopulations. A number of socioeconomic and environmental factors could explain this health disparity. More research is needed to advance the understanding of policymakers in Kuwait in order to make urgent public health interventions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Kuwait/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Registries , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e11, 2020 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea remains a public health problem and an important cause of morbidity and mortality amongst children, mainly in low- and middle-income countries. In Namibia, the national prevalence of diarrhoea was 17%; it was responsible for 5% of all deaths in children under 5 years old and is the second leading cause of death. AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology and factors associated with acute diarrhoea amongst children less than 5 years of age in Engela district in the Ohangwena region, Namibia. SETTING: The study was conducted in Ohangwena Region in Namibia which extends east to west along the borders of the southern part of Angola. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A structured questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the socio-demographic and epidemiological data of diarrhoea and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of diarrhoea. RESULTS: The study found a prevalence of 23.8% for diarrhoea in the 2 weeks period preceding the survey amongst children aged under 5 years. The prevalence of diarrhoea was statistically significantly associated with children (p 0.05). The strongest predictor of the prevalence of diarrhoea was the residential area 'informal settlement', with an odds ratio of 36.42. This implies that children living in the informal settlement are 36.42 times at risk of contracting diarrhoea as compared to those living in other residential areas. CONCLUSION: epidemiology; factors; diarrhoea; under-5 years children; Engela district; Ohangwena region; Namibia.


Subject(s)
Diarrhea/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Namibia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
5.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 635-639, 2020 Aug 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749115

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the spectrum of pathogenic agents in pediatric patients with acute respiratory infections (ARI) during the outbreak of coronavirus infectious diseases 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Three groups of children were enrolled into the prospective study during January 20 to February 20, 2020 from Capital Institute of Pediatrics, including children in the exposed group with ARI and epidemiological history associated with COVID-19 from whom both pharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected, children in the ARI group without COVID-19 associated epidemiological history and children in the screening group for hospital admission, with neither COVID-19 associated epidemiological history nor ARI. Only nasopharyngeal swabs were collected in the ARI group and screening group. Each group is expected to include at least 30 cases. All specimens were tested for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid by two diagnostic kits from different manufacturers. All nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for multiple respiratory pathogens, whilst the results from the ARI group were compared with that in the correspondence periods of 2019 and 2018 used by t or χ(2) test. Results: A total of 244 children were enrolled into three groups, including 139 males and 105 females, the age was (5±4) years. The test of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid were negative in all children, and high positive rates of pathogens were detected in exposed (69.4%, 25/36) and ARI (55.3%, 73/132) groups, with the highest positive rate for mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) (19.4%, 7/36 and 17.4%, 23/132, respectively), followed by human metapneumovirus (hMPV) (16.7%, 6/36 and 9.8%, 13/132, respectively). The positive rate (11.8%, 9/76) of pathogens in the screening group was low. In the same period of 2019, the positive rate of pathogens was 83.7% (77/92), with the highest rates for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A (29.3%, 27/92), followed by influenza virus (Flu) A (H1N1) (19.6%, 18/92) and adenovirus (ADV) (14.1%, 13/92), which showed significant difference with the positive rates of the three viruses in 2020 (RSV A: χ(2)=27.346, P<0.01; FluA (H1N1): χ(2)=28.083, P<0.01; ADV: χ(2)=7.848, P=0.005) . In 2018, the positive rate of pathogens was 61.0% (50/82), with the highest rate for human bocavirus (HBoV) (13.4%, 11/82) and followed by ADV (11.0%, 9/82), and significant difference was shown in the positive rate of HBoV with that in 2020 (χ(2)=6.776, P=0.009). Conclusions: The infection rate of 2019-nCoV is low among children in Beijing with no family clustering or no close contact, even with epidemiological history. The spectrum of pathogens of ARI in children during the research period is quite different from that in the previous years when the viral infections were dominant. MP is the highest positively detected one among the main pathogens during the outbreak of COVID-19 in Beijing where there is no main outbreak area.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Paramyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Beijing/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Male , Metapneumovirus/pathogenicity , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Pediatrics , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
6.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 582-590, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the regional epidemic features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Henan Province, China. METHODS: According to the data of COVID-19 patients and the resident population at the end of 2018 in Henan Province, statistical description and analysis of epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in Henan Province were conducted, including the time distribution, population distribution, and regional distribution. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 in Henan Province was 1.32/100 000, the cure rate was 98.03%, and the fatality rate was 1.73% by March 9, 2020. The incidence curve showed that the epidemic peak reached from January 24 to January 28. The high-incidence area was Xinyang, with a standardized cumulative incidence rate of 4.36/100 000. There were 580 female COVID-19 patients (45.60%), 688 males (54.09%) in Henan Province. The incidence of males was 1.41/100 000, while the incidence of females was 1.23/100 000. The age with the highest incidence of COVID-19 in Henan Province was 20-69 years old (88.68%). The incidence rate was highest in men aged 30-39 (2.51/ 100 000), while the lowest rate in women aged 0-9 (0.16/100 000). There were 1 225 local patients (96.31%), and the rural patients (45.73%) were slightly higher than the urban patients (44.02%) in Henan Province. A total of 63.60% patients had traveled or lived in Hubei or contacted with people who came from Hubei to Henan. The proportion of patients whose family members suffered from COVID-19 was 32.70%. Global spatial autocorrelation analysis suggested that there was a statistically significant positive correlation in the spatial distribution of COVID-19 patients in Henan Province (Moran's I=0.248, Z=2.955, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 patients in different areas of Henan Province, with epidemic peak reaching from January 24 to January 28. Henan is dominated by local patients, male patients, and patients with contact history in Hubei. The space appears to be moderately clustered.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Spatial Analysis , Young Adult
7.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 442020 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743198

ABSTRACT

Cumulatively to 16 August there have been 23,696 case notifications and 428 deaths. The number of new cases reported nationally this fortnight (3-16 August 2020) was 3,767, a 37% decrease from the previous fortnight (5,944). On average this represented 269 cases diagnosed each day over the reporting period, a decrease from 425 cases per day over the previous reporting period. 3,628 (96%) of all cases were reported in Victoria, with a smaller number of cases reported from NSW (125), Qld (2), WA (5), SA (6) and Tas (1). In Victoria, the majority of cases (3,284; 90%) were locally acquired, with a further 344 (10%) under investigation at the time of analysis, but likely also to be locally acquired. Of the remaining 139 cases reported, 26 (19%) were overseas acquired; 110 (80%) were locally acquired, predominantly in NSW, and 3 (2%) were reported as under investigation. The decrease in new cases observed this fortnight in Victoria is likely associated with the enhanced public health measures that are currently in place in Victoria. A total of 54 deaths were reported, all from Victoria: 52 (96%) were aged 70 years and over, and 2 (4%) were aged 30 to 69 years. Testing rates remain high across all jurisdictions, with an overall positivity rate for the reporting period of 0.6%. Victoria reported a positivity rate of 1.7% for this reporting period; in all other jurisdictions the positivity rate was 0.05% or lower.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Notification , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Population Surveillance , Young Adult
8.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 38: e2020165, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740454

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recently, there have been reports of children with severe inflammatory syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction associated with elevated inflammatory markers. These cases are reported as presenting the Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19. In this study, we describe with parental permission a case of MIS-C in an infant with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. CASE DESCRIPTION: A seven-month-old infant, with SARS-CoV-2 infection and a history of extreme preterm birth and very low weight at birth, with an initial course of mild respiratory symptoms and abrupt progression to vasoplegic shock, myocarditis and hyperinflammation syndrome, shown by high levels of troponin I, ferritin, CRP, D-dimer and hypoalbuminemia. Despite the intensive care provided, the child developed multiple organ dysfunction and died. COMMENTS: Patients with a history of extreme prematurity may present with MIS-C in the presence of COVID-19 and are a group of special concern.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Multiple Organ Failure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Resuscitation , Shock , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Clinical Deterioration , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Premature Birth , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Resuscitation/methods , Risk Factors , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21427, 2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740192

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), now a global pandemic, has spread to a large number of countries around the world. Symptoms of COVID-19 can range from mild to severe, including fever, cough, shortness of breath, and pneumonia. Some cases even remain asymptomatic. Data regarding the epidemiological and clinical features of children with COVID-19 are limited. Symptoms in children are thought to be atypical when compared with adults. As a result, diagnosis in many children is likely to be missed. Children presenting with atypical symptoms, especially those with a history of exposure, should be referred to early screening. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 23-month-old boy presented with a 2-day history of diarrhea. Chest computed tomography scan showed pneumonia. After admission to the hospital, the patient exhibited no diarrhea or other symptoms. Positive presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, was confirmed by 5 consecutive rounds of nucleic acid amplification testing of nasopharyngeal swabs. The patient was also found to have liver damage. DIAGNOSIS: Swabs were obtained for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by established methods. INTERVENTIONS: Chinese traditional medicine prescription OUTCOMES:: Following treatment, signs of pneumonia on computed tomography scans were observed to be partially absorbed, and 2 consecutive rounds of nucleic acid amplification testing of swab samples were negative. The patient was discharged on the 21st day after admission to the hospital. On the 21st day after discharge, the patient had no recurrence of disease, no recurrence of pulmonary lesions, and normal liver function. CONCLUSION: This case study suggests that diarrhea not explained by common causes, such as acute gastroenteritis, could be a preliminary symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. Despite the lack of the presence of a fever or cough, lung pulmonary lesions were present in this child. SARS-CoV-2 infection may also cause hepatic injury. Even during the SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia recovery period, IgM and IgG antibodies can be positive for a long time.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diarrhea/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21284, 2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740190

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, which quickly spread throughout the world, has been putting medical workers all over the world in difficulty because of the high number of cases combined with the lack of information about the disease. Although pediatric cases are rare, the group age under 12 months has been in general more susceptible to develop severe forms of the disease compared with the patients in the age interval of 1 to 18 years. PATIENT CONCERNS: Three newborns have been tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. One of them presented bilateral decreased air entry, while the other 2 had no respiratory symptomatology. All 3 developed diaper erythema and oral candidiasis. DIAGNOSIS: For building up the report, newborns that were positive for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection were included in the case series. The chest X-ray of the symptomatic patient revealed a medium degree of hilar parenchymal infiltration and a slight infiltration of the visceral pleura. INTERVENTIONS: The patients were admitted in our isolated neonatology ward. All of them received antifungal treatment for the oral candidiasis and topic cream for diaper erythema. The symptomatic patient also received prophylactic antibiotherapy, human immunoglobulins, aminophylline, and parenteral nutrition. OUTCOMES: All 3 neonates were discharged after 2 consecutive negative tests for SARS-CoV-2. Patients 1 and 2 fully recovered, whereas the condition of patient 3 improved. LESSONS: Even if there are only a few reported cases of neonates infected with COVID-19 and most of them present mild manifestations, newborns need a more careful insight because of the nonspecific symptomatology.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Candidiasis, Oral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Erythema/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Skin Diseases, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Candidiasis, Oral/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Erythema/pathology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Romania/epidemiology , Skin Diseases, Viral/virology
11.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 1081-1086, jan.-dez. 2020. graf, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-739493

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar os principais tipos de neoplasia malignas em pacientes de 0 a 19 anos de idade nas regionais de saúde do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Método: Estudo ecológico que analisou as neoplasias mais frequentes através dos dados contidos no Sistema de Informação Hospitalar em 2017. Os dados foram analisados através do cálculo da frequência relativa. O mapeamento realizado no TabWin. Resultados: foram observados 2.662 casos de neoplasias malignas na população de 0-19 anos de idade residentes nas regionais de saúde do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sendo a Metropolitana I a de maior proporção e a leucemia o tipo de câncer infanto-juvenil mais frequente. Conclusão: apropriação desses dados torna possível concretizar estratégias para a construção de políticas públicas, visando medidas de prevenção, diagnosticas e tratamento vislumbrando maior sobrevida, melhor qualidade de vida e redução da taxa de mortalidade infanto-juvenil


Objective: The study's purpose has been to analyze the main types of malignant neoplasms among patients aged up to 19 years old across the regional health agencies from the Rio de Janeiro State. Methods: This ecological study analyzed the most frequent neoplasms using data from Sistema de Informação Hospitalar do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIH/SUS) [Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System] referring to the year 2017. The data were analyzed by calculating relative frequencies. The mapping was performed through the use of TabWin software. Results: A total of 2,662 cases of malignant neoplasms among people aged up to 19 years old were distributed across the regional health agencies of Rio de Janeiro State. The Metropolitana I [Metropolitan I] regional health agency presented the highest proportion of cases, and leukemia was the most predominant type of childhood and adolescent cancer. Conclusion: Through the data collected from the SIH/SUS, this study showed that it is possible to implement strategies for implementing public policies, aiming at implementing measures to prevent, diagnose and treat childhood and adolescent cancer so that survival rates can increase, these patients' quality of life can improve, and infant mortality rates can decrease


Objetivo: Analizar los principales tipos de neoplasia malignas en los pacientes de 0 a 19 años de edad en las regionales de salud del estado de Rio de Janeiro. Método: Estudio ecológico que analizó las neoplasias más frecuentes a través de los dados contenidos en el Sistema de Información Hospitalar en 2017. Los dados fueron analizados por el calculo de la frecuencia relativa. La cartografía fue realizada por medio del TabWin. Resultados: fueron observados 2.662 casos de neoplasias malignas en la populación de 0-19 años de edad residentes en las regiones de salud del Estado de Rio de Janeiro, teniendo la Metropolitana I la región de mayor proporción y la leucemia el tipo de cáncer infantil juvenil más frecuente. Conclusión: apropiación destos dados torna posible concretizar estrategias para la construcción de políticas públicas, mirando medidas de prevención, diagnósticas y tratamiento vislumbrando mayor sobrevida, mejor calidad de vida y reducción de la taza de mortalidad infantil juvenil


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Adolescent , Hospital Information Systems , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Unified Health System , Leukemia , Infant Mortality , Morbidity Surveys , Child Mortality/trends
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(8): 1671-1678, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737802

ABSTRACT

We describe the contact investigation for an early confirmed case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in the United States. Contacts of the case-patient were identified, actively monitored for symptoms, interviewed for a detailed exposure history, and tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) and ELISA. Fifty contacts were identified and 38 (76%) were interviewed, of whom 11 (29%) reported unprotected face-to-face interaction with the case-patient. Thirty-seven (74%) had respiratory specimens tested by rRT-PCR, and all tested negative. Twenty-three (46%) had ELISA performed on serum samples collected ≈6 weeks after exposure, and none had detectable antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Among contacts who were tested, no secondary transmission was identified in this investigation, despite unprotected close interactions with the infectious case-patient.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Public Health/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Travel , Washington/epidemiology
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(34): e317, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) outbreak began in China in December last year, and confirmed cases began occurring in Korea in mid-February 2020. Since the end of February, the rate of infection has increased greatly due to mass (herd) infection within religious groups and nursing homes in the Daegu and Gyeongbuk regions. This mass infection has increased the number of infected people more rapidly than was initially expected; the epidemic model based on existing studies had predicted a much lower infection rate and faster recovery. METHODS: The present study evaluated rapid infection spread by mass infection in Korea and the high mortality rate for the elderly and those with underlying diseases through the Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered-Dead (SEIRD) model. RESULTS: The present study demonstrated early infection peak occurrence (-6.3 days for Daegu and -5.3 days for Gyeongbuk) and slow recovery trend (= -1,486.6 persons for Daegu and -223.7 persons for Gyeongbuk) between the actual and the epidemic model for a mass infection region compared to a normal infection region. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the time difference between infection and recovery can help predict the epidemic peak due to mass (or normal) infection and can also be used as a time index to prepare medical resources.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Models, Statistical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3149020, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733121

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of pneumonia, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in China in December 2019. This virus expanded worldwide, causing global concern. Although clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of COVID-19 are characterized in some observational studies, we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the frequency of these features. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis using three databases to identify clinical, laboratory, and computerized tomography (CT) scanning features of rRT-PCR confirmed cases of COVID-19. Data for 3420 patients from 30 observational studies were included. Overall, the results showed that fever (84.2%, 95% CI 82.6-85.7), cough (62%, 95% CI 60-64), and fatigue (39.4%, 95% CI 37.2-41.6%) are the most prevalent symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Increased CRP level, decreased lymphocyte count, and increased D-dimer level were the most common laboratory findings. Among COVID-19 patients, 92% had a positive CT finding, most prevalently ground-glass opacification (GGO) (60%, 95% CI 58-62) and peripheral distribution opacification (64%, 95% CI 60-69). These results demonstrate the clinical, paraclinical, and imaging features of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238299, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732996

ABSTRACT

This paper seeks to determine which workers affected by lockdown measures can return to work when a government decides to apply lockdown exit strategies. This system, which we call Sequential Selective Multidimensional Decision (SSMD), involves deciding sequentially, by geographical areas, sectors of activity, age groups and immunity, which workers can return to work at a given time according to the epidemiological criteria of the country as well as that of a group of reference countries, used as a benchmark, that have suffered a lower level of lockdown de-escalation strategies. We apply SSMD to Spain, based on affiliation to the Social Security system prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and conclude that 98.37% of the population could be affected. The proposed system makes it possible to accurately identify the target population for serological IgG antibody tests in the work field, as well as those affected by special income replacement measures due to lockdown being maintained over a longer period.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Return to Work/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Decision Making , Decision Trees , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Spain , Young Adult
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(34): 1166-1169, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732630

ABSTRACT

Although non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons account for 0.7% of the U.S. population,* a recent analysis reported that 1.3% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases reported to CDC with known race and ethnicity were among AI/AN persons (1). To assess the impact of COVID-19 among the AI/AN population, reports of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases during January 22†-July 3, 2020 were analyzed. The analysis was limited to 23 states§ with >70% complete race/ethnicity information and five or more laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases among both AI/AN persons (alone or in combination with other races and ethnicities) and non-Hispanic white (white) persons. Among 424,899 COVID-19 cases reported by these states, 340,059 (80%) had complete race/ethnicity information; among these 340,059 cases, 9,072 (2.7%) occurred among AI/AN persons, and 138,960 (40.9%) among white persons. Among 340,059 cases with complete patient race/ethnicity data, the cumulative incidence among AI/AN persons in these 23 states was 594 per 100,000 AI/AN population (95% confidence interval [CI] = 203-1,740), compared with 169 per 100,000 white population (95% CI = 137-209) (rate ratio [RR] = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.2-10.1). AI/AN persons with COVID-19 were younger (median age = 40 years; interquartile range [IQR] = 26-56 years) than were white persons (median age = 51 years; IQR = 32-67 years). More complete case report data and timely, culturally responsive, and evidence-based public health efforts that leverage the strengths of AI/AN communities are needed to decrease COVID-19 transmission and improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Alaska Natives/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Indians, North American/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(34): 1170-1172, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732629

ABSTRACT

On June 1, 2020, with declines in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and hospitalizations in Rhode Island,* child care programs in the state reopened after a nearly 3-month closure implemented as part of mitigation efforts. To reopen safely, the Rhode Island Department of Human Services (RIDHS) required licensed center- and home-based child care programs to reduce enrollment, initially to a maximum of 12 persons, including staff members, in stable groups (i.e., staff members and students not switching between groups) in physically separated spaces, increasing to a maximum of 20 persons on June 29. Additional requirements included universal use of masks for adults, daily symptom screening of adults and children, and enhanced cleaning and disinfection according to CDC guidelines.† As of July 31, 666 of 891 (75%) programs were approved to reopen, with capacity for 18,945 children, representing 74% of the state's January 2020 child care program population (25,749 children).


Subject(s)
Child Care , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Child , Child Care/organization & administration , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Rhode Island/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 442020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729850

ABSTRACT

Confirmed cases in Australia this reporting period (20 July to 2 August): 6,121 notifications, 71 deaths. Cumulative: 18,367 notifications, 240 deaths. Over the past fortnightly reporting period (20 July to 2 August), the number of new cases reported nationally increased from 3,462 in the previous fortnight to 6,121. The large increase in numbers is due to multiple epidemiologically-linked outbreaks across a range of settings and locations in Victoria (97%; 5,914 cases) with very few (207) cases reported by other jurisdictions in this reporting period. Of the 5,914 cases reported in Victoria, all were locally acquired. Of the remaining 207 cases nationally reported, only 23% were reported as locally acquired. ACT is the only jurisdiction reporting 0 cases, with its last case reported on 9 July. A total of 71 deaths were reported, all from Victoria. On average, 437 cases were reported each day over the reporting period, an increase from 247 cases per day over the previous fortnight. Testing rates remain high across all jurisdictions, with an overall positivity rate for the reporting period of 0.7%. Victoria reported a positivity rate of 1.7% for this reporting period; in all other jurisdictions the positivity rate was 0.07% or lower. Overall, syndromic surveillance of respiratory illness trends continues to show very low levels compared to previous years. 12% of cases have required hospitalisation or intensive care.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New South Wales/epidemiology , Oceanic Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(33): e311, 2020 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729635

ABSTRACT

Serosurveillance studies reveal the actual disease burden and herd immunity level in the population. In Seoul, Korea, a cross-sectional investigation showed 0.07% anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 antibody seropositivity among 1,500 outpatients of the university hospitals. Low seroprevalence reflects well-implemented social distancing. Serosurveillance should be repeated as the pandemic progresses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Seoul/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
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