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1.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE02206, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20234531

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar os fatores associados à restrição do acompanhamento de lactentes que nasceram prematuros e/ou baixo peso durante a pandemia da COVID-19 e a percepção de mães e profissionais de saúde quanto a essa realidade. Métodos Pesquisa de método misto com delineamento paralelo convergente, realizada com 14 mães de lactentes que nasceram prematuros e/ou baixo peso acompanhados no ambulatório de follow-up de uma maternidade em um município da Paraíba, e quatro profissionais de saúde desse serviço. A coleta de dados foi realizada no período de junho a julho de 2020, concomitantemente, em fonte de dados secundários, constituída de todos os 140 prontuários dos respectivos lactentes para abordagem quantitativa, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, para abordagem qualitativa. A análise quantitativa ocorreu por estatística descritiva e inferencial, e a qualitativa, conforme análise temática indutiva. Resultados Houve associação significativa entre a idade dos lactentes e a restrição do seu acompanhamento no follow-up durante a pandemia, com priorização do atendimento presencial dos menores de seis meses, contatos pontuais com os familiares, via ligação telefônica ou aplicativo digital, e lacunas na atualização do calendário vacinal dos que tiveram o acompanhamento interrompido. Isso gerou insatisfação das mães e receio de prejuízos ao desenvolvimento dos lactentes. Também não houve continuidade do cuidado desses na unidade básica de saúde. Conclusão Houveram restrições no acompanhamento dos lactentes nascidos prematuros no serviço de follow-up durante a pandemia, gerando insatisfação materna e receio de prejuízos ao desenvolvimento de seus filhos.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar los factores asociados a la restricción del seguimiento de lactantes que nacieron prematuros o de bajo peso durante la pandemia de COVID-19 y la percepción de madres y profesionales de la salud respecto a esta realidad. Métodos Estudio de método mixto con diseño paralelo convergente, realizado con 14 madres de lactantes que nacieron prematuros o de bajo peso atendidos en consultorios externos de follow-up de una maternidad en un municipio del estado de Paraíba, y cuatro profesionales de la salud de este servicio. La recopilación de datos fue realizada en el período de junio a julio de 2020, simultáneamente en fuente de datos secundarios, compuesta por las 140 historias clínicas de los respectivos lactantes para el enfoque cuantitativo, por medio de entrevista semiestructurada, para el enfoque cualitativo. El análisis cuantitativo se llevó a cabo por estadística descriptiva e inferencial, y el cualitativo mediante análisis temático inductivo. Resultados Hubo relación significativa entre la edad de los lactantes y la restricción de su seguimiento en el follow-up durante la pandemia, con priorización de atención presencial a los menores de seis meses, contactos puntuales con los familiares, vía llamada telefónica o aplicación digital, y vacíos en la actualización del calendario de vacunación de los que tuvieron el seguimiento interrumpido. Esto generó insatisfacción de las madres y temor de perjudicar el desarrollo de los lactantes. Tampoco hubo continuidad del cuidado de estos en la unidad básica de salud. Conclusión Hubo restricciones en el seguimiento de los lactantes nacidos prematuros en el servicio de follow-up durante la pandemia, lo que generó insatisfacción materna y temor de perjudicar el desarrollo de sus hijos.


Abstract Objective To analyze the factors associated with restricting the follow-up of infants who were born premature and/or low birth weight during the COVID-19 pandemic and mothers' and health professionals' perception regarding this reality. Methods This is mixed methods research with a parallel convergent design, carried out with 14 mothers of infants who were born premature and/or low birth weight, followed up at a follow-up outpatient clinic of a maternity hospital in a municipality in Paraíba, and four health professionals from this service. Data collection was carried out from June to July 2020, concomitantly, in a secondary data source, consisting of all 140 medical records of the respective infants for a quantitative approach, through a semi-structured interview, for a qualitative approach. Quantitative analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and qualitative analysis, according to inductive thematic analysis. Results There was a significant association between infant age and the restriction of their follow-up during the pandemic, with prioritization of one-to-one care for children under six months of age, occasional contacts with family members, via phone call or digital application, and gaps in updating the vaccination schedule of those whose follow-up was interrupted. This generated dissatisfaction on the part of mothers and fear of harm to the development of infants. There was also no continuity of care for these in the Basic Health Unit. Conclusion There were restrictions on follow-up of premature infants in the follow-up service during the pandemic, generating maternal dissatisfaction and fear of damage to the development of their children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding , Infant, Premature , Maternal-Child Health Services , COVID-19 , Mothers , Child Health Services , Medical Records , Interviews as Topic , Evaluation Studies as Topic
2.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 27(2): 146-148, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231916

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most important metabolic emergency in children. Children mimic many syndromes with a combination of nonspecific symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many syndromes are triggered by changes in children's body conditions. Reporting specific cases can improve the diagnosis process. The present study reports an 18-month-old paediatric case of COVID-19 who presented ketoacidosis (DKA) symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: The case is an 18-month-old child with fever and diarrhoea from 3 days before, who did not respond to outpatient treatment. On the day of the visit, he suffered from deep and abdominal breathing and decreased level of consciousness and sugar levels at admission of 420 mg/dl. He was then admitted with the initial diagnosis of DKA and had a positive PCR test result for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the non-specific symptoms of COVID-19, general practitioners and paediatricians are recommended that special attention be paid to these symptoms, especially those that are similar to life-threatening syndromes. They also should not easily ignore these symptoms and follow up patients and their recovery status and, if patients do not recover, consider the risk of COVID-19 given the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nutrients ; 15(10)2023 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240825

ABSTRACT

Child hunger was prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the extent, determinants, and impact on pre-school children aged 6 months to 7 years old from Malaysian urban poor households are still unknown. This exploratory cross-sectional study was performed between July 2020 and January 2021 at the Lembah Subang People Housing Project, Petaling. The households' food security status was assessed using the previously validated Radimer/Cornell questionnaire, and the children's anthropometric measurements were taken. Food diversity score was assessed using the World Health Organization Infant and Young Children Feeding (under-2 children) or Food and Agriculture Organization Women's Dietary Diversity (2-year-old-and-above children) systems. Overall, 106 households were recruited. The prevalence of child hunger is 58.4% (95% CI: 50.0, 67.4). Significant differences were found in breastfeeding and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption between under-2 and ≥2-year-old children. There were no significant differences between child hunger and other food-insecure groups in weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height z-scores. Only a higher dietary diversity score was significantly protective against child hunger after adjusting for maternal age, paternal employment status, and the number of household children (ORadjusted: 0.637 (95% CI: 0.443, 0.916), p = 0.015)). Proactive strategies are warranted to reduce child hunger during the COVID-19 pandemic by improving childhood dietary diversity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nutritional Status , Infant , Humans , Child, Preschool , Female , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hunger , Prevalence , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Supply , Poverty
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8813, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240029

ABSTRACT

Mother-to-child transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a study to summarize evidence on the risk of mother-to-child transmission in the first 30 days after birth in high-income countries and to evaluate the association between preventive measures and the risk of infection for the neonate. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken following PRISMA guidelines. The National Library of Medicine, Web of Science, and Excerpta Medica databases were screened on February 26, 2022. All prospective observational studies addressing the frequency of infection in infants born to mothers SARS-CoV-2 positive were included. Twenty-six studies were included, reporting data of 2653 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 and 2677 neonates. The proportion meta-analysis pointed out an overall estimate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among infants of 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4-3.2%). Data from studies with (1.4%, 95% CI: 0.8-2) and without (1.3%, 95% CI: 0.0-2.7%) rooming-in provided similar risk of infection. Adopting at least two prevention measures during rooming-in resulted in a rate of mother-to-child infection of 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3-1.7%). The results of this study show a low rate of perinatal infection, support the rooming-in and confirm the effectiveness of preventive measures in reducing the risk of mother-to-child viral transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Developed Countries , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Observational Studies as Topic
6.
Med J Aust ; 218(11): 528-541, 2023 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239586

ABSTRACT

Vaccination in pregnancy is the best strategy to reduce complications from influenza or pertussis infection in infants who are too young to be protected directly from vaccination. Pregnant women are also at risk of influenza complications preventable through antenatal vaccination. Both vaccines are funded under the National Immunisation Program for pregnant women in Australia, but coverage is not routinely reported nationally. We reviewed all reported Australian maternal influenza and pertussis vaccine coverage data for the period 2016-2021, to identify gaps and information needs. Maternal influenza vaccine coverage was suboptimal at < 58% for 2016-2018, with higher coverage of 62-75% reported in two states (Victoria and Western Australia) for 2019-2021. Maternal pertussis vaccine coverage from 2016 was generally higher than for influenza at > 70%, with the highest jurisdictional coverage of 89% reported in Western Australia in 2020. Vaccination rates were often suboptimal among First Nations pregnant women and up to 20% lower than among non-First Nations Australian women; while data were limited, coverage was low among culturally and linguistically diverse women and among women of lower socio-economic status. Jurisdictional perinatal data collections were the best source of information on antenatal vaccine coverage but were only available for a minority of the population; a nationally consistent systematic approach is lacking. Timely and comprehensive data are needed to provide feedback to improve maternal vaccination coverage, particularly among groups with higher risk and/or low uptake, and as new vaccines are recommended, including COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Whooping Cough , Infant , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pertussis Vaccine , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pregnant Women , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Victoria
7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 69: 34-38, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Drowning is a common mechanism of injury in the pediatric population that often requires hospitalization. The primary objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of pediatric drowning patients evaluated in a pediatric emergency department (PED), including the clinical interventions and outcomes of this patient population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of pediatric patients evaluated in a mid-Atlantic urban pediatric emergency department from January 2017 to December 2020 after a drowning event. RESULTS: Eighty patients ages 0-18 were identified, representing 57 79 unintentional events and 1 intentional self-injury event. The majority of patients (50%) were 1-4 years of age. The majority (65%) of patients 4 years of age or younger were White, whereas racial/ethnic minority patients accounted for the majority (73%) of patients 5 years of age or older. Most drowning events (74%) occurred in a pool, on Friday through Saturday (66%) and during the summer (73%). Oxygen was used in 54% of admitted patients and only in 9% of discharged patients. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed in 74% of admitted patients and 33% of discharged patients. CONCLUSIONS: Drowning can be an intentional or unintentional source of injury in pediatric patients. Among the patients who presented to the emergency department for drowning, more than half received CPR and/or were admitted, suggesting high acuity and severity of these events. In this study population, outdoor pools, summer season and weekends are potential high yield targets for drowning prevention efforts.


Subject(s)
Drowning , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Drowning/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Ethnicity , Minority Groups , Emergency Service, Hospital
8.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 22(1): 520-527, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination in pregnancy is important for preventing illness for mothers and babies; however, vaccine uptake in pregnant individuals is lower than non-pregnant females of fertile age. Given the devastating effects of COVID-19 and the increased morbidity and mortality risk for pregnant individuals, it is important to understand the determinants of vaccine hesitancy in pregnancy. The focus of our study was to explore COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant and breastfeeding individuals and its association with their reasons (psychological factors) for vaccination using the 5C scale and other factors. METHODS: An online survey investigating prior vaccinations, level of trust in healthcare providers, demographic information, and the 5C scale was used for, pregnant and breastfeeding individuals in a Canadian province. RESULTS: Prior vaccinations, higher levels of trust in medical professionals, education, confidence, and collective responsibility predicted increased vaccine uptake pregnant and breastfeeding individuals. CONCLUSIONS: There are specific psychological and socio-demographic determinants that affect COVID-19 vaccine uptake in pregnant populations. Implications of these findings include targeting these determinants when informing and developing intervention and educational programs for both pregnant and breastfeeding individuals, as well as healthcare professionals who are making vaccine recommendations to patients. Study limitations include a small sample and lack of ethnic and socioeconomic diversity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Infant , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Vaccination
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8416, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238068

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in early childhood and adults has not been well analyzed in longitudinal serological studies. Here we analyzed the changes in HCoV (229E, HKU1, NL63, OC43, MERS, and SARS-CoV-2) spike-specific antibody levels in follow-up serum specimens of 140 children at the age of 1, 2, and 3 years, and of 113 healthcare workers vaccinated for Covid-19 with BNT162b2-vaccine. IgG antibody levels against six recombinant HCoV spike subunit 1 (S1) proteins were measured by enzyme immunoassay. We show that by the age of three years the cumulative seropositivity for seasonal HCoVs increased to 38-81% depending on virus type. BNT162b2 vaccinations increased anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 antibodies, but no increase in seasonal coronavirus antibodies associated with vaccinations. In healthcare workers (HCWs), during a 1-year follow-up, diagnostic antibody rises were seen in 5, 4 and 14% of the cases against 229E, NL63 and OC43 viruses, respectively, correlating well with the circulating HCoVs. In 6% of the HCWs, a diagnostic antibody rise was seen against S1 of HKU1, however, these rises coincided with anti-OC43 S1 antibody rises. Rabbit and guinea pig immune sera against HCoV S1 proteins indicated immunological cross-reactivity within alpha-CoV (229E and NL63) and beta-CoV (HKU1 and OC43) genera.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Adult , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Infant , Animals , Guinea Pigs , Rabbits , Reinfection , BNT162 Vaccine , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel
10.
Longit Life Course Stud ; 14(2): 294-307, 2022 09 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237773

ABSTRACT

Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) is the national longitudinal study of children and young people in the Republic of Ireland and has followed two cohorts for over ten years to date: Cohort '98 who were recruited into the study at age nine years and Cohort '08, recruited at age nine months. The study aims to describe the lives of Irish children and young people in terms of their development, with a view to positively affecting policies and services available for them. Traditionally, data collection involved in-home visits from an interviewer who conducted face-to-face interviews, recorded physical measurements of study participants and administered cognitive assessments. However, with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated restrictions, significant adaptations were required to these methods to ensure data collection for the pilot and main fieldwork for Cohort '08 at age 13 could continue to the expected timeline. Face-to-face interviews with participants were replaced with telephone and web-based modes, interviewer training was conducted online, online resources were made available for interviewers and participants and COVID-19 related items were added to questionnaires. In addition to the scheduled data collection, a special COVID-19 survey was also conducted on both GUI cohorts in December 2020 to explore the impact of the pandemic on participants' lives. This paper outlines the adaptations made to traditional data collection methods in GUI, highlighting the challenges that were met, but also the benefits of some changes that may be worth incorporating into future waves of GUI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Infant , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Longitudinal Studies , Ireland/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(3): 135-142, 2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) nasopharyngeal colonization precedes disease pathogenesis and varies among settings and countries. We sought to assess colonization prevalence, density, Spn serotypes, and antibiotic resistance in children in the first 6 months of life in pediatric primary care settings. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in Rochester, NY during 2018-2020. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 101 children at age 1, 2, and 3 weeks, then 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Spn serotypes were determined by Quellung. Oxacillin resistance for Spn and ß-lactamase production by Hflu and Mcat was tested. All children received PCV13 vaccine according to U.S. recommended schedule. RESULTS: Spn, Hflu, and Mcat colonization was detected in only 5% of infants before age 2 months old. Cumulative prevalence was 34% for Spn, 10% for Hflu, and 53% for Mcat in children ≤6 months of age. Nasopharyngeal bacterial density of Spn, Hflu, and Mcat (x = 2.71 log) in children ≤6 months of age was lower than at 7-24 months of age (x = 3.15 log, p < 0.0001). Predominant serotypes detected ≤6 months of age were 23B (16.7%), 22F (12.9%), 15B/C (11%), and 16F (9.2%). In total, 14.8% of Spn isolates were oxacillin resistant and 66.7% of Hflu isolates were ß-lactamase producing. CONCLUSION: Spn, Hflu, and Mcat nasopharyngeal colonization was uncommon and of low density among children ≤6 months old, especially among children <2 months of age. Non-PCV13 serotypes predominated and a different serotype distribution was observed in ≤6-month olds compared to 7- to 24-month olds.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Humans , Infant , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Moraxella catarrhalis , Prospective Studies , New York/epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae , Drug Resistance, Microbial , beta-Lactamases , Oxacillin , Carrier State
12.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1067, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237608

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Two years after unprecedented low rates of circulation of most common respiratory viruses (SARS-CoV-2), the Egyptian ARI surveillance system detected an increase in acute respiratory infections (ARIs) with a reduced circulation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), especially among school children. A national survey was conducted to estimate the burden and identify the viral causes of ARIs among children < 16 years of age. METHODS: A one-day survey was carried out in 98 governmental outpatient clinics distributed all over Egypt 26 governorates. The four largest referral hospitals in each governorate where most influenza-like illness (ILI) patients seek care were selected. Using the WHO case definition, the first five patients < 16 years of age with ILI symptoms visiting the selected outpatient clinics on the survey day were enrolled. Basic demographic and clinical data of patients were collected using a linelist. Patients were swabbed and tested for SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV) by RT-PCR at the Central Laboratory in Cairo. RESULTS: Overall, 530 patients enrolled, their mean age was 5.8 ± 4.2, 57.1% were males, and 70.2% reside in rural or semi-rural areas. Of all patients, 134 (25.3%) had influenza, 111 (20.9%) RSV, and 14 (2.8%) coinfections. Influenza-positive children were older compared to RSV, (7.2 ± 4.1, 4.3 ± 4.1, p < 0.001), with more than half of them (53.0%) being school students. Dyspnea was reported in RSV more than in influenza (62.2% vs. 49.3%, p < 0.05). Among RSV patients, children < 2 years had a higher rate of dyspnea than others (86.7% vs. 53.1%, < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A resurgence of influenza and RSV was detected in Egypt in the 2022-2023 winter season. Influenza caused a higher rate of infection than RSV, while RSV caused more severe symptoms than influenza. Monitoring a broader range of respiratory pathogens is recommended to estimate the ARI burden and risky groups for severe disease in Egypt.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Male , Humans , Infant , Child , Female , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
13.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(7): 678-682, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) is one of the common pathogens for respiratory infections in children. Whether viral load of PIV-3 is associated with severity of respiratory diseases in children is not yet known. Our aim was to determine significance of PIV-3 viral load among infected children. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study at Tokyo Metropolitan. Children's Medical Center, Japan, from June to August 2021. Hospitalized children were screened with a posterior nasal swab for multiplex PCR, and viral load was subsequently measured from remained samples by real-time PCR. Demographic data were collected from digital charts. PIV-3 positive patients were categorized into mild group with no oxygen demand, moderate group with low-flow oxygen demand and severe group with high-flow nasal cannula oxygen or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation or mechanical ventilation. Viral loads were compared among mild, moderate and severe groups. RESULTS: 151 patients were positive for PIV-3. We found no statistically significant association among PIV-3 viral load and severity of respiratory diseases (p = 0.35), and no statistically significant association between severity of illness and co-detection of other viruses. In each severity group, relatively high viral load per posterior nasal swab was observed at the time of testing. CONCLUSION: Among PIV-3 patients, we could not find statistically significant between viral load and their severity, therefore we could not conclude that viral load is a good surrogate marker for clinical severity of PIV-3.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Child , Humans , Infant , Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human/genetics , Viral Load , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(2): 2215677, 2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236782

ABSTRACT

Certain aspects of the immunogenicity and effectiveness of the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines (mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2) developed in response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic are still uncharacterized. Serum or plasma samples from healthy donor recipients of either vaccine (BNT162b2 n = 53, mRNA-1273 n = 49; age 23-67), and individuals naturally infected with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 106; age 18-82) were collected 0-2 months post-infection or 1- and 4 months after second dose of vaccination. Anti-Spike antibody levels and avidity were measured via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, vaccination induced higher circulating anti-Spike protein immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels and avidity compared to infection at similar time intervals. Both vaccines produced similar anti-Spike IgG concentrations at 1 month, while mRNA-1273 demonstrated significantly higher circulating antibody concentrations after 4 months. mRNA-1273 induced significantly higher avidity at month 1 compared to BNT162b2 across all age groups. However, the 23-34 age group was the only group to maintain statistical significance by 4 months. Male BNT162b2 recipients were approaching statistically significant lower anti-Spike IgG avidity compared to females by month 4. These findings demonstrate enhanced anti-Spike IgG levels and avidity following vaccination compared to natural infection. In addition, the mRNA-1273 vaccine induced higher antibody levels by 4 months compared to BNT162b2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Female , Male , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Adolescent , Aged, 80 and over , Infant , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , RNA, Messenger , Immunoglobulin G , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e068275, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236227

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The health of parents prior to conception, a woman's health during pregnancy and the infant's environment across their first months and years collectively have profound effects on the child's health across the lifespan. Since there are very few cohort studies in early pregnancy, gaps remain in our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning these relationships, and how health may be optimised. 'BABY1000', a pilot prospective longitudinal birth cohort study, aims to (1) identify factors before and during pregnancy and early life that impact longer-term health and (2) assess the feasibility and acceptability of study design to inform future research. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were based in Sydney, Australia. Women were recruited at preconception or 12 weeks' gestation, and data were collected from them throughout pregnancy and postpartum, their children until the age of 2 years, and dietary information from a partner (if able) at the last study visit. The pilot aimed to recruit 250 women. However, recruitment ceased earlier than planned secondary to limitations from the COVID-19 pandemic and the final number of subjects was 225. FINDINGS TO DATE: Biosamples, clinical measurements and sociodemographic/psychosocial measures were collected using validated tools and questionnaires. Data analysis and 24-month follow-up assessments for children are ongoing. Key early findings presented include participant demographics and dietary adequacy during pregnancy. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health and research restrictions affected recruitment of participants, follow-up assessments and data completeness. FUTURE PLANS: The BABY1000 study will provide further insight into the developmental origins of health and disease and inform design and implementation of future cohort and intervention studies in the field. Since the BABY1000 pilot was conducted across the COVID-19 pandemic, it also provides unique insight into the early impacts of the pandemic on families, which may have effects on health across the lifespan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Infant , Child , Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies
16.
Vaccine ; 41(28): 4151-4157, 2023 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the distribution of routine immunizations globally. Multi-country studies assessing a wide spectrum of vaccines and their coverage rates are needed to determine global performance in achieving vaccination goals. METHODS: Global vaccine coverage data for 16 antigens were obtained from WHO/UNICEF Estimates of National Immunization Coverage. Tobit regression was performed for all country-antigen pairs for which data were continuously available between 2015-2020 or 2015-2021 to predict vaccine coverage in 2020/2021. Vaccines for which multi-dose data were available were assessed to determine whether vaccine coverage for subsequent doses were lower than that of first doses. RESULTS: Vaccine coverage was significantly lower-than-predicted for 13/16 antigens in 2020 and all assessed antigens in 2021. Lower-than-predicted vaccine coverage was typically observed in South America, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia. There was a statistically significant coverage drop for subsequent doses of the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, pneumococcus, and rotavirus vaccines compared to first doses in 2020 and 2021. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic exerted larger disruptions to routine vaccination services in 2021 than in 2020. Global efforts will be needed to recoup vaccine coverage losses sustained during the pandemic and broaden vaccine access in areas where coverage was previously inadequate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination Coverage , Humans , Infant , Pandemics/prevention & control , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Immunization Schedule , Immunization Programs , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 402, 2023 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the levels of adherence among pregnant women to the basic COVID-19 preventive measures, and to analyze the effect of risk perception and sociodemographic and clinical factors on adherence. METHOD: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted at the obstetrics clinics of 50 primary care centers selected using a multistage sampling method. An online-administered, structured questionnaire was used to collect self-reported levels of adherence to four basic preventive measures against COVID-19, along with perceived COVID-19 severity, infectiousness, and harmfulness to the baby, besides sociodemographic and clinical data including obstetrical and other medical history. RESULTS: A total of 2460 pregnant women were included with a mean (SD) age of 30.21 (6.11) years. Levels of self-reported compliance were highest for hand hygiene (95.7%), followed by social distancing (92.3%), masking (90.0%), and avoidance of contact with a COVID-19 infected person (70.3%). Perceived COVID-19 severity and infectiousness, and harmfulness to the baby were observed in 89.2%, 70.7%, and 85.0% of the participants, respectively, and were variably associated with compliance to preventive measures. Analysis of sociodemographic factors highlighted the significance of education and economic status in determining adherence to preventive measures, which represents a potential inequity in the risk of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of patients' education to enable functional perception of COVID-19 that promotes self-efficacy, besides investigating the specific social determinants of health to tackle inequalities in terms of prevention efficiency and the subsequent health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Infant , Humans , Female , Adult , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnant Women , Educational Status
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(6): 443-448, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Childcare attendance is a common risk factor for acute respiratory illness (ARI) in young children. Our goal was to better understand the specific respiratory viruses that predominate in childcare, which may support the development of tailored illness prevention and intervention strategies in childcare settings. METHODS: Using data from a prospective household cohort of ARI surveillance, we assessed specimen from 1418 ARIs reported by 359 childcare-aged children over 6 study seasons (2012/2013 through 2017/2018). Respiratory swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 9 respiratory viruses. A mixed-effect logistic regression model was used to compare odds of various viral detection outcomes. The Shannon's Diversity index was used to compare the richness (ie, number of species) and diversity (ie, relative species abundance) associated with respiratory viruses detected in both groups. RESULTS: At least 1 virus was detected in 75.5% of childcare-associated ARIs and in 80.1% of homecare ARIs. Compared with illnesses among homecare children, childcare illnesses were associated with significantly higher odds of detected adenovirus (odds ratio = 1.86, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-3.28) and human metapneumovirus (odds ratio = 1.76, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-3.0). The pool of viruses associated with childcare ARI was found to be significantly richer and more diverse than that of viruses associated with homecare ARI ( P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Children attending childcare experience a higher risk of adenovirus and human metapneumovirus infection and are regularly exposed to a rich and diverse pool of respiratory viruses in childcare environments. Our results underscore the necessity of thorough and multifaceted viral prevention strategies in childcare settings.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Aged , Prospective Studies , Child Care , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Adenoviridae
19.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 56(3): 212-220, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study compared the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of patients hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic at a tertiary care hospital in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. METHODS: This retrospective observational study utilized data from all cases of laboratory-confirmed RSV infection at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital from January 2016 to December 2021. Differences in the clinical presentation of RSV infection before (2016 to 2019) and during (2020 to 2021) the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: In total, 358 patients hospitalized with RSV infections were reported from January 2016 to December 2021. During the COVID-19 pandemic, only 74 cases of hospitalized RSV infection were reported. Compared to pre-pandemic levels, the clinical presentations of RSV infection showed statistically significant decreases in fever on admission (p=0.004), productive cough (p=0.004), sputum (p=0.003), nausea (p=0.03), cyanosis (p=0.004), pallor (p<0.001), diarrhea (p<0.001), and chest pain (p<0.001). Furthermore, vigilant measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19, including lockdowns, also interrupted the RSV season in Thailand from 2020 to 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of RSV infection was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, which also changed the clinical presentation and seasonal pattern of RSV infection in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Child , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Child, Hospitalized , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
20.
Euro Surveill ; 28(23)2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233468

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIn 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) accelerated development of European-level severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance.AimWe aimed to establish SARI surveillance in one Irish hospital as part of a European network E-SARI-NET.MethodsWe used routine emergency department records to identify cases in one adult acute hospital. The SARI case definition was adapted from the ECDC clinical criteria for a possible COVID-19 case. Clinical data were collected using an online questionnaire. Cases were tested for SARS-CoV-2, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), including whole genome sequencing (WGS) on SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive samples and viral characterisation/sequencing on influenza RNA-positive samples. Descriptive analysis was conducted for SARI cases hospitalised between July 2021 and April 2022.ResultsOverall, we identified 437 SARI cases, the incidence ranged from two to 28 cases per week (0.7-9.2/100,000 hospital catchment population). Of 431 cases tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, 226 (52%) were positive. Of 349 (80%) cases tested for influenza and RSV RNA, 15 (4.3%) were positive for influenza and eight (2.3%) for RSV. Using WGS, we identified Delta- and Omicron-dominant periods. The resource-intensive nature of manual clinical data collection, specimen management and laboratory supply shortages for influenza and RSV testing were challenging.ConclusionWe successfully established SARI surveillance as part of E-SARI-NET. Expansion to additional sentinel sites is planned following formal evaluation of the existing system. SARI surveillance requires multidisciplinary collaboration, automated data collection where possible, and dedicated personnel resources, including for specimen management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Ireland/epidemiology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sentinel Surveillance , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Hospitals , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology
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