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1.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 40: e2020457, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232086
2.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE02206, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20234531

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar os fatores associados à restrição do acompanhamento de lactentes que nasceram prematuros e/ou baixo peso durante a pandemia da COVID-19 e a percepção de mães e profissionais de saúde quanto a essa realidade. Métodos Pesquisa de método misto com delineamento paralelo convergente, realizada com 14 mães de lactentes que nasceram prematuros e/ou baixo peso acompanhados no ambulatório de follow-up de uma maternidade em um município da Paraíba, e quatro profissionais de saúde desse serviço. A coleta de dados foi realizada no período de junho a julho de 2020, concomitantemente, em fonte de dados secundários, constituída de todos os 140 prontuários dos respectivos lactentes para abordagem quantitativa, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, para abordagem qualitativa. A análise quantitativa ocorreu por estatística descritiva e inferencial, e a qualitativa, conforme análise temática indutiva. Resultados Houve associação significativa entre a idade dos lactentes e a restrição do seu acompanhamento no follow-up durante a pandemia, com priorização do atendimento presencial dos menores de seis meses, contatos pontuais com os familiares, via ligação telefônica ou aplicativo digital, e lacunas na atualização do calendário vacinal dos que tiveram o acompanhamento interrompido. Isso gerou insatisfação das mães e receio de prejuízos ao desenvolvimento dos lactentes. Também não houve continuidade do cuidado desses na unidade básica de saúde. Conclusão Houveram restrições no acompanhamento dos lactentes nascidos prematuros no serviço de follow-up durante a pandemia, gerando insatisfação materna e receio de prejuízos ao desenvolvimento de seus filhos.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar los factores asociados a la restricción del seguimiento de lactantes que nacieron prematuros o de bajo peso durante la pandemia de COVID-19 y la percepción de madres y profesionales de la salud respecto a esta realidad. Métodos Estudio de método mixto con diseño paralelo convergente, realizado con 14 madres de lactantes que nacieron prematuros o de bajo peso atendidos en consultorios externos de follow-up de una maternidad en un municipio del estado de Paraíba, y cuatro profesionales de la salud de este servicio. La recopilación de datos fue realizada en el período de junio a julio de 2020, simultáneamente en fuente de datos secundarios, compuesta por las 140 historias clínicas de los respectivos lactantes para el enfoque cuantitativo, por medio de entrevista semiestructurada, para el enfoque cualitativo. El análisis cuantitativo se llevó a cabo por estadística descriptiva e inferencial, y el cualitativo mediante análisis temático inductivo. Resultados Hubo relación significativa entre la edad de los lactantes y la restricción de su seguimiento en el follow-up durante la pandemia, con priorización de atención presencial a los menores de seis meses, contactos puntuales con los familiares, vía llamada telefónica o aplicación digital, y vacíos en la actualización del calendario de vacunación de los que tuvieron el seguimiento interrumpido. Esto generó insatisfacción de las madres y temor de perjudicar el desarrollo de los lactantes. Tampoco hubo continuidad del cuidado de estos en la unidad básica de salud. Conclusión Hubo restricciones en el seguimiento de los lactantes nacidos prematuros en el servicio de follow-up durante la pandemia, lo que generó insatisfacción materna y temor de perjudicar el desarrollo de sus hijos.


Abstract Objective To analyze the factors associated with restricting the follow-up of infants who were born premature and/or low birth weight during the COVID-19 pandemic and mothers' and health professionals' perception regarding this reality. Methods This is mixed methods research with a parallel convergent design, carried out with 14 mothers of infants who were born premature and/or low birth weight, followed up at a follow-up outpatient clinic of a maternity hospital in a municipality in Paraíba, and four health professionals from this service. Data collection was carried out from June to July 2020, concomitantly, in a secondary data source, consisting of all 140 medical records of the respective infants for a quantitative approach, through a semi-structured interview, for a qualitative approach. Quantitative analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and qualitative analysis, according to inductive thematic analysis. Results There was a significant association between infant age and the restriction of their follow-up during the pandemic, with prioritization of one-to-one care for children under six months of age, occasional contacts with family members, via phone call or digital application, and gaps in updating the vaccination schedule of those whose follow-up was interrupted. This generated dissatisfaction on the part of mothers and fear of harm to the development of infants. There was also no continuity of care for these in the Basic Health Unit. Conclusion There were restrictions on follow-up of premature infants in the follow-up service during the pandemic, generating maternal dissatisfaction and fear of damage to the development of their children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding , Infant, Premature , Maternal-Child Health Services , COVID-19 , Mothers , Child Health Services , Medical Records , Interviews as Topic , Evaluation Studies as Topic
4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 25(5): 516-520, 2023 May 15.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244503

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To summarize the clinical features of neonates infected with Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: The medical data of 23 neonates with Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the City North Campus of Urumqi First People's Hospital from October to December 2022 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: All 23 infants had a history of exposure to confirmed caregivers with SARS-CoV-2 infection after birth, and none of them was vertically transmitted. Clinical classification: 5 cases of asymptomatic infection, 18 cases of mild infection, and no cases of moderate, severe, or critically ill. The first symptoms were fever in 13 cases, cough in 3 cases, nasal congestion in 1 case, and diarrhea in 1 case. Blood white blood cell counts decreased in 2 cases, and C-reactive protein increased in 1 case. Seven infants underwent chest X-ray examination due to cough or shortness of breath, and one of which showed focal exudative changes, while the rest showed no abnormal changes. All infants were discharged after symptomatic treatment and the median hospital stay was 6 days. The duration of nucleic acid positivity of SARS-CoV-2 was negatively correlated with N gene Ct values and ORF1ab gene Ct values (rs=-0.719 and -0.699, respectively; P<0.05). One month after discharge, all infants had no symptoms or signs of nucleic acid re-positivity. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical manifestations are usually mild or asymptomatic in neonates infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. The lower the Ct values of the N and ORF1ab genes of SARS-CoV-2, the longer the duration of nucleic acid positivity. Neonates infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant can have a good prognosis after symptomatic treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Cough , Retrospective Studies
5.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 35(3): 380-389, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243856

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategies of nonpolio enterovirus and parechovirus (PeV) infections, and identify research gaps. RECENT FINDINGS: There is currently no approved antiviral agent for enterovirus or PeV infections, although pocapavir may be provided on a compassionate basis. Elucidation of the structure and functional features of enterovirus and PeV may lead to novel therapeutic strategies, including vaccine development. SUMMARY: Nonpolio human enterovirus and PeV are common childhood infections that are most severe among neonates and young infants. Although most infections are asymptomatic, severe disease resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality occurs worldwide and has been associated with local outbreaks. Long-term sequelae are not well understood but have been reported following neonatal infection of the central nervous system. The lack of antiviral treatment and effective vaccines highlight important knowledge gaps. Active surveillance ultimately may inform preventive strategies.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Parechovirus , Picornaviridae Infections , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Humans , Child , Parechovirus/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Enterovirus Infections/drug therapy , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/drug therapy , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology
6.
Vaccine ; 41(27): 4009-4018, 2023 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maternal pertussis immunization using Tdap vaccine is recommended in many countries to protect newborns from severe post-natal infection. Immunological changes during pregnancy may influence the response to vaccines. The quality of IgG and memory B cell responses to Tdap immunization in pregnant women has not yet been described. METHODS: The impact of pregnancy on the response to Tdap vaccination was assessed by comparing humoral immune responses in 42 pregnant and 39 non-pregnant women. The levels of serum pertussis antigens and tetanus toxoid-specific IgG, IgG subclasses, IgG Fc-mediated effector functions, as well as memory B cell frequencies were assessed before and at several time points after vaccination. RESULTS: Tdap immunization induced similar levels of pertussis and tetanus-specific IgG and IgG subclasses in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Pregnant women produced IgG promoting complement deposition, and neutrophils and macrophages phagocytosis at levels comparable to non-pregnant women. They were also able to expand pertussis and tetanus-specific memory B cells at similar frequencies as non-pregnant women, suggesting equivalent "boostability". Higher levels of vaccine-specific IgG, IgG subclasses, and IgG Fc-mediated effector functions were detected in cord blood as compared to maternal blood, indicating efficient transport across the placenta. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pregnancy does not affect the quality of effector IgG and memory B cell responses to Tdap immunization and that polyfunctional IgG are efficiently transferred across the placenta. REGISTRY'S URL AND THE TRIAL'S REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.Gov (NCT03519373).


Subject(s)
Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , Tetanus , Whooping Cough , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Antibodies, Bacterial , Immunoglobulin G , Memory B Cells , Tetanus/prevention & control , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243203

ABSTRACT

Families (n = 12) with infants born at <29 weeks gestation shared their experiences while in the NICU and transitioning home. Parents were interviewed 6-8 weeks after NICU discharge, including some during the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings regarding the parent experience in the NICU were focused around challenges navigating parent-infant separation, social isolation, communication difficulties, limited knowledge of preterm infants, mental health challenges. Parents also discussed supports that were present and supports they wished were present, as well as the impact of COVID-19 on their experiences. In the transition to home, primary experiences included the sudden nature of the transition, anxiety around discharge preparation, and the loss of the support from nursing staff. During the first few weeks at home, parents expressed joy and anxiety, particularly around feeding. The COVID-19 pandemic limited emotional, informational, and physical support to parents and resulted in limited mutual support from other parents of infants in the NICU. Parents of preterm infants in the NICU present with multiple stressors, rendering attending to parental mental health crucial. NICU staff need to address logistical barriers and familial priorities impacting communication and parent-infant bonding. Providing multiple opportunities for communication, participating in caretaking activities, and meeting other families can be important sources of support and knowledge for parents of very preterm infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Premature , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety , Patient Discharge
8.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 117(5): 317-325, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the maternal mental health status during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is necessary to prevent the occurrence of severe mental disorders. Prenatal depression, anxiety and stress disorders are prominent in pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and highly associated with poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. Therefore this study aimed to assess the level of depression, anxiety, and stress among HIV-positive pregnant women in Ethiopia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Amhara region referral hospitals from 17 October 2020 to 1 March 2021. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 eligible women. A structured, pretested and interviewer-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the data. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was implemented to identify factors associated with women's depression, anxiety and stress. Statistical association was certain based on the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-values ≤0.05. RESULTS: Prenatal depression, anxiety and stress among HIV-positive pregnant women were 37.6% (95% CI 33 to 42.3), 42.1 (95% CI 37.7 to 46.7) and 34.8% (95% CI 30.3 to 39.2), respectively. Having an HIV-negative sexual partner (AOR 1.91 [95% CI 1.16 to 3.15]) and being on antiretroviral therapy >1 year (AOR 2.18 [95% CI 1.41 to 3.36]) were found to be statistically significant with women's antenatal depression, while unplanned pregnancy (AOR 1.09 [95% CI 1.02 to 2.33]) and did not discuss with the sexual partner about HIV (AOR 3.21 [95% CI 2.12 to 7.07]) were the factors associated with prenatal anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, more than one in three HIV-positive pregnant women had depression and anxiety. Thus, implementing strategies to prevent unplanned pregnancy and advocating open discussion with sexual partners about HIV will play a large role in reducing pregnancy-related depression and anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pregnant Women/psychology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology
9.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 162(1): 18-23, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240351

ABSTRACT

The evidence indicates that pregnancy is associated with increased severity of some infectious diseases. Given the high maternal morbidity associated with influenza in pregnancy and the high neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with pertussis, the traditionally two recommended vaccines during pregnancy were those against influenza and Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis) vaccines. The recent COVID-19 pandemic introduced a third vaccine that after much debate is now recommended for all pregnant women. Other vaccines can be offered based for high-risk pregnant women, and only when the benefits of receiving them outweigh the risks. The soon expected vaccines against group B streptococcus infection and respiratory syncytial virus infection will be a breakthrough in reducing perinatal mortality. In this paper, the recommendations for administration of each vaccine during pregnancy are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Tetanus , Whooping Cough , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Tetanus/prevention & control
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8813, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240029

ABSTRACT

Mother-to-child transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a study to summarize evidence on the risk of mother-to-child transmission in the first 30 days after birth in high-income countries and to evaluate the association between preventive measures and the risk of infection for the neonate. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken following PRISMA guidelines. The National Library of Medicine, Web of Science, and Excerpta Medica databases were screened on February 26, 2022. All prospective observational studies addressing the frequency of infection in infants born to mothers SARS-CoV-2 positive were included. Twenty-six studies were included, reporting data of 2653 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 and 2677 neonates. The proportion meta-analysis pointed out an overall estimate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among infants of 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4-3.2%). Data from studies with (1.4%, 95% CI: 0.8-2) and without (1.3%, 95% CI: 0.0-2.7%) rooming-in provided similar risk of infection. Adopting at least two prevention measures during rooming-in resulted in a rate of mother-to-child infection of 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3-1.7%). The results of this study show a low rate of perinatal infection, support the rooming-in and confirm the effectiveness of preventive measures in reducing the risk of mother-to-child viral transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Developed Countries , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Observational Studies as Topic
11.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286289, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women planning to become pregnant, who are pregnant, and who are breastfeeding are more hesitant to take COVID-19 vaccines compared to other women globally. AIM: This study investigates COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among women, who are planning for pregnancy, currently pregnant, and breastfeeding women in Jordan. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was conducted in the biggest three cities in Jordan, including 874 women. RESULTS: Women who were planning for pregnancy, pregnant, or breastfeeding reported statistically significant lower levels of perception of the seriousness of COVID-19 (7.12 ± 0.72, 7.53 ± 1.80, 7.2439 ± 7296, respectively), significant lower levels of perceived benefits of the vaccine (8.92 ± 2.15, 8.73 ± 1.93, 9.09 ± 2.10, respectively), significant lower levels of motivation and causes of action (7.15 ± 1.71, 6.7524 ± 1.40, 7.27 ± 1.68, respectively), and significantly higher levels of COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy (31.32 ± 6.40, 30.11 ± 4.49, 30.27 ± 6.29, respectively) than other women. Married women, those whoe were previously infected with COVID-19, and those who had chronic diseases reported statistically significant lower levels of perception of COVID-19 seriousness, perceived benefits of COVID-19 vaccine, motivation to take COVID-19 vaccine, and causes of action, and significantly higher levels of hesitancy to take COVID-19 vaccine than unmarried women, those who have not been infected with COVID-19, and those who were medically healthy (p<0.001). There were statistically significant positive correlations between perception, perceived benefits, motivation, and cause of action with years of education; and statistically significant negative correlations between perception, perceived benefits, motivation, and cause of action with age (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Women who were planning for pregnancy, pregnant, or breastfeeding in Jordan showed miderate scores in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy despite the current international recommendations for its safety for women and their foetuses or neonates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Jordan/epidemiology , Breast Feeding , Vaccination , Pregnant Women
12.
Pediatr Int ; 65(1): e15525, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak has prompted some hospitals to implement screening tests upon admission since 2020. FilmArray® Respiratory 2.1 Panel (FilmArray) is a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting respiratory pathogens. We aimed to assess the clinical influence of the routine use of FilmArray for pediatric patients, including those without symptoms suggestive of an infection. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective observational study, which investigated patients aged ≤15 years who underwent FilmArray on admission in 2021. We collected the patients' epidemiological information, symptoms, and FilmArray results from their electronic health records. RESULTS: A positive result was observed in 58.6% of patients admitted to the general ward or intensive care unit (ICU) but only in 1.5% of patients in the neonatal ward. Among the patients admitted to the general ward or ICU who tested positive, 93.3% had symptoms suggestive of infections, 44.6% had a sick contact before admission, and 70.5% had siblings. However, 62 (28.2%) out of 220 patients without the four (fever, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and dermal) symptoms also had positive results. Among them, 18 patients with adenovirus and three with respiratory syncytial virus were isolated to private rooms. However, 12 (57.1%) patients were discharged without symptoms suggestive of viral infection. CONCLUSION: Multiplex PCR routine use for all inpatients may lead to excessive management of positive cases because FilmArray cannot quantify microorganisms. Thus, targets for testing should be considered carefully based on patients' symptoms and histories of sick contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Child , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing
13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 18(1): 135, 2023 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Classical galactosemia (CG), an inborn error of galactose metabolism, results in long-term complications including cognitive impairment and movement disorders, despite early diagnosis and dietary treatment. Two decades ago, lower motor-, cognitive- and social health related quality of life (HRQoL) was demonstrated in pediatric and adult patients. Since then, the diet has been relaxed, newborn screening was implemented and new international guidelines resulted in major changes in follow-up. The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL of CG by means of online self- and/or proxy-HRQoL-questionnaires focusing on the main areas of concern of CG (i.e. anxiety, depression, cognition, fatigue, social- and upper extremity function) within the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS®) and generic HRQoL-questionnaires (TAPQOL, TACQOL, TAAQOL). RESULTS: Data of 61 Dutch patients (aged 1-52 years) were collected and compared to available Dutch or US reference populations. On the PROMIS-questionnaires, children reported more fatigue (P = 0.044), lower function in upper extremities (P = 0.021), more cognitive difficulties (P = 0.055, d = 0.56) and higher anxiety (P = 0.063, d = 0.52) than reference children although the latter findings remained non-significant. Parents of CG patients reported lower quality of peer relationships of their children (P < 0.001). Both children and parents reported lower cognitive functioning (P = 0.005, P = 0.010) on the TACQOL. Adults reported on PROMIS domains lower cognitive functioning (P = 0.030), higher anxiety (P = 0.004) and more fatigue (P = 0.026). Cognitive difficulties were reported on the TAAQOL by adults (P < 0.001), as well as physical-, sleeping and social difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: CG remains to impact the HRQoL of pediatric and adult patients negatively on several domains including cognition, anxiety, motor function and fatigue. A lower social health was mainly reported by parents, and not by patients themselves. The Covid-19 pandemic might have amplified the results on anxiety although higher levels of anxiety fit pre-pandemic findings. The reported fatigue is a new finding in CG. Because the effect of lockdown fatigue could not be eliminated and fatigue is a frequent finding in patients with chronic disorders, future studies are warranted. Clinicians and researchers should be attentive to both pediatric and adult patients, and the age-dependent difficulties they might encounter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Galactosemias , Infant, Newborn , Child , Humans , Adult , Quality of Life , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control
14.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 936, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on healthcare services is likely to affect birth outcomes including the delivery mode. However, recent evidence has been conflicting in this regard. The study aimed to assess changes to C-section rate during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of women delivered in the maternity department of hospitals in all provinces of Iran before the COVID-19 pandemic (February-August 30, 2019) and during the pandemic (February-August 30, 2020). Data were collected through the Iranian Maternal and Neonatal Network (IMAN), a country-wide electronic health record database management system for maternal and neonatal information. A total of 1,208,671 medical records were analyzed using the SPSS software version 22. The differences in C-section rates according to the studied variables were tested using the χ2 test. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the factors associated with C-section. RESULTS: A significant rise was observed in the rates of C-section during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic (52.9% vs 50.8%; p = .001). The rates for preeclampsia (3.0% vs 1.3%), gestational diabetes (6.1% vs 3.0%), preterm birth (11.6% vs 6.9%), IUGR (1.2% vs 0.4%), LBW (11.2% vs 7.8%), and low Apgar score at first minute (4.2% vs 3.2%) were higher in women who delivered by C-section compared to those with normal delivery (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: The overall C-section rate during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic was significantly higher than the pre-pandemic period. C-section was associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Thus, preventing the overuse of C-section especially during pandemic becomes an urgent need for maternal and neonatal health in Iran.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Cesarean Section , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Electronic Health Records
15.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1025, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the associations between COVID-19 related stigma and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS); and the associations between PTSS and COVID-19 related stigma, HIV status, COVID-19 status and key HIV population status. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data of 12,355 study participants generated through an online survey that recruited adults from 152 countries between July and December 2020. The dependent variables were COVID-19-related stigma and PTSS. The independent variables were HIV status (positive/negative), transaction sex (yes/no), use of psychoactive drugs (yes/no), and vulnerability status (transaction sex workers, people who use psychoactive drugs, living with HIV, and COVID-19 status). The confounding variables were age, sex at birth (male/female), level of education, sexual minority individuals (yes/no) and country income level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: There were 835 (6.8%) participants who experienced COVID-19 related stigma during the pandemic and 3,824 (31.0%) participants reported PTSS. Respondents who were living with HIV (AOR: 1.979; 95%CI: 1.522-2.573), tested positive for COVID-19 (AOR: 3.369; 95%CI: 2.692-4.217), engaged in transactional sex (AOR: 1.428; 95%CI: 1.060-1.922) and used psychoactive drugs (AOR: 1.364; 95%CI: 1.053-1.767) had significantly higher odds of experiencing COVID-19 related stigma. Individuals with vulnerability status (AOR:4.610; 95%CI: 1.590-13.368) and who experienced COVID-19 related stigma (AOR: 2.218; 95%CI: 1.920-2.561) had significantly higher odds of PTSS. CONCLUSION: Individuals with vulnerability status may be at increased risk for COVID-19 related stigma. Key and vulnerable populations who were living with HIV and who experienced stigma may be at a higher risk of experiencing PTSS. Populations at risk for PTSS should be routinely screened and provided adequate support when they contract COVID-19 to reduce the risk for poor mental health during COVID-19 outbreaks and during future health crisis with similar magnitude as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Male , Female , Homosexuality, Male , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Perception
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(21): e33887, 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234544

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been one of the most damaging pandemics in all of human history. Some of the most vulnerable groups within society such as pregnant women and children have also been affected. This observational research, cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate if there was any difference in the incidence of unfavorable outcomes in pregnancy such as miscarriage, intrauterine fetal demise, and early neonatal death during the year prior to the pandemic and the year of the COVID-19 pandemic. This retrospective study was conducted at the University Hospital of Split at the Department of Pathology, Forensic and Cytology and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the same hospital. All data was collected in the time period from March 1st, 2019, to March 1st, 2021. The study included all pregnant women who had an unfavorable pregnancy outcome such as miscarriage and intrauterine fetal demise, as well as early neonatal death at the University Hospital of Split within the time frame mentioned previously. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the year prior to the pandemic and during the year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study showed that the pandemic did not have a negative effect on pregnant women and their fetuses; there was no increase in miscarriage, intrauterine fetal demise, or perinatal death during the year of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Perinatal Death , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Child , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Fetus
17.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234275

ABSTRACT

In 2020, a new coronavirus, called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China. SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to be highly morbid in pregnant women, being a risk factor for several obstetric conditions leading to increased maternal and neonatal mortality. A few studies since 2020 have shown SARS-CoV-2 maternal-fetal transmission and noted placental abnormalities grouped under the term placentitis. We hypothesized that these placental lesions could be responsible for abnormalities in placental exchange and therefore abnormalities in cardiotocographic monitoring, leading to premature fetal extraction. The objective is to identify the clinical, biochemical, and histological determinants associated with the occurrence of non-reassuring fetal heart rate (NRFHR) outside labor in fetuses of SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers. We conducted a retrospective multicenter case series of the natural history of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infections resulting in fetal delivery outside labor due to NRFHR. Collaboration was sought with the maternity hospitals in the CEGORIF, the APHP and Brussels hospitals. The investigators were contacted by e-mail on three successive occasions over a period of one year. Data from 17 mothers and 17 fetuses were analyzed. Most women had a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection; only two women presented severe infection. No woman was vaccinated. We found a substantial proportion of maternal coagulopathy at birth: elevation of APTT ratio (62%), thrombocytopenia (41%) and liver cytolysis (58.3%). Iatrogenic prematurity was noted in 15 of 17 fetuses, and 100% were born by cesarean delivery due to emergency criteria. One male neonate died on the day of birth due to peripartum asphyxia. Three cases of maternal-fetal transmission were recorded following WHO criteria. Placental analysis in 15 cases revealed eight cases of SARS-CoV-2 placentitis, causing placental insufficiency. In total, 100% of the placentas analyzed showed at least one lesion suggestive of placentitis. SARS-CoV-2 maternal infection during pregnancy is likely to generate neonatal morbidity in relation to placental damage resulting in placental insufficiency. This morbidity may be the consequence of induced prematurity as well as acidosis in the most severe situations. Placental damage occurred in unvaccinated women and in women with no identified risk factor, in contrast to severe maternal clinical forms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Placental Insufficiency , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Male , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnant Women , Placental Insufficiency/pathology , Heart Rate, Fetal , Placenta , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
18.
Clin Perinatol ; 50(2): 381-397, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233462

ABSTRACT

We discuss the burden of health care-associated infections (HAIs) in the neonatal ICU and the role of quality improvement (QI) in infection prevention and control. We examine specific QI opportunities and approaches to prevent HAIs caused by Staphylococcus aureus , multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens, Candida species, and respiratory viruses, and to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and surgical site infections. We explore the emerging recognition that many hospital-onset bacteremia episodes are not CLABSIs. Finally, we describe the core tenets of QI, including engagement with multidisciplinary teams and families, data transparency, accountability, and the impact of larger collaborative efforts to reduce HAIs.


Subject(s)
Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals , Delivery of Health Care
19.
Obstet Gynecol ; 142(1): 19-29, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232863

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare benefits and harms of televisits and in-person visits in people receiving routine antenatal care. DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted of PubMed, Cochrane databases, EMBASE, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov through February 12, 2022, for antenatal (prenatal) care, pregnancy, obstetrics, telemedicine, remote care, smartphones, telemonitoring, and related terms, as well as primary study designs. The search was restricted to high-income countries. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Double independent screening was done in Abstrackr for studies comparing televisits and in-person routine antenatal care visits for maternal, child, health care utilization, and harm outcomes. Data were extracted into SRDRplus with review by a second researcher. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Two randomized controlled trials, four nonrandomized comparative studies, and one survey compared visit types between 2004 and 2020, three of which were conducted during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Number, timing, and mode of televisits and who provided care varied across studies. Low-strength evidence from studies comparing hybrid (televisits and in-person visits) and all in-person visits did not indicate differences in rates of neonatal intensive care unit admission of the newborn (summary odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% CI 0.82-1.28) or preterm births (summary OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.84-1.03). However, the studies with stronger, although still statistically nonsignificant, associations between use of hybrid visits and preterm birth compared the COVID-19 pandemic and prepandemic eras, confounding the association. There is low-strength evidence that satisfaction with overall antenatal care was greater in people who were pregnant and receiving hybrid visits. Other outcomes were sparsely reported. CONCLUSION: People who are pregnant may prefer hybrid televisits and in-person visits. Although there is no evidence of differences in clinical outcomes between hybrid visits and in-person visits, the evidence is insufficient to evaluate most outcomes. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42021272287.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obstetrics , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pandemics , Prenatal Care/methods
20.
Int Breastfeed J ; 18(1): 30, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence has shown that restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic have negatively affected breastfeeding support and outcomes in hospitals in many countries. The aims of the study were to describe exclusive breastfeeding rates and identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge among women who gave birth during the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel. METHODS: A cross-sectional online anonymous survey based on WHO standards for improving quality of maternal and newborn care in health facilities was conducted among a sample of women who gave birth to a healthy singleton infant in Israel during the pandemic (between March 2020 and April 2022). The socio-ecological approach was employed to examine intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and community/society factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge according to women perspectives. RESULTS: Among the 235 Israeli participants, 68.1% exclusively breastfed, 27.7% partially breastfed, and 4.2% did not breastfeed at discharge. Results of the adjusted logistic regression model showed that factors significantly associated with exclusive breastfeeding were the intrapersonal factor of multiparity (adjusted OR 2.09; 95% Confidence Interval 1.01,4.35) and the organizational factors of early breastfeeding in the first hour (aOR 2.17; 95% CI 1.06,4.45), and rooming-in (aOR 2.68; 95% CI 1.41,5.07). CONCLUSIONS: Facilitating early breastfeeding initiation and supporting rooming-in are critical to promoting exclusive breastfeeding. These factors, reflecting hospital policies and practices, along with parity, are significantly associated with breastfeeding outcomes and highlight the influential role of the maternity environment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Maternity care in hospitals should follow evidence-based breastfeeding recommendations also during the pandemic, promoting early exclusive breastfeeding and rooming-in among all women, with particular attention to providing lactation support to primiparous women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT04847336.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Israel/epidemiology , Pandemics
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