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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e309, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed maternal and neonatal outcomes of critically ill pregnant and puerperal patients in the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Records of pregnant and puerperal women with polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 virus who were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2020 to August 2021 were investigated. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, pharmacotherapy, and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. These outcomes were compared between patients that were discharged from ICU and patients who died in ICU. RESULTS: Nineteen women were included in this study. Additional oxygen was required in all cases (100%). Eight patients (42%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated. All patients that were mechanically ventilated have died. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) was seen in all patients (100%). D-dimer values increased in 15 patients (78.9%); interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in 16 cases (84.2%). Sixteen patients used antiviral drugs. Eleven patients were discharged from the ICU and eight patients have died due to complications of COVID-19 showing an ICU mortality rate of 42.1%. Mean number of hospitalized days in ICU was significantly lower in patients that were discharged (P = 0.037). Seventeen patients underwent cesarean-section (C/S) (89.4%). Mean birth week was significantly lower in patients who died in ICU (P = 0.024). Eleven preterm (57.8%) and eight term deliveries (42.1%) occurred. CONCLUSION: High mortality rate was detected among critically ill pregnant/parturient patients followed in the ICU. Main predictors of mortality were the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and higher number of days hospitalized in ICU. Rate of C/S operations and preterm delivery were high. Pleasingly, the rate of neonatal death was low and no neonatal COVID-19 occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Puerperal Disorders/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
2.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 1910195, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526148

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 began in Wuhan, China, resulting in respiratory disorders. In January of 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a pandemic owing to its global spread. Because no studies have investigated COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, this study investigated similarities and differences between demographic data during the COVID-19 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective trend analysis was performed to assess demographic data of all laboratory-confirmed MERS and COVID-19 cases. Patients' charts were reviewed for data on demographics, mortality, citizenship, sex ratio, and age groups with descriptive and comparative statistics; the data were analyzed using a non-parametric binomial test and chi-square test. Of all COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia,78%were male patients and 22% were female patients. This proportion of male COVID-19 patients was similar to that of male MERS patients, which also affected male patients more frequently than female patients. The number of COVID-19-positive Saudi cases was lower than that of non-Saudi cases, which were in contrast to that of MERS; COVID-19 appeared to be remarkably similar to MERS with respect to recovered cases. However, the numbers of critical and dead COVID-19 patients have been much lower than those of MERS patients. The largest proportion of COVID-19 and MERS cases (44.05% and 40.8%, respectively) were recorded in the Western region. MERS and COVID-19 exhibited similar threats to the lives of adults and the elderly, despite lower mortality rates during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeted prevention of and interventions against MERS should be allocated populations according to the areas where they inhabit. However, much more information regarding the dynamics and epidemiology of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia is needed.Abbrevation : MERS: Middle East Respiratory syndrome; COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
3.
Clin Perinatol ; 48(2): xv-xvii, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525741
4.
Clin Perinatol ; 48(2): 359-378, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525740

ABSTRACT

Human milk has many advantageous anti-infective and immunologic properties, making it the ideal nutritional source to optimize the well-being of infants. There are certain infectious circumstances where breast milk feedings should be withheld or strict precautions followed, and this article addresses these rare events. Contamination and misadministration when handling human milk is also a safety concern, especially when caring for vulnerable preterm infants. This article addresses ways to decrease these occurrences to maintain the inherent anti-infectious properties of human milk and preserve the health of our neonatal population.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Milk, Human , Breast Feeding , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature
5.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(4): 100373, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525658

ABSTRACT

Approximately 4% of pregnant patients with coronavirus disease 2019 require intensive care unit admission. Given the practical implications of advanced ventilatory and circulatory support techniques, urgent or emergent delivery for nonreassuring fetal status frequently presents a logistical impossibility. This article proposes a protocol for obstetrical management of patients in these situations, emphasizing coordinated preparation among obstetrical, anesthesiology, and intensivist teams for planned preterm delivery at gestational ages when neonatal outcomes are likely to be favorable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1603-1607, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524679

ABSTRACT

During October 3, 2020-January 9, 2021, North Carolina experienced a 400% increase in daily reported COVID-19 cases (1). To handle the increased number of cases and rapidly notify persons receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result (patients), North Carolina state and local health departments moved from telephone call notification only to telephone call plus automated text and email notification (digital notification) beginning on December 24, 2020. Overall, among 200,258 patients, 142,975 (71%) were notified by telephone call or digital notification within the actionable period (10 days from their diagnosis date)* during January 2021, including at least 112,543 (56%) notified within 24 hours of report to North Carolina state and local health departments, a significantly higher proportion than the 25,905 of 175,979 (15%) notified within 24 hours during the preceding month (p<0.001). Differences in text notification by age, race, and ethnicity were observed. Automated digital notification is a feasible, rapid and efficient method to support timely outreach to patients, provide guidance on how to isolate, access resources, inform close contacts, and increase the efficiency of case investigation staff members.


Subject(s)
Automation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electronic Mail , Text Messaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Notification/methods , Disease Notification/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , North Carolina/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 228, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524595

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic causes biological diagnostic problems that remain relevant in low-income countries in general and in Cameroon in particular. Rapids tests that reliably detect SARS-CoV-2 virus antigen present themselves as an important alternative in several contexts. The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two rapid diagnostic tests BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS and BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS, compared to each other and to the AmpliQuick® SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. Methods: a cross-sectional and comparative study was carried out from April 27 to May 29, 2021 in the city of Douala in Cameroon. The samples consisted of nasopharyngeal swabs received at the molecular biology laboratory of the Douala Gyneco-obstetric and pediatric hospital, whatever their origin. The socio-demographic parameters (age, profession, football players, travelers, others), marital status, nationality), comorbidity and known status of COVID-19, were recorded on the collection sites. The main collection sites were the Deïdo Health District and the Douala Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital. We performed the diagnosis of COVID-19 using the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS and RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS compared to each other and to the AmpliQuick® SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test on each sample. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 17 software. To determine the sensitivity of the two RDTs, the Bayesian latent class model was performed on the median with a 95% confidence interval with p<0.05 as the significant level. An ethical clearance was sought and obtained from the University of Douala Institutional Ethics Committee. Results: a total of 1813 participants were included in our study, with a predominance of men (1226, 68.68 %) and the most represented age group was that of 31 to 40 years (568, 31.33 %). Most of the participants were married (888, 53.46%) and only a few had a known COVID-19 status (75, 5.47%). The two rapid tests on our study population show much closed COVID-19 prevalence values, respectively 2.03 for BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS and 2.17 for BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS. RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS showed higher sensitivity 94.1% vs. 87.5% for RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS with almost identical specificity 98.9% for RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS vs. 98.7% for RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS compared to AmpliQuick® SARS-CoV-2. BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS RDT showed a negative predictive value of 99.9% compared to BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS RDT. There is a 99.9% agreement between the RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS and the RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag + BSS. Conclusion: the RDT BIOSYNEX®COVID-19 Ag + BSS and RDT BIOSYNEX® COVID-19 Ag BSS can be used for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and can have an important contribution in the context of mass screenings and screening in remote areas.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cameroon , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
8.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 763-767, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524479

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is an emerging disease. There has been a rapid increase in cases and deaths since it was identified in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019, with over 4,000,000 cases of COVID-19 including at least 250,000 deaths worldwide as of May 2020. However, limited data about the clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 have been reported. Given the maternal physiologic and immune function changes during pregnancy, pregnant women may be at a higher risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and developing more complicated clinical events. Information on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) may provide insights into the effects of COVID-19's during pregnancy. Even though SARS and MERS have been associated with miscarriage, intrauterine death, fetal growth restriction and high case fatality rates, the clinical course of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women has been reported to be similar to that in non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women do not appear to be at a higher risk of catching COVID-19 or suffering from more severe disease than other adults of similar age. Moreover, there is currently no evidence that the virus can be transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy or during childbirth. Babies and young children are also known to only experience mild forms of COVID-19. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize the possible symptoms, treatments, and pregnancy outcomes of women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Exposure , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 20: e20216509, 05 maio 2021.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1518851

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Compreender as vivências e percepções paternas em relação à realização da posição canguru associada ou não a música. MÉTODO: Estudo qualitativo tendo como referencial teórico Cuidado Centrado na Família. A amostra foi constituída por pais com idade entre 19 a 39 anos, possuíam recém-nascidos prematuros hospitalizados e que tiveram a oportunidade de realizar posição canguru associada ou não a musicoterapia. A coleta ocorreu no período de abril a junho de 2020. Para a análise utilizou o referencial metodológico Análise de Conteúdo. RESULTADOS: As falas permitiram a identificação de cinco categorias: Sentimentos proporcionados pelo primeiro canguru; Contato pele a pele e o despertar da paternidade; Ressignificando o canguru por meio da música; Música e seus significados; Sentimento paterno referente à música e COVID-19. CONCLUSÃO: A musicoterapia associada a posição canguru configurou-se para o pai como um momento de fortalecimento do vínculo pai e filho, bem como redução de sentimento de tristeza e ansiedade.


OBJECTIVE: To understand the experiences and perceptions of fathers of premature babies regarding the realization of the kangaroo position with or without music. METHOD: Qualitative study with the Family-Centered Care theoretical framework. The sample consisted of parents aged between 19 and 39 years old, who had hospitalized premature newborns and who had the opportunity to perform a kangaroo position with or without music therapy. The collection took place from April to June 2020. The Content Analysis methodological framework was used. RESULTS: The speeches allowed the identification of five categories: Feelings provided by the first kangaroo position; Skin-to-skin contact and the awakening of fatherhood; Re-signifying the kangaroo care method through music; Music and its meanings; Paternal feelings regarding music and COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Music therapy associated with the kangaroo position for the father was considered a moment which strengthened the father-child bond, as well as reducing sadness and anxiety.


OBJETIVO: Comprender las vivencias y percepciones paternas sobre la realización de la posición canguro asociada o no a la música. MÉTODO: Estudio cualitativo que tiene como marco teórico el Cuidado Centrado en la Familia. La muestra estuvo constituida por padres de entre 19 y 39 años, que habían hospitalizado a recién nacidos prematuros y que tuvieron la oportunidad de realizar una posición canguro con o sin musicoterapia. La recolección sellevó a cabo de abril a junio de 2020. Para el análisis se utilizó el marco metodológico de Análisis de Contenido. RESULTADOS: Los discursos permitieron identificar cinco categorías: Sentimientos proporcionados por el primer canguro; El contacto piel con piel y el despertar de la paternidad; Re-significar el canguro através de la música; Música y sus significados; Sentimiento paterno con respecto a la música y COVID-19. CONCLUSIÓN: La musicoterapia asociada a la posición canguro se configuró para el padre como un momento de fortalecimiento del vínculo padre-hijo, además de reducir la sensación de tristeza y ansiedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Parents , Infant, Premature , Father-Child Relations , Kangaroo-Mother Care Method , Music Therapy , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Child Care , Qualitative Research
10.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(4)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518675

ABSTRACT

Objective: The conditions created by the COVID-19 pandemic could negatively affect maternal mental health and the mother-infant relationship. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on depression, anxiety, and mother-infant bonding among women seeking treatment for postpartum depression (PPD).Methods: Baseline data collected in two separate randomized controlled trials of a psychoeducational intervention for PPD in the same geographic region, one prior to COVID-19 (March 2019-March 2020) and one during the COVID-19 pandemic (April-October 2020), were compared. Eligible participants had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of ≥ 10, were ≥ 18 years of age, had an infant < 12 months old, and were fluent in English. Outcomes included PPD (EPDS), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 [GAD-7]), and mother-infant relationship (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire [PBQ]). All were measured continuously and dichotomized at accepted clinical cutoffs.Results: Of the 603 participants (305 pre-COVID-19; 298 during COVID-19), mothers enrolled during the COVID-19 pandemic reported higher levels of symptoms of PPD (B = 1.35; 95% CI, 0.64 to 2.06; Cohen d = 0.31) and anxiety (B = 1.52; 95% CI, 0.72 to 2.32; Cohen d = 0.30). During COVID-19, women had 65% higher odds of clinically significant levels of depression symptoms (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.31) and 46% higher odds of clinically relevant anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in mother-infant bonding.Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that rates and severity of PPD and anxiety symptoms among women seeking treatment for PPD have worsened in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, treatment-seeking mothers have consistently maintained good relationships with their infants. Considering the difficulties women with PPD face when accessing treatment, it is important that strategies are developed and disseminated to safely identify and manage PPD to mitigate potential long-term adverse consequences for mothers and their families.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT03654261 and NCT04485000.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Object Attachment , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Ontario/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
13.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 355-362, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513256

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and viral pneumonia in pediatrics worldwide. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the prevalence of RSV is 23.5% in pediatric patients with acute lower respiratory tract illness. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) poses critical public health and socioeconomic challenges in KSA. The Saudi Pediatric Pulmonology Association (SPPA), a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society (STS), developed a task force to determine the potential challenges and barriers to the RSV immunoprophylaxis program during the era of COVID-19 and to compose a practical, nationwide, and multidisciplinary approach to address these challenges. Some of the recommendations to manage these challenges include increasing the number of RSV immunoprophylaxis clinics, drive-thru visits, home-care services, and swift referrals to the RSV immunoprophylaxis program specialists. Additional training is required for healthcare personnel to add RSV immunoprophylaxis to the regular immunization schedule.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchiolitis, Viral/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Immunization Programs/methods , Palivizumab/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Advisory Committees , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Home Care Services , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Injections , Pulmonary Medicine , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Societies, Medical
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 506, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is characterized by a diverse clinical picture. Children are often asymptomatic or experience mild symptoms and have a milder disease course compared to adults. Rectal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 has been observed in both adults and children, suggesting the fecal-oral route as a potential route of transmission. However, only a few studies have investigated this in neonates. We present a neonate with a mild disease course and prolonged rectal SARS-CoV-2 shedding. CASE PRESENTATION: A 22-day old neonate was admitted to the hospital with tachycardia and a family history of COVID-19. The boy later tested positive for COVID-19. His heart rate normalized overnight without intervention , but a grade 1/6 heart murmur on the left side of the sternum was found. After excluding signs of heart failure, the boy was discharged in a habitual state after three days of admission. During his admission, he was enrolled in a clinical study examining the rectal shedding of SARS-CoV-2. He was positive for SARS-CoV-2 in his pharyngeal swabs for 11 days after initial diagnosis and remained positive in his rectal swabs for 45 days. Thereby, the boy remained positive in his rectal swabs for 29 days after his first negative pharyngeal swab. CONCLUSIONS: The presented case shows that neonates with a mild disease course can shed SARS-CoV-2 in the intestines for 45 days. In the current case, it was not possible to determine if fecal-oral transfer to the family occurred, and more research is needed to establish the potential risk of the fecal-oral transmission route.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Feces , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Virus Shedding
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 767, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to regional or nationwide lockdowns as part of risk mitigation measurements in many countries worldwide. Recent studies suggest an unexpected and unprecedented decrease in preterm births during the initial COVID-19 lockdowns in the first half of 2020. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of the two months of the initial national COVID-19 lockdown period on the incidence of very and extremely preterm birth in the Netherlands, stratified by either spontaneous or iatrogenic onset of delivery, in both singleton and multiple pregnancies. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using data from all 10 perinatal centers in the Netherlands on very and extremely preterm births during the initial COVID-19 lockdown from March 15 to May 15, 2020. Incidences of very and extremely preterm birth were calculated using an estimate of the total number of births in the Netherlands in this period. As reference, we used data from the corresponding calendar period in 2015-2018 from the national perinatal registry (Perined). We differentiated between spontaneous versus iatrogenic onset of delivery and between singleton versus multiple pregnancies. RESULTS: The incidence of total preterm birth < 32 weeks in singleton pregnancies was 6.1‰ in the study period in 2020 versus 6.5‰ in the corresponding period in 2015-2018. The decrease in preterm births in singletons was solely due to a significant decrease in iatrogenic preterm births, both < 32 weeks (OR 0.71; 95%CI 0.53 to 0.95) and < 28 weeks (OR 0.53; 95%CI 0.29 to 0.97). For multiple pregnancies, an increase in preterm births < 28 weeks was observed (OR 2.43; 95%CI 1.35 to 4.39). CONCLUSION: This study shows a decrease in iatrogenic preterm births during the initial COVID-19-related lockdown in the Netherlands in singletons. Future studies should focus on the mechanism of action of lockdown measures and reduction of preterm birth and the effects of perinatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Labor, Induced/trends , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease/epidemiology , Incidence , Infant, Extremely Premature , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/methods , Prenatal Care/trends , Protective Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 761, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing spread coronavirus disease worldwide has caused major disruptions and led to lockdowns. Everyday lifestyle changes and antenatal care inaccessibility during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have variable results that affect pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the alterations in stillbirth, neonatal-perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and birth weight during the COVID-19 national lockdown. METHODS: We used the data from the Jordan stillbirths and neonatal death surveillance system to compare pregnancy outcomes (gestational age, birth weight, small for gestational age, stillbirth, neonatal death, and perinatal death) between two studied periods (11 months before the pandemic (May 2019 to March 2020) vs. 9 months during the pandemic (April 2020 to March 1st 2020). Separate multinomial logistic and binary logistic regression models were used to compare the studied outcomes between the two studied periods after adjusting for the effects of mother's age, income, education, occupation, nationality, health sector, and multiplicity. RESULTS: There were 31106 registered babies during the study period; among them, 15311 (49.2%) and 15795 (50.8%) births occurred before and during the COVID-19 lockdown, respectively. We found no significant differences in preterm birth and stillbirth rates, neonatal mortality, or perinatal mortality before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings report a significantly lower incidence of extreme low birth weight (ELBW) infants (<1kg) during the COVID-19 lockdown period than that before the lockdown (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.3-0.5: P value <0.001) CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 lockdown period, the number of infants born with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) decreased significantly. More research is needed to determine the impact of cumulative socio-environmental and maternal behavioral changes that occurred during the pandemic on the factors that contribute to ELBW infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Jordan , Perinatal Mortality , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology
17.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(61): 1-102, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Around 60,000 babies are born preterm (prior to 37 weeks' gestation) each year in the UK. There is little evidence on the optimal birth mode (vaginal or caesarean section). OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of the CASSAVA project was to determine if a trial to define the optimal mode of preterm birth could be carried out and, if so, determine what sort of trial could be conducted and how it could best be performed. We aimed to determine the specific groups of preterm women and babies for whom there are uncertainties about the best planned mode of birth, and if there would be willingness to recruit to, and participate in, a randomised trial to address some, but not all, of these uncertainties. This project was conducted in response to a Heath Technology Assessment programme commissioning call (17/22 'Mode of delivery for preterm infants'). METHODS: We conducted clinician and patient surveys (n = 224 and n = 379, respectively) to identify current practice and opinion, and a consensus survey and Delphi workshop (n = 76 and n = 22 participants, respectively) to inform the design of a hypothetical clinical trial. The protocol for this clinical trial/vignette was used in telephone interviews with clinicians (n = 24) and in focus groups with potential participants (n = 13). RESULTS: Planned sample size and data saturation was achieved for all groups except for focus groups with participants, as this had to be curtailed because of the COVID-19 pandemic and data saturation was not achieved. There was broad agreement from parents and health-care professionals that a trial is needed. The clinician survey demonstrated a variety of practice and opinion. The parent survey suggested that women and their families generally preferred vaginal birth at later gestations and caesarean section for preterm infants. The interactive workshop and Delphi consensus process confirmed the need for more evidence (hence the case for a trial) and provided rich information on what a future trial should entail. It was agreed that any trial should address the areas with most uncertainty, including the management of women at 26-32 weeks' gestation, with either spontaneous preterm labour (cephalic presentation) or where preterm birth was medically indicated. Clear themes around the challenges inherent in conducting any trial emerged, including the concept of equipoise itself. Specific issues were as follows: different clinicians and participants would be in equipoise for each clinical scenario, effective conduct of the trial would require appropriate resources and expertise within the hospital conducting the trial, potential participants would welcome information on the trial well before the onset of labour and minority ethnic groups would require tailored approaches. CONCLUSION: Given the lack of evidence and the variation of practice and opinion in this area, and having listened to clinicians and potential participants, we conclude that a trial should be conducted and the outlined challenges resolved. FUTURE WORK: The CASSAVA project could be used to inform the design of a randomised trial and indicates how such a trial could be carried out. Any future trial would benefit from a pilot with qualitative input and a study within a trial to inform optimal recruitment. LIMITATIONS: Certainty that a trial could be conducted can be determined only when it is attempted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN12295730. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 61. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Manihot , Premature Birth , Cesarean Section , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 220, 2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505868

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects all components of the respiratory system, including the neuromuscular breathing apparatus, conducting and respiratory airways, pulmonary vascular endothelium, and pulmonary blood flow. In contrast to other respiratory viruses, children have less severe symptoms when infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A minority of children experience a post-infectious inflammatory syndrome, the pathology and long-term outcomes of which are poorly understood. The reason for the lower burden of symptomatic disease in children is not yet clear, but several pathophysiological characteristics are postulated. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought distinct challenges to the care of children globally. Proper recommendations have been proposed for a range of non-asthmatic respiratory disorders in children, including primary ciliary dyskinesia and cystic fibrosis. These recommendations involve the continuation of the treatment during this period and ways to maintain stability. School closures, loss of follow-up visit attendance, and loss of other protective systems for children are the indirect outcomes of measures to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, COVID-19 has reshaped the delivery of respiratory care in children, with non-urgent and elective procedures being postponed, and distancing imperatives have led to rapid scaling of telemedicine. The pandemic has seen an unprecedented reorientation in clinical trial research towards COVID-19 and a disruption in other trials worldwide, which will have long-lasting effects on medical science. In this narrative review, we sought to outline the most recent findings on the direct and indirect effects of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on pediatric respiratory chronic diseases other than asthma, by critically revising the most recent literature on the subject.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications
19.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021275, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The emergency caused by the spread of COVID-19 has overwhelmed health care facilities and required the reorganization of health systems in many nations worldwide. A year after its appearance, measures aimed at further containing disease transmission through massive vaccination campaigns. In pregnancy, vaccination should be administered with caution, in light of the lack of reliable data, since pregnant women have been excluded from experimentation. The pandemic has had a significant impact on assisted reproduction procedures in Italy. Methods: The authors have set out to analyze the measures issued by the Italian government in order to counter the spread of COVID-19, in addition to the national and international guidelines on assisted reproduction. DISCUSSION: The purpose of these documents is precautionary in nature: such measures are based on the principles of responsibility and solidarity, essential to stave off the saturation of health systems, curb contagion, but also to lay out a set of rules to starting a pregnancy while preserving the health of couples, operators and newborns. The authors also expound upon the rights claimed by couples seeking access to MAP (i.e. the right to become a parent, the couple's right to health, interest in demographic development). Conclusions: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a major impact on infertile couples. Since the pandemic broke out, Italy, like most European countries, has interrupted most ordinary activities of the centers operating in the field of assisted fertilization. We believe that access to assisted fertilization techniques by sterile and infertile couples should be part of the right to health rather than of the supposed right to become parents or the increase in the birth rate, also evoked as the COVID-19 pandemic unfolded. The current system of compensation and reimbursements needs to be reconfigured in order to prevent any form of discrimination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reproductive Rights , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Italy , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Reproduction , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most of the deaths among neonates in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be prevented through universal access to basic high-quality health services including essential facility-based inpatient care. However, poor routine data undermines data-informed efforts to monitor and promote improvements in the quality of newborn care across hospitals. METHODS: Continuously collected routine patients' data from structured paper record forms for all admissions to newborn units (NBUs) from 16 purposively selected Kenyan public hospitals that are part of a clinical information network were analysed together with data from all paediatric admissions ages 0-13 years from 14 of these hospitals. Data are used to show the proportion of all admissions and deaths in the neonatal age group and examine morbidity and mortality patterns, stratified by birth weight, and their variation across hospitals. FINDINGS: During the 354 hospital months study period, 90 222 patients were admitted to the 14 hospitals contributing NBU and general paediatric ward data. 46% of all the admissions were neonates (aged 0-28 days), but they accounted for 66% of the deaths in the age group 0-13 years. 41 657 inborn neonates were admitted in the NBUs across the 16 hospitals during the study period. 4266/41 657 died giving a crude mortality rate of 10.2% (95% CI 9.97% to 10.55%), with 60% of these deaths occurring on the first-day of admission. Intrapartum-related complications was the single most common diagnosis among the neonates with birth weight of 2000 g or more who died. A threefold variation in mortality across hospitals was observed for birth weight categories 1000-1499 g and 1500-1999 g. INTERPRETATION: The high proportion of neonatal deaths in hospitals may reflect changing patterns of childhood mortality. Majority of newborns died of preventable causes (>95%). Despite availability of high-impact low-cost interventions, hospitals have high and very variable mortality proportions after stratification by birth weight.


Subject(s)
Hospitals , Infant Mortality , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kenya/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
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