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1.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 535-544, 2020 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spain is one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Serological surveys are a valuable tool to assess the extent of the epidemic, given the existence of asymptomatic cases and little access to diagnostic tests. This nationwide population-based study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Spain at national and regional level. METHODS: 35 883 households were selected from municipal rolls using two-stage random sampling stratified by province and municipality size, with all residents invited to participate. From April 27 to May 11, 2020, 61 075 participants (75·1% of all contacted individuals within selected households) answered a questionnaire on history of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and risk factors, received a point-of-care antibody test, and, if agreed, donated a blood sample for additional testing with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Prevalences of IgG antibodies were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification to allow for differences in non-response rates based on age group, sex, and census-tract income. Using results for both tests, we calculated a seroprevalence range maximising either specificity (positive for both tests) or sensitivity (positive for either test). FINDINGS: Seroprevalence was 5·0% (95% CI 4·7-5·4) by the point-of-care test and 4·6% (4·3-5·0) by immunoassay, with a specificity-sensitivity range of 3·7% (3·3-4·0; both tests positive) to 6·2% (5·8-6·6; either test positive), with no differences by sex and lower seroprevalence in children younger than 10 years (<3·1% by the point-of-care test). There was substantial geographical variability, with higher prevalence around Madrid (>10%) and lower in coastal areas (<3%). Seroprevalence among 195 participants with positive PCR more than 14 days before the study visit ranged from 87·6% (81·1-92·1; both tests positive) to 91·8% (86·3-95·3; either test positive). In 7273 individuals with anosmia or at least three symptoms, seroprevalence ranged from 15·3% (13·8-16·8) to 19·3% (17·7-21·0). Around a third of seropositive participants were asymptomatic, ranging from 21·9% (19·1-24·9) to 35·8% (33·1-38·5). Only 19·5% (16·3-23·2) of symptomatic participants who were seropositive by both the point-of-care test and immunoassay reported a previous PCR test. INTERPRETATION: The majority of the Spanish population is seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in hotspot areas. Most PCR-confirmed cases have detectable antibodies, but a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 did not have a PCR test and at least a third of infections determined by serology were asymptomatic. These results emphasise the need for maintaining public health measures to avoid a new epidemic wave. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Health, Institute of Health Carlos III, and Spanish National Health System.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e177, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106269

ABSTRACT

Limited prospective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) data in children regarding the impact of Omicron variant in seropositivity have been reported. We investigated SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in children between 1 September 2021 and 30 April 2022, representing Delta and Omicron predominance periods. Serum samples from children admitted to the major tertiary Greek paediatric hospital for any cause, except for COVID-19, were randomly collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 natural infection antibodies against nucleocapsid antigen (Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 reagent). A total of 506/1312 (38.6%) seropositive children (0-16 years) were detected (males: 261/506(51.6%); median age (IQR): 95.2 months(24-144)). Seropositivity rates (%) increased from Delta to Omicron period from 29.7% to 48.5% (P-value<0.0001). Seropositivity increased for all age groups, except for the age group of 0-1 year (P-value:0.914). The highest seropositivity rate was detected in April 2022 (52.6%) and reached 73.9% specifically for the age group 12-16 years. No significant differences were detected in seropositivity with respect to gender, origin, or hospitalisation status. Median (IQR) antibody titres were higher in the Omicron vs. Delta period in all age groups, especially in 12-16 years [32.2 COI (7-77.1) vs. 11.4 COI(2.8-50.2), P-value:0.009). During Omicron variant period increased SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was detected in paediatric population, especially in adolescents, implicating either increased transmissibility or reinfection rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Prospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Female , Child, Preschool
3.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 65(4): 860-863, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100025

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a major pandemic of the century and little is known about the impact of maternal infection on placental histopathology. Histopathologic examination of placental tissue can contribute to significant information regarding the pathophysiology of the disease and how it affects the fetal outcome. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Pathology, Government Doon Medical College and Hospital, Dehradun, on the placenta of 50 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-positive pregnant females confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from August 2020 to October 2020. Fifty term historical placentas were taken as control. Placenta sections were fixed in formalin, processed into paraffin blocks, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain, and visualized for any abnormality. Results: The most prominent histological finding in the placenta of pregnant women affected by COVID-19 was chorangiosis, which is a feature of fetal vascular malperfusion seen in 28 (56%) cases. Other features included maternal vascular malperfusions (MVM) such as villous crowding and agglutination in 12 (24%) cases. Tenney-Parker change was seen in 13 (26%) patients. Intervillous fibrinoid deposition and intervillous hemorrhage were seen in 37 (74%) patients and 7 (14%) patients showed significant calcification. Other findings observed were less common. Conclusion: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with a significant impact on fetal and maternal circulation causing features of fetal and maternal malperfusion such as chorangiosis, villous crowding, and agglutination. Indicating that the infection could cause a potential rise in the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes such as intrauterine fetal growth retardation, preterm birth, or stillbirth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Placenta Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Placenta/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Premature Birth/pathology , Fetal Growth Retardation , Placenta Diseases/pathology
4.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(11): 1158-1162, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099939

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of the neonates infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the Omicron outbreak in Shanghai 2022. Methods: In this retrospective case series study, all the 16 neonates with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection who were admitted to the neonatal unit in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from March 1st to May 31st, 2022 were enrolled. Their epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, nucleic acid cycle threshold (Ct) value and outcomes were analyzed. Based on maternal vaccination, they were divided into vaccinated group and unvaccinated group. Rank sum test and Chi-square test were used for the comparison between the groups. Results: Among the 16 neonates, 10 were male, and 6 were female. All the infants were full-term. The infection was confirmed at the age of 12.5 (8.0, 20.5) days. All the neonates had a history of exposure to infected family members, and thus horizontal transmission was the primary mode. Four infants were asymptomatic, 12 were symptomatic, and there were no severe or critical cases. The most common clinical manifestation was fever (11 cases), with the highest temperature of 38.1 (37.9, 38.3) ℃ and a course of 1-5 days. Other clinical manifestations included nasal obstruction (3 cases), runny nose (2 cases), cough (2 cases), poor feeding (2 cases), vomiting (1 case), and mild tachypnea (1 case). The complete blood counts of all neonates were within the normal range, and the C-reactive protein increased slightly in 1 infant. Chest imaging was performed in 2 infants, showing mild focal exudative changes. Nucleic acid turned negative (Ct value ≥35) within 7-15 days after diagnosis. All neonates fully recovered after supportive treatment, and the length of hospitalization was 13 (10, 14) days. In the telephone follow-up 2 weeks after discharge for all 16 cases, no infant showed reoccurrence of clinical manifestations or nucleic acid reactivation. Maternal vaccination was not significantly correlated with symptomatic infection or the persistence of positive nucleic acid result in neonates (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Horizontal transmission is the primary mode for neonatal SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection. Neonatal infections are usually mild or asymptomatic, with good short-term outcomes. And their clinical manifestations and laboratory examinations are nonspecific.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Infant, Newborn , Male , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , China/epidemiology , Fever , Disease Outbreaks
5.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(11): 1163-1167, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099938

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the management and short-term outcomes of neonates delivered by mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 158 neonates born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant admitted to the isolation ward of Children's Hospital of Fudan University from March 15th, 2022 to May 30th, 2022. The postnatal infection control measures for these neonates, and their clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes were analyzed. They were divided into maternal symptomatic group and maternal asymptomatic group according to whether their mothers had SARS-CoV-2 symptoms. The clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 groups using Rank sum test and Chi-square test. Results: All neonates were under strict infection control measures at birth and after birth. Of the 158 neonates, 75 (47.5%) were male. The gestational age was (38+3±1+3) weeks and the birth weight was (3 201±463)g. Of the neonates included, ten were preterm (6.3%) and the minimum gestational age was 30+1 weeks. Six neonates (3.8%) had respiratory difficulty and 4 of them were premature and required mechanical ventilation. All 158 neonates were tested negative for SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid by daily nasal swabs for the first 7 days. A total of 156 mothers (2 cases of twin pregnancy) infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, the time from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection to delivery was 7 (3, 12) days. Among them, 88 cases (56.4%) showed clinical symptoms, but none needed intensive care treatment. The peripheral white blood cell count of the neonates in maternal symptomatic group was significantly higher than that in maternal symptomatic group (23.0 (18.7, 28.0) × 109 vs. 19.6 (15.4, 36.6) × 109/L, Z=2.44, P<0.05). Conclusions: Neonates of mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant during third trimester have benign short-term outcomes, without intrauterine infection through vertical transmission. Strict infection control measures at birth and after birth can effectively protect these neonates from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Mothers , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 45, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Commentators believe that the ethical decision-making climate is instrumental in enhancing interprofessional collaboration in intensive care units (ICUs). Our aim was twofold: (1) to determine the perception of the ethical climate, levels of moral distress, and intention to leave one's job among nurses and physicians, and between the different ICU types and (2) determine the association between the ethical climate, moral distress, and intention to leave. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study between May 2021 and August 2021 involving 206 nurses and physicians in a large urban academic hospital. We used the validated Ethical Decision-Making Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ) and the Measure of Moral Distress for Healthcare Professionals (MMD-HP) tools and asked respondents their intention to leave their jobs. We also made comparisons between the different ICU types. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient to identify statistically significant associations between the Ethical Climate, Moral Distress, and Intention to Leave. RESULTS: Nurses perceived the ethical climate for decision-making as less favorable than physicians (p < 0.05). They also had significantly greater levels of moral distress and higher intention to leave their job rates than physicians. Regarding the ICU types, the Neonatal/Pediatric unit had a significantly higher overall ethical climate score than the Medical and Surgical units (3.54 ± 0.66 vs. 3.43 ± 0.81 vs. 3.30 ± 0.69; respectively; both p ≤ 0.05) and also demonstrated lower moral distress scores (both p < 0.05) and lower "intention to leave" scores compared with both the Medical and Surgical units. The ethical climate and moral distress scores were negatively correlated (r = -0.58, p < 0.001); moral distress and "intention to leave" was positively correlated (r = 0.52, p < 0.001); and ethical climate and "intention to leave" were negatively correlated (r = -0.50, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences exist in the perception of the ethical climate, levels of moral distress, and intention to leave between nurses and physicians and between the different ICU types. Inspecting the individual factors of the ethical climate and moral distress tools can help hospital leadership target organizational factors that improve interprofessional collaboration, lessening moral distress, decreasing turnover, and improved patient care.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Intention , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Job Satisfaction , Morals , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 625, 2022 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) effects on newborns is ongoing. But the research of specific variant's effects is none. This study analyzed the effects of the Omicron variant on the perinatal outcomes of full-term newborns during the Omicron wave period.  METHODS: Between December 2021 and April 2022, this study was conducted on all newborns who visited a single center. We investigated due to the Omicron maternal infection maternal pregnancy complications, delivery methods, birth week, Apgar scores, neonatal resuscitation program requirement, whether respiratory support was required until 12 h after childbirth, suspicious infectious status, and mortality depending on maternal Omicron infection. RESULTS: A total of 127 neonates were enrolled, and 12 were excluded based on exclusion criteria. Sixteen neonates were born to mothers with a history of Omicron COVID-19, and 99 were born to non-infectious mothers. All infected mothers became infected in the 3rd trimester. Of the 16 mothers, seven were symptomatic, and four met the isolation criteria, according to Korean guidelines. The birth weight of newborns to mothers with a history of COVID and those without was 2.958 ± 0.272 kg and 3.064 ± 0.461 kg (p = 0.049), respectively. The 5-min Apgar score at childbirth was 9.29 ± 0.756 and 9.78 ± 0.460 for neonates born to symptomatic and asymptomatic mothers (p = 0.019), respectively. When compared with or without maternal self-isolation, neonates requiring respiratory support 12 h after birth demonstrated a significant difference (p = 0.014; OR, 10.275). Additionally, the presence or absence of transient tachypnea of the newborn showed a significant value (p = 0.010; OR 11.929). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to Omicron COVID-19, newborns were born with lower birth weight, low 5-min Apgar scores, and required respiratory support until 12 h after birth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Resuscitation , Birth Weight
11.
Georgian Med News ; (328-329): 100-107, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092168

ABSTRACT

Currently, in relation to the effect of this pandemic on pregnancy, there are more questions than certainties about the real impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women. Studies are updated and often contradict each other. There is no evidence to suggest that pregnant women with COVID-19 have higher morbidity than affected non-pregnant women. We aimed to know whether maternal morbidities were more frequent in pregnant woman with COVID-19 compared to non-infected pregnant women. A retrospective case control study was conducted during a period of 6 months. Medical records were reviewed. A 120 files of COVID-19 infected women from Mosul city, and 95 files of non-infected pregnant women were reviewed and analyzed. We found that Infection with COVID-19 had a significant effect on pregnancy outcome, infected women were more likely to have higher incidence rates of adverse perinatal outcomes in both mothers and the newborns. Also, higher odds of complications associated with severe disease form Findings of our study came in line with previous studies in other countries, however, more medical care and support should be provided to pregnant women infected with COVID-19, particularly severe cases. Further studies with larger sample size are still needed for good understanding of the effect of virus on pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Pregnancy Outcome
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The postpartum maternal physical and psychological state played a fundamental role in the mother-child relationship at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study is to analyze the influence of maternal psychological manifestations on the mother-child couple through three objectives (briefly expressed): (I) Determination of the main acute and chronic conditions of newborns/infants. (II) Verification of the hypothesis of the existence of a link between the following neonatal variables: gestational age, birth weight, number of days of hospitalization, and specific neonatal therapies (oxygen, surfactant, and blood products' transfusion). (III) Verification of the influence of postpartum maternal psychological status on the mother-child couple through three hypotheses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two hospitals in Timișoara, Romania, between 1 March and 1 September 2020, and included 165 mothers and their 175 newborns. Mothers answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Spielberger's Inventory of State-Trait Anxiety, and the Collins and Read Revised Adult Attachment Scale. RESULTS: (I) The acute and chronic pathology of the infants in the study group was polymorphic. (II) Large correlations were identified between the following infant variables: gestational age with birth weight, and number of hospitalization days with birth weight, gestational age, and use of blood product transfusion (all p < 0.001). (III) (1) State anxiety was the only significant predictor of number of hospitalization days (p = 0.037), number of acute disorders (p = 0.028), and number of infant chronic diseases (p = 0.037). (2) Maternal depressive symptoms were the only predictor of postpartum maternal attachment (p = 0.018). (3) Depressive symptoms, state, and trait anxiety were non-significant in all models studied (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum maternal physical and psychological state plays a fundamental role on the mother-child relationship in the new social and complex family conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Infant , Female , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Birth Weight , Romania/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mother-Child Relations , Mothers/psychology , Hospitals
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(41): e297, 2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the maternal, obstetrical, and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and identify the predictors associated with the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This multicenter observational study included consecutive pregnant women admitted because of COVID-19 confirmed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test at 15 hospitals in the Republic of Korea between January 2020 and December 2021. RESULTS: A total of 257 women with COVID-19 and 62 newborns were included in this study. Most of the patients developed this disease during the third trimester. Nine patients (7.4%) developed pregnancy-related complications. All pregnant women received inpatient treatment, of whom 9 (3.5%) required intensive care, but none of them died. The gestational age at COVID-19 diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.096, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.15) and parity (OR, 1.703, 95% CI, 1.13-2.57) were identified as significant risk factors of severe diseases. Among women who delivered, 78.5% underwent cesarean section. Preterm birth (38.5%), premature rupture of membranes (7.7%), and miscarriage (4.6%) occurred, but there was no stillbirth or neonatal death. The RT-PCR test of newborns' amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood samples was negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. CONCLUSION: At the time of COVID-19 diagnosis, gestational age and parity of pregnant women were the risk factors of disease severity. Vertical transmission of COVID-19 was not observed, and maternal severity did not significantly affect the neonatal prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19 Testing , Cesarean Section , Pregnant Women , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
14.
Pediatrics ; 150(5)2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outcomes of neonates born to mothers with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy, the dynamics of placental transfer of maternal antibodies, and its persistence during infancy. METHODS: Cohort study enrolling neonates born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy. All infants were evaluated at birth. Those born to women with infection onset within 2 weeks before delivery were excluded from further analyses. Remaining infants underwent cerebral and abdominal ultrasound, fundoscopy evaluation, and were enrolled in a 12 month follow-up. Qualitative immunoglobulin G (IgG)/immunoglobulin M and quantitative IgG to S1/S2 subunits of spike protein were assessed in mother-neonate dyads within 48 hours postdelivery and during follow-up. RESULTS: Between April 2020 and April 2021, 130 of 2745 (4.7%) neonates were born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, with 106 of 130 infections diagnosed before 2 weeks before delivery. Rates of preterm and cesarean delivery were comparable between women with and without infection (6% vs 8%, P = .57; 22% vs 32%, P = .06). No clinical or instrumental abnormalities were detected at birth or during follow-up. There was a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels (r = 0.81, P < .001). Transplacental transfer ratio was higher after second-trimester maternal infections as compared with first and third trimester (P = .03). SARS-CoV-2 IgG level progressively decreased in all infants, with 89 of 92 (97%) infants seronegative at 6 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical outcomes were favorable in all infants. Matching peak IgG level after infection and higher IgG transplacental transfer might result in the most durable neonatal passive immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Cohort Studies , Placenta , Immunoglobulin M , Immunoglobulin G
15.
Rozhl Chir ; 101(9): 452-455, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081533

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The medical and social interest in the SARS-CoV-2 infection is currently high. This infection can, in severe cases, be accompanied by a series of complications, such as thromboembolic disease or pulmonary parenchymal haemorrhage. CASE REPORTS: The paper presents two rare cases of massive intrathoracic haemorrhage caused by pulmonary parenchymal haemorrhage and exacerbated by full anticoagulant treatment of thromboembolic disease. RESULTS: In both cases, the haemorrhage originated in the left lower lobe and was life threatening, requiring urgent anatomical lung resection - left lower lobectomy. CONCLUSIONS: The combinaion of anticoagulant therapy and thromboembolic events related to COVID-19 can cause, in rare cases, massive pulmonary haemorrhage. This rare complication proved lethal in one out of two of the cases described in this paper. An imminent and adequate reaction is necessary when the first signs of haemorrhage appear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Infant, Newborn , COVID-19/complications , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/therapy
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 965171, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080143

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Although the European Medicines Agency (EMA) encourage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in pregnant women, the scientific evidence supporting the use of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy is still limited. Aim: We aimed to investigate adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy. Methods: We retrieved Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) related to the use of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy from the EudraVigilance database for the year 2021. We analyzed AEFI related to the mother and fetus/newborn. The reporting odds ratio (ROR) was computed to compare the reporting probability of spontaneous abortion between COVID-19 vaccines. Results: During the study period, among 1,315,315 ICSRs related to COVID-19 vaccines, we retrieved 3,252 (0.25%) reports related to the use in pregnancy. More than half (58.24%) of ICSRs were submitted by non-healthcare professionals. Although the majority (87.82%) of ICSRs concerned serious AEFI, their outcomes were mostly favorable. In this study, 85.0% of total ICSRs referred to pregnant women (n = 2,764), while 7.9% referred to fetuses/newborns (n = 258). We identified 16,569 AEFI. Moreover, 55.16% were AEFI not related to pregnancy (mostly headache, pyrexia, and fatigue), while 17.92% were pregnancy-, newborn-, or fetus-related AEFI. Among pregnancy-related AEFI, the most reported was spontaneous abortion. Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines had a lower reporting probability of spontaneous abortion than viral vector-based vaccines (ROR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.93). Moderna and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines had a higher reporting probability of spontaneous abortion (ROR 1.2, 95% CI 1.05-1.38 and ROR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.47, respectively), while a lower reporting probability was found for Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine compared with all other COVID-19 vaccines (ROR 0.73, 95% CI 0.64-0.84). In addition, 5.8% of ICSRs reported a fatal outcome. Conclusions: No strong insight of unknown AEFI associated with COVID-19 vaccination in pregnant women was observed. Considering the high risk associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, our analysis suggests that the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy outweigh the possible risks. However, it is important to continue monitoring the safety profile of COVID-19 vaccines in this subpopulation.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 909995, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080129

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent studies have shown the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in the milk of breastfeeding mothers vaccinated with mRNA and convalescent. However, limited information is available in lactating women receiving other vaccine platforms used in developing countries, such as the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm) and the non-replicating adenovirus vaccines Sputnik V (Gamaleya Institute) and ChAdOx1-S (Oxford AstraZeneca). Methods: Here, we evaluated anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA levels in both serum and milk samples using a longitudinal and a cross-sectional cohort of 208 breastfeeding vaccinated women from Argentina with or without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: The analysis showed that IgA levels remain constant in serum and milk of breastfeeding mothers between the first and second doses of vector-based vaccines (Sputnik V and ChAdOx1-S). After the second dose, anti-spike IgA was found positive in 100% of the serum samples and in 66% of breastmilk samples. In addition, no significant differences in milk IgA levels were observed in participants receiving BBIBP-CorV, Sputnik V or ChAdOx1-S. IgG levels in milk increased after the second dose of vector-based vaccines. Paired longitudinal samples taken at 45 and 120 days after the second dose showed a decrease in milk IgG levels over time. Study of IgA levels in serum and milk of vaccinated naïve of infection and vaccinated-convalescent breastfeeding participants showed significantly higher levels in vaccinated-convalescent than in participants without previous infection. Conclusion: This study is relevant to understand the protection against SARS-CoV-2 by passive immunity in newborns and children who are not yet eligible to receive vaccination.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Infant, Newborn , Child , Humans , Female , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Milk, Human , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lactation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin A , RNA, Messenger
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(11): 4195-4202, 2022 Nov.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079849

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic induced changes in the dynamics of the life of women in the perinatal phase who, due to the health crisis, restructured social care and coexistence practices. The scope of this paper was to assess the experiences of high-risk perinatal pregnancy risk among COVID-19 positive women through social interaction. The work was conducted in a hospital of tertiary perinatal care. Qualitative methodology was used, whereby questionnaires and interviews were conducted via zoom with 14 COVID-19 positive women in the perinatal phase. Critical-interpretative discourse analysis was applied based on the concept of social interaction and complex thinking. Three types of social interaction were developed to assess the results: a) Initial social interaction: experiences when becoming aware of being COVID-19 positive; b) Acquired social interaction: experiences of care prior to COVID-19; c) Enduring social interaction: experience required in the face of COVID-19. The result of experience leads to new forms of social interaction after notification ranging from care to resilience. The conclusion drawn is that the experience of COVID-19 of women in the perinatal period remodeled their ways of coexistence and care within the institutional, family, and personal spheres.


La pandemia COVID-19 provocó cambios en la dinámica de la vida de las mujeres en etapa perinatal quienes, ante la crisis sanitaria reconfiguraron prácticas de cuidado y convivencia social. El objetivo fue conocer a través de la interacción social algunas experiencias de mujeres con embarazo de alto riesgo positivas a COVID-19. El trabajo se realizó en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención perinatal. Se empleó metodología cualitativa, se aplicaron cuestionarios y entrevistas a 14 mujeres positivas a COVID-19 en etapa perinatal vía zoom. Se realizó análisis crítico-interpretativo del discurso con base al concepto interacción social y el pensamiento complejo. Para los resultados se desarrollaron tres tipos de interacción social: a) Interacción social primaria: Experiencias ante la notificación de la positividad al COVID-19; b) Interacción social aprendida: Experiencias del cuidado ante el COVID-19; y c) Interacción social resiliente: Experiencias necesarias ante el COVID-19. El vínculo de las experiencias desemboca en nuevas formas de interacciones sociales que van desde la notificación pasando por el cuidado y la resiliencia. Concluimos que las experiencias por el COVID-19 vividas por mujeres en etapa perinatal reinventaron sus modos de convivencia y cuidado dentro de lo institucional, familiar y personal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parturition , Social Support , Perinatal Care
19.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275801, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079751

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adherence to intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring (FHRM) for early decision making in high-risk pregnancies remains a global health challenge. COVID-19 has led to disruption of routine intrapartum care in all income settings. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of quality improvement (QI) intervention to improve intrapartum FHRM and birth outcome before and during pandemic. METHOD AND MATERIALS: We conducted an observational study among 10,715 pregnant women in a hospital of Nepal, over 25 months. The hospital implemented QI intervention i.e facilitated plan-do-study-act (PDSA) meetings before and during pandemic. We assessed the change in intrapartum FHRM, timely action in high-risk deliveries and fetal outcomes before and during pandemic. RESULTS: The number of facilitated PDSA meetings increased from an average of one PDSA meeting every 2 months before pandemic to an average of one PDSA meeting per month during the pandemic. Monitoring and documentation of intrapartum FHRM at an interval of less than 30 minutes increased from 47% during pre-pandemic to 73.3% during the pandemic (p<0.0001). The median time interval from admission to abnormal heart rate detection decreased from 160 minutes to 70 minutes during the pandemic (p = 0.020). The median time interval from abnormal FHR detection to the time of delivery increased from 122 minutes to 177 minutes during the pandemic (p = 0.019). There was a rise in abnormal FHR detection during the time of admission (1.8% vs 4.7%; p<0.001) and NICU admissions (2.9% vs 6.5%; p<0.0001) during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Despite implementation of QI intervention during the pandemic, the constrains in human resource to manage high risk women has led to poorer neonatal outcome. Increasing human resources to manage high risk women will be key to timely action among high-risk women and prevent stillbirth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Rate, Fetal , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Fetal Monitoring/methods , Heart Rate, Fetal/physiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parturition , Pregnancy , Quality Improvement
20.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 191, 2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Presently, it is known that, even if less frequently than in adults, children can develop a severe new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Children with the SARS-CoV-2 infection can have neurological signs and symptoms of disease more frequently than previously thought, revealing the involvement of the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, or both. Aim of this manuscript is to highlight the neurologic complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 among pediatric patients with COVID-19, suggesting when to monitor carefully neurologic development. MAIN FINDINGS: Children with a severe chronic underlying disease, infants and toddlers and those who develop the so-called multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) are those with the highest incidence of neurological complications. Fortunately, in most of the cases, neurological manifestations, mainly represented by headache and anosmia, are mild and transient and do not significantly complicate the COVID-19 course. However, in some cases, very severe clinical problems associated with relevant alterations of neuroimaging, electroencephalography, nerve conduction studies and electromyography findings can develop. Generally, almost all the children with COVID-19 and neurological manifestations till now described have made a complete recovery, although in some cases this has occurred after several weeks of treatment. Moreover, COVID-19 infection during pregnancy has been found associated with an increased risk of obstetric complications that can lead to neurological acute and long-term manifestations in neonates. CONCLUSIONS: Based on data showing the neurologic impact of COVID-19 in pediatric age, we suggest monitoring neurological development a few months after healing in pediatric patients who have presented MIS-C, seizures or other neurological manifestations and in children of pregnant women with COVID-19 in order to detect overt and subtle deficits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
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