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1.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-16, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574630

ABSTRACT

In a large-scale study, 128176 non-pregnant patients (228 studies) and 10000 pregnant patients (121 studies) confirmed COVID-19 cases included in this Meta-Analysis. The mean (confidence interval [CI]) of age and gestational age of admission (GA) in pregnant women was 33 (28-37) years old and 36 (34-37) weeks, respectively. Pregnant women show the same manifestations of COVID-19 as non-pregnant adult patients. Fever (pregnant: 75.5%; non-pregnant: 74%) and cough (pregnant: 48.5%; non-pregnant: 53.5%) are the most common symptoms in both groups followed by myalgia (26.5%) and chill (25%) in pregnant and dysgeusia (27%) and fatigue (26.5%) in non-pregnant patients. Pregnant women are less probable to show cough (odds ratio [OR] 0.7; 95% CI 0.67-0.75), fatigue (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.54-0.61), sore throat (OR: 0.66; CI: 0.61-0.7), headache (OR: 0.55; CI: 0.55-0.58) and diarrhea (OR: 0.46; CI: 0.4-0.51) than non-pregnant adult patients. The most common imaging found in pregnant women is ground-glass opacity (57%) and in non-pregnant patients is consolidation (76%). Pregnant women have higher proportion of leukocytosis (27% vs. 14%), thrombocytopenia (18% vs. 12.5%) and have lower proportion of raised C-reactive protein (52% vs. 81%) compared with non-pregnant patients. Leucopenia and lymphopenia are almost the same in both groups. The most common comorbidity in pregnant patients is diabetes (18%) and in non-pregnant patients is hypertension (21%). Case fatality rate (CFR) of non-pregnant hospitalized patients is 6.4% (4.4-8.5), and mortality due to all-cause for pregnant patients is 11.3% (9.6-13.3). Regarding the complications of pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage (54.5% [7-94]), caesarean delivery (48% [42-54]), preterm labor (25% [4-74]) and preterm birth (21% [12-34]) are in turn the most prevalent complications. Comparing the pregnancy outcomes show that caesarean delivery (OR: 3; CI: 2-5), low birth weight (LBW) (OR: 9; CI: 2.4-30) and preterm birth (OR: 2.5; CI: 1.5-3.5) are more probable in pregnant woman with COVID-19 than pregnant women without COVID-19. The most prevalent neonatal complications are neonatal intensive care unit admission (43% [2-96]), fetal distress (30% [12-58]) and LBW (25% [16-37]). The rate of vertical transmission is 5.3% (1.3-16), and the rate of positive SARS-CoV-2 test for neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 is 8% (4-16). Overall, pregnant patients present with the similar clinical characteristics of COVID-19 when compared with the general population, but they may be more asymptomatic. Higher odds of caesarean delivery, LBW and preterm birth among pregnant patients with COVID-19 suggest a possible association between COVID-19 infection and pregnancy complications. Low risk of vertical transmission is present, and SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in all conception products, particularly placenta and breast milk. Interpretations of these results should be done cautiously due to the heterogeneity between studies; however, we believe our findings can guide the prenatal and postnatal considerations for COVID-19 pregnant patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5864-5872, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432419

ABSTRACT

The aim was to investigate the association of the delivery mode and vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) through the samples of vaginal secretions, placenta, cord blood, or amniotic fluid as well as the neonatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study presents an analysis of prospectively gathered data collected at a single tertiary hospital. Sixty-three pregnant women with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) participated in the study. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests and blood tests for immunoglobulin G (IgG)-immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. All patients were in the mild or moderate category for COVID-19. Only one placental sample and two of the vaginal secretion samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Except for one, all positive samples were obtained from patients who gave birth by cesarean. All cord blood and amniotic fluid samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Two newborns were screened positive for COVID-19 IgG-IgM within 24 h after delivery, but the RT-PCR tests were negative. A positive RT-PCR result was detected in a neof a mother whose placenta, cord blood, amniotic fluid, and vaginal secretions samples were negative. He died due to pulmonary hemorrhage on the 11th day of life. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 can be detectable in the placenta or vaginal secretions of pregnant women. Detection of the virus in the placenta or vaginal secretions may not be associated with neonatal infection. Vaginal delivery may not increase the incidence of neonatal infection, and cesarean may not prevent vertical transmission. The decision regarding the mode of delivery should be based on obstetric indications and COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Vagina/virology , Young Adult
3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(9): e340-e343, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370831

ABSTRACT

AIM: To describe a term newborn with acquired severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and multisystem involvement including seizures associated to ischemic lesions in the brain. BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is predominantly a respiratory infection, but it may affect many other systems. Most pediatric COVID-19 cases range from asymptomatic to mild-moderate disease. There are no specific clinical signs described for neonatal COVID-19 infections. In children, severe central nervous system compromise has been rarely reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe a 17-day-old newborn who acquired a SARS-CoV-2 infection in a family meeting that was admitted for fever, seizures and lethargy and in whom consumption coagulopathy, ischemic lesions in the brain and cardiac involvement were documented. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 neonatal infection can be associated with multi-organic involvement. In our patient, significant central nervous system compromise associated to ischemic lesions and laboratory findings of consumption coagulopathy were found. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Although neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections are infrequent, they can be associated with multi-organic involvement. Neonatologists and pediatricians should be aware of this unusual way of presentation of COVID-19 in newborn infants.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/pathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Fever , Frontal Lobe/blood supply , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Frontal Lobe/pathology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/drug therapy , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/pathology , Lethargy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Seizures
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5864-5872, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252014

ABSTRACT

The aim was to investigate the association of the delivery mode and vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) through the samples of vaginal secretions, placenta, cord blood, or amniotic fluid as well as the neonatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study presents an analysis of prospectively gathered data collected at a single tertiary hospital. Sixty-three pregnant women with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) participated in the study. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was analyzed with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests and blood tests for immunoglobulin G (IgG)-immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. All patients were in the mild or moderate category for COVID-19. Only one placental sample and two of the vaginal secretion samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Except for one, all positive samples were obtained from patients who gave birth by cesarean. All cord blood and amniotic fluid samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Two newborns were screened positive for COVID-19 IgG-IgM within 24 h after delivery, but the RT-PCR tests were negative. A positive RT-PCR result was detected in a neof a mother whose placenta, cord blood, amniotic fluid, and vaginal secretions samples were negative. He died due to pulmonary hemorrhage on the 11th day of life. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 can be detectable in the placenta or vaginal secretions of pregnant women. Detection of the virus in the placenta or vaginal secretions may not be associated with neonatal infection. Vaginal delivery may not increase the incidence of neonatal infection, and cesarean may not prevent vertical transmission. The decision regarding the mode of delivery should be based on obstetric indications and COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tertiary Care Centers , Vagina/virology , Young Adult
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217523, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198345

ABSTRACT

Importance: The incidence of mother-to-newborn SARS-CoV-2 transmission appears low and may be associated with biological and social factors. However, data are limited on the factors associated with neonatal clinical or viral testing outcomes. Objective: To ascertain the percentage of neonates who were born to mothers with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results during the birth hospitalization, the clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with neonatal test result positivity, and the clinical and virological outcomes for newborns during hospitalization and 30 days after discharge. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study included 11 academic or community hospitals in Massachusetts and mother-neonate dyads whose delivery and discharge occurred between March 1, 2020, and July 31, 2020. Eligible dyads were identified at each participating hospital through local COVID-19 surveillance and infection control systems. Neonates were born to mothers with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results within 14 days before to 72 hours after delivery, and neonates were followed up for 30 days after birth hospital discharge. Exposures: Hypothesized maternal risk factors in neonatal test result positivity included maternal COVID-19 symptoms, vaginal delivery, rooming-in practice, Black race or Hispanic ethnicity, and zip code-derived social vulnerability index. Delivery indicated by worsening maternal COVID-19 symptoms was hypothesized to increase the risk of adverse neonatal health outcomes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes for neonates were (1) positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, (2) indicators of adverse health, and (3) clinical signs and viral testing. Test result positivity was defined as at least 1 positive result on a specimen obtained by nasopharyngeal swab using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. Clinical and testing data were obtained from electronic medical records of nonroutine health care visits within 30 days after hospital discharge. Results: The cohort included 255 neonates (mean [SD] gestational age at birth, 37.9 [2.6] weeks; 62 [24.3%] with low birth weight or preterm delivery) with 250 mothers (mean [SD] age, 30.4 [6.3] years; 121 [48.4%] were of Hispanic ethnicity). Of the 255 neonates who were born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 225 (88.2%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 5 (2.2%) had positive results during the birth hospitalization. High maternal social vulnerability was associated with higher likelihood of neonatal test result positivity (adjusted odds ratio, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.53-16.01; P = .008), adjusted for maternal COVID-19 symptoms, delivery mode, and rooming-in practice. Adverse outcomes during hospitalization were associated with preterm delivery indicated by worsening maternal COVID-19 symptoms. Of the 151 newborns with follow-up data, 28 had nonroutine clinical visits, 7 underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing, and 1 had a positive result. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings emphasize the importance of both biological and social factors in perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection outcomes. Newborns exposed to SARS-CoV-2 were at risk for both direct and indirect adverse health outcomes, supporting efforts of ongoing surveillance of the virus and long-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Delivery, Obstetric , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors
6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250196, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197384

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The evidence for vertical transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is not well established. Therefore, the objective of this review is to summarize emerging evidence on the vertical transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and CENTRAL. Likewise, a search for preprint publications was conducted using MedRxiv and Research Square. Studies that addressed vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (concept) among pregnant women infected by Covid-19 (population) in any setting (community, hospital, or home) in any country or context were considered for inclusion. Any types of studies or reports published between December 2019 and September 2020 addressing the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on pregnant women and their newborn babies were included. Studies were screened for eligibility against the inclusion criteria for the review by two reviewers. RESULTS: We identified 51 studies reporting 336 newborns screened for COVID-19. From the 336 newborns screened for COVID-19, only 15 (4.4%) were positive for throat swab RT-PCR. All neonates with positive throat swab RT-PCR were delivered by cesarean section. Among neonates with throat swab SARS-CoV-2 positive only five (33.3%) had concomitant placenta, amniotic fluid, and cord blood samples tested, of which only one amniotic fluid sample is positive for RT PCR. Five neonates had elevated IgG and IgM but without intrauterine tissue tested. Four neonates had chest imaging suggestive of COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSION: Currently there is not enough evidence on vertical virologic transmission of COVID-19 infection during the third trimester of pregnancy. Additionally, there is no evidence to support cesarean delivery, abstaining from breast feeding nor mother and infant separation. Further research involving an adequate sample size of breast milk, placenta, amniotic fluid, and cord blood to ascertain the possibility of vertical transmission and breast milk transfer is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology
7.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(7): 741-746, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182902

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe maternal characteristics and clinical outcomes of infants born to mothers with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tests during pregnancy at an urban, safety-net hospital in Boston. STUDY DESIGN: We abstracted electronic chart data from 75 pregnant women with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests at any stage of gestation until 72 hours after birth who delivered consecutively between March 31 and August 6, 2020 at our center. We collected clinical data on maternal and infant characteristics, including testing, signs, and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), delivery outcomes, newborn care practices (skin-to-skin care, location of care, and breastfeeding) and 30-day postdischarge infant emergency room visits and readmissions. We described categorical characteristics as percentages for this case series. RESULTS: Among 75 pregnant women, 47 (63%) were Hispanic, 10 (13%) had hypertension, 23 (30%) had prepregnancy obesity, and 57 (76%) had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Regarding birth outcomes, 32 (41%) had cesarean delivery and 14 (19%) had preterm birth. Among 75 infants, 5 (7%) had positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction tests in the first week of life, all of whom were born to Hispanic mothers with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and had clinical courses consistent with gestational age. Six (8%) infants visited the emergency department within 30 days of discharge; one was admitted with a non-COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: At our urban, safety-net hospital among pregnant women with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests, 41% had a cesarean delivery and 19% had a preterm birth. Seven percent of infants had one or more positive SARS-CoV-2 tests and all infants had clinical courses expected for gestational age. KEY POINTS: · Among 75 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 positive testing at our center, five infants (7%) had one or more SARS-CoV-2 positive tests in the first week of life.. · Infants with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests had clinical courses expected for gestational age..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant Care/methods , Infant Care/statistics & numerical data , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Safety-net Providers/statistics & numerical data
8.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(6): 632-636, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147069

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to alert the neonatal community to the possibility of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) like disease in critically ill neonates born to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). STUDY DESIGN: Diagnosis of MIS-C like disease was pursued after echocardiography showed severely depressed ventricular function and pathological coronary artery dilation in the setting of medically refractory multisystem organ failure and maternal COVID-19 infection. The neonate did not respond to standard medical therapy, and there was no alternative disease that could explain the clinical course. High index of clinical suspicion coupled with low risk of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) prompted us to pursue IVIG administration even though the neonate did not meet classic criteria for MIS-C. RESULT: Following treatment with IVIG, there was rapid clinical improvement. Ventricular function improved within 15 hours and coronary artery dilation resolved in 8 days. There was no recurrence of disease during follow-up. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 associated MIS-C like disease has not been well described in neonates. As typical features may be conspicuously absent, a high index of suspicion is warranted in critically ill neonates born to mothers with COVID-19. Echocardiography may provide critical diagnostic information and narrow the differential diagnosis. KEY POINTS: · COVID-19 associated MIS-C can present in neonates.. · Echocardiography is helpful in raising suspicion for MIS-C in neonates.. · Consider MIS-C in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates born to mothers with COVID-19..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness/therapy , Echocardiography/methods , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/physiopathology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/therapy , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function/drug effects
10.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(6): 769-771, 2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072398

ABSTRACT

Evidence for in utero transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is growing but not definitive. We present a case of neonatal infection that supports in utero transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and provides insight into the hematogenous spread from mother to fetus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Fetal Blood/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/etiology , Male , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/urine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Early Hum Dev ; 155: 105322, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053333

ABSTRACT

From the moment of the identification of SARS-CoV-2 as an etiological agent of the severe clinical pictures of pneumonia that were being slowly observed all over the world, numerous studies have been conducted to increase the knowledge about what was an unknown virus until then. The efforts were mainly aimed to acquire epidemiological, microbiological, pathogenetic, clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive information in order to increase the available weapons to fight an infection which was rapidly taking on the characteristics of the pandemic. Given the topicality of the problem, not everything has yet been fully understood and clarified, especially in the maternal-fetal­neonatal field, where we are beginning to question what could be the outcomes of newborn babies born to mothers who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. Thus, the aim of this review is to analyze the long-term outcomes of this infection that could affect the offspring, regardless of a possible maternal-fetal transmission, focusing on, above all, the role of maternal immune activation and the expression of the Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in particular at the placental level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adaptive Immunity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Fetal Development , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/embryology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/metabolism , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/immunology , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , Time Factors
14.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(1): 93-98, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-884843

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of confirmed novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease or infants under investigation among a cohort of U.S. neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Secondarily, to evaluate hospital policies regarding maternal COVID-19 screening and related to those infants born to mothers under investigation or confirmed to have COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Serial cross-sectional surveys of MEDNAX-affiliated NICUs from March 26 to April 3, April 8 to April 19, May 4 to May 22, and July 13 to August 2, 2020. The surveys included questions regarding COVID-19 patient burden and policies regarding infant separation, feeding practices, and universal maternal screening. RESULTS: Among 386 MEDNAX-affiliated NICUs, responses were received from 153 (42%), 160 (44%), 165 (45%), 148 (38%) across four rounds representing an active patient census of 3,465, 3,486, 3,452, and 3,442 NICU admitted patients on the day of survey completion. Confirmed COVID-19 disease in NICU admitted infants was rare, with the prevalence rising from 0.03 (1 patient) to 0.44% (15 patients) across the four survey rounds, while the prevalence of patients under investigation increased from 0.8 to 2.6%. Hospitals isolating infants from COVID-19-positive mothers fell from 46 to 20% between the second and fourth surveys, while centers permitting direct maternal breastfeeding increased 17 to 47% over the same period. Centers reporting universal severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) screening for all expectant mothers increased from 52 to 69%. CONCLUSION: Among a large cohort of NICU infants, the prevalence of infants under investigation or with confirmed neonatal COVID-19 disease was low. Policies regarding universal maternal screening for SARS-CoV-2, infant isolation from positive mothers, and direct maternal breastfeeding for infants born to positive mothers are rapidly evolving. As universal maternal screening for SARS-CoV-2 becomes more common, the impact of these policies requires further investigation. KEY POINTS: · In this cohort, neonatal COVID-19 is rare.. · Policies regarding isolation and breastfeeding for infants are rapidly evolving.. · Most hospitals are now providing universal screening for expectant mothers for SARS-CoV-2..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Mass Screening , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Policy Making , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(11): e367-e369, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835207

ABSTRACT

Since initial identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in 2019, the virus has proved to be highly transmissible, resulting in a global pandemic with emerging reports of infected neonates. This report highlights a severe case of neonatal coronavirus disease 2019 with acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/virology , Treatment Outcome
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 853-857, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719207

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China and now has spread in many countries. Pregnant women are a population susceptible to COVID-19 and are more likely to have complications and even progress to severe illness. We report a case of neonatal COVID-19 in China with pharyngeal swabs testing positive by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay 36 hours after birth. However, whether the case is a vertical transmission from mother to child remains to be confirmed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(8): 869-872, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-163401

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To date, no information on late-onset infection in newborns to mother with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contracted in pregnancy are available. This study aimed to evaluate postdischarge SARS-CoV-2 status of newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy that, at birth, were negative to SARS-CoV-2. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational study of neonates born to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESULTS: Seven pregnant women with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection have been evaluated in our institution. One woman had a spontaneous abortion at 8 weeks of gestational age, four women recovered and are still in follow-up, and two women delivered. Two newborns were enrolled in the study. At birth and 3 days of life, newborns were negative to SARS-CoV-2. At 2-week follow-up, one newborn tested positive although asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the importance of follow-up of newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy, since they remain at risk of contracting the infection in the early period of life and long-term consequences are still unknown. KEY POINTS: · Newborns to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy can acquire the infection later after birth.. · Newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy need a long-term follow-up, even if they tested negative at birth.. · Specific guidelines for the long-term follow-up of newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy are needed..


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Postnatal Care , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , Aftercare/standards , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/physiopathology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Needs Assessment , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Postnatal Care/methods , Postnatal Care/standards , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
19.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(8): 780-791, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-157858

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has urged the development and implementation of guidelines and protocols on diagnosis, management, infection control strategies, and discharge planning. However, very little is currently known about neonatal COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Thus, many questions arise with regard to respiratory care after birth, necessary protection to health care workers (HCW) in the delivery room and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and safety of bag and mask ventilation, noninvasive respiratory support, deep suctioning, endotracheal intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Indeed, these questions have created tremendous confusion amongst neonatal HCW. In this manuscript, we comprehensively reviewed the current evidence regarding COVID-19 perinatal transmission, respiratory outcomes of neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 and infants with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the evidence for using different respiratory support modalities and aerosol-generating procedures in this specific population. The results demonstrated that to date, neonatal COVID-19 infection is uncommon, generally acquired postnatally, and associated with favorable respiratory outcomes. The reason why infants display a milder spectrum of disease remains unclear. Nonetheless, the risk of severe or critical illness in young patients exists. Currently, the recommended respiratory approach for infants with suspected or confirmed infection is not evidence based but should include all routinely used types of support, with the addition of viral filters, proper personal protective equipment, and placement of infants in isolation rooms, ideally with negative pressure. As information is changing rapidly, clinicians should frequently watch out for updates on the subject. KEY POINTS: · Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic urged development of guidelines.. · Neonatal COVID-19 disease is uncommon.. · Respiratory outcomes in neonates seems favorable.. · Current neonatal respiratory care should continue.. · Clinicians should watch frequently for updates..


Subject(s)
Airway Management , Coronavirus Infections , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Airway Management/methods , Airway Management/trends , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Evidence-Based Practice , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/prevention & control , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/therapy , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(8): 861-865, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72492

ABSTRACT

There are few cases of pregnant women with novel corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) in the literature, most of them with a mild illness course. There is limited evidence about in utero infection and early positive neonatal testing. A 41-year-old G3P2 with a history of previous cesarean deliveries and diabetes mellitus presented with a 4-day history of malaise, low-grade fever, and progressive shortness of breath. A nasopharyngeal swab was positive for COVID-19, COVID-19 serology was negative. The patient developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation on day 5 of disease onset. The patient underwent a cesarean delivery, and neonatal isolation was implemented immediately after birth, without delayed cord clamping or skin-to-skin contact. The neonatal nasopharyngeal swab, 16 hours after delivery, was positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunoglobulin (Ig)-M and IgG for SARS-CoV-2 were negative. Maternal IgM and IgG were positive on postpartum day 4 (day 9 after symptom onset). We report a severe presentation of COVID-19 during pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the earliest reported positive PCR in the neonate, raising the concern for vertical transmission. We suggest pregnant women should be considered as a high-risk group and minimize exposures for these reasons. KEY POINTS: · We report a severe presentation of COVID-19 in pregnancy requiring invasive ventilatory support.. · This is a case of positive RT-PCR in first day of life, suggesting possible vertical transmission.. · There were no detectable maternal antibodies for COVID-19 until after delivery..


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cesarean Section/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/physiopathology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/therapy , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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