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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 707078, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775823

ABSTRACT

Background: Small for gestational age (SGA) is a key contributor to premature deaths and long-term complications in life. Improved characterization of maternal risk factors associated with this adverse outcome is needed to inform the development of interventions, track progress, and reduce the disease burden. This study aimed to identify socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical factors associated with SGA in Mexico. Methods: We analyzed administrative data from 1,841,477 singletons collected by the National Information Subsystem of Livebirths during 2017. Small-for-gestational-age was defined as being <10th centiles according to the INTERGROWTH-21st standards. The comparison group was defined as being in ≥10th centiles. We fitted logistic regression models to determine odds ratios for the maternal factors associated with SGA. Results: Among the 1,841,477 singletons, 51% were male, 6.7% were SGA, 6.1% were term-SGA, and 0.5% were preterm-SGA. Maternal education presented a protective gradient of being SGA among mothers who achieved 1 to 6 years of education (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)0.95; 95% CI:0.91,0.99), 7 to 9 years (aOR 0.86; 95% CI:0.83,0.89), 10 to 12 years (aOR 0.75; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.79) and > 12 years (aOR 0.63; 95% CI:0.6,0.66) compared with those without education. SGA was particularly likely to occur among primiparous (aOR 1.42; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.43), mothers living in very high deprivation localities (aOR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.36, 1.43), young (aOR 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.06), advanced age (aOR 1.14; 95% CI 1.09, 1.19), and mothers living in areas above 2,000 m (aOR 1.69; 95% CI: 1.65, 1.73). Antenatal care was associated with a reduced risk of SGA by 30% (aOR 0.7; 95% CI:0.67,0.73), 23% (OR 0.77; 95% CI:0.74,0.8), and 21% (OR 0.79; 95% CI:0.75,0.83), compared with those mothers who never received antenatal care, when women visited the clinic at the first, second and third trimester, respectively. Conclusion: Almost 7% of live births were found to be SGA. Parity, maternal age, education, place of residence, and social deprivation were significantly associated with this outcome. Antenatal care was protective. These findings imply that interventions focusing on early and adequate contact with health care facilities, reproductive health counseling, and maternal education should reduce SGA in Mexico.


Subject(s)
Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Maternal Age , Mexico/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Risk Factors
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 761, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing spread coronavirus disease worldwide has caused major disruptions and led to lockdowns. Everyday lifestyle changes and antenatal care inaccessibility during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have variable results that affect pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the alterations in stillbirth, neonatal-perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and birth weight during the COVID-19 national lockdown. METHODS: We used the data from the Jordan stillbirths and neonatal death surveillance system to compare pregnancy outcomes (gestational age, birth weight, small for gestational age, stillbirth, neonatal death, and perinatal death) between two studied periods (11 months before the pandemic (May 2019 to March 2020) vs. 9 months during the pandemic (April 2020 to March 1st 2020). Separate multinomial logistic and binary logistic regression models were used to compare the studied outcomes between the two studied periods after adjusting for the effects of mother's age, income, education, occupation, nationality, health sector, and multiplicity. RESULTS: There were 31106 registered babies during the study period; among them, 15311 (49.2%) and 15795 (50.8%) births occurred before and during the COVID-19 lockdown, respectively. We found no significant differences in preterm birth and stillbirth rates, neonatal mortality, or perinatal mortality before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings report a significantly lower incidence of extreme low birth weight (ELBW) infants (<1kg) during the COVID-19 lockdown period than that before the lockdown (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.3-0.5: P value <0.001) CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 lockdown period, the number of infants born with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) decreased significantly. More research is needed to determine the impact of cumulative socio-environmental and maternal behavioral changes that occurred during the pandemic on the factors that contribute to ELBW infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Jordan , Perinatal Mortality , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 166, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and fetus. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has significantly reduced the risk of symptomatic disease. Several small studies have reported the safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy, with no adverse effect on obstetric outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy and maternal and neonatal outcomes in a large cohort study. Furthermore, to evaluate if timing of vaccination during pregnancy is related to adverse outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of women who delivered between December 2020 and July 2021 at a large tertiary medical center. Excluded were women with multiple pregnancy, vaccination prior to pregnancy, COVID-19 infection during or before pregnancy, or unknown timing of vaccination. Primary outcomes were the incidence of preterm labor and of small for gestational age. Secondary outcomes were other maternal and neonatal complications. A secondary analysis investigating the association between time of vaccination and outcomes was also performed. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: There were 5618 women who met the inclusion criteria: 2,305 (41%) women were vaccinated and 3,313 (59%) were unvaccinated. There were no differences between vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients with respect to primary outcomes. The rate of preterm birth was 5.5% in the vaccinated group compared to 6.2% in the unvaccinated group (p = 0.31). Likewise, the rates of small for gestational age were comparable between the two groups (6.2% vs. 7.0% respectively, p = 0.2). In a secondary analysis focusing on time of vaccination and its relationship with outcomes, patients vaccinated in the second trimester (n = 964) and in the third trimester (n = 1329) were independently compared to their unvaccinated counterparts. Women who were vaccinated in the second trimester were more likely to have a preterm birth (8.1% vs. 6.2%, p < 0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted odds ratio 1.49, 95%CI 1.11, 2.01). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine appears to be safe during pregnancy with no increase in incidence of preterm labor and small for gestational age compared to unvaccinated women. However, in women vaccinated during the second trimester there may be an increase in the rate of preterm birth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Patient Safety , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Vaccination , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Trimesters , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Time Factors
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(1): 26-30, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606176

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines are recommended during pregnancy to prevent severe maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes; however, vaccination coverage among pregnant women has been low (1). Concerns among pregnant women regarding vaccine safety are a persistent barrier to vaccine acceptance during pregnancy. Previous studies of maternal COVID-19 vaccination and birth outcomes have been limited by small sample size (2) or lack of an unvaccinated comparison group (3). In this retrospective cohort study of live births from eight Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) health care organizations, risks for preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at birth (birthweight <10th percentile for gestational age) after COVID-19 vaccination (receipt of ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine doses) during pregnancy were evaluated. Risks for preterm and SGA at birth among vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women were compared, accounting for time-dependent vaccine exposures and propensity to be vaccinated. Single-gestation pregnancies with estimated start or last menstrual period during May 17-October 24, 2020, were eligible for inclusion. Among 46,079 pregnant women with live births and gestational age available, 10,064 (21.8%) received ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine doses during pregnancy and during December 15, 2020-July 22, 2021; nearly all (9,892; 98.3%) were vaccinated during the second or third trimester. COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy was not associated with preterm birth (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.82-1.01). Among 40,627 live births with birthweight available, COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy was not associated with SGA at birth (aHR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.87-1.03). Results consistently showed no increased risk when stratified by mRNA COVID-19 vaccine dose, or by second or third trimester vaccination, compared with risk among unvaccinated pregnant women. Because of the small number of first-trimester exposures, aHRs for first-trimester vaccination could not be calculated. These data add to the evidence supporting the safety of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy. To reduce the risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness, CDC recommends COVID-19 vaccination for women who are pregnant, recently pregnant (including those who are lactating), who are trying to become pregnant now, or who might become pregnant in the future (4).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infant, Premature , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
J Perinat Med ; 50(3): 253-260, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560709

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare perinatal outcomes in women with vs. without severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: Perinatal outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant women who delivered at our institution between October 27th 2020 and January 31st 2021 were compared to SARS-CoV-2 negative pregnancies (contemporary controls) and historical 2019 controls matched by maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index and parity. Testing was performed based on symptoms or close contact at any time during pregnancy and as part of universal screening at hospital admission. Multivariable log-linear regression models were used adjusting for potential confounders (p < 0.05 statistically significant). RESULTS: One thousand three hundred seventeen women delivered at our institution during the study period. 1,124 (85%) tested negative and 193 (15%) positive for SARS-CoV-2. 189 (98%) were infected during third trimester. 19 (10%) were asymptomatic, 171 (89%) had mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and 3 (2%) were critically ill with one case of maternal death. There were no significant differences in preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age birth weight, congenital anomalies, operative delivery, intrapartum hypoxia, and perinatal mortality in SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnancies compared to contemporary reference group or historical controls from pre-COVID-19 period. Labor was more commonly induced in SARS-CoV-2 positive women compared to reference SARS-CoV-2 negative group (68 [35%] vs. 278 [25%], adjusted odds ratio 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.14-2.28). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy was not strongly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. While the majority of SARS-CoV-2 positive women had no or mild/moderate symptoms, 2% were critically ill, with one case of maternal death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Perinatal Mortality , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 761, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing spread coronavirus disease worldwide has caused major disruptions and led to lockdowns. Everyday lifestyle changes and antenatal care inaccessibility during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have variable results that affect pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the alterations in stillbirth, neonatal-perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and birth weight during the COVID-19 national lockdown. METHODS: We used the data from the Jordan stillbirths and neonatal death surveillance system to compare pregnancy outcomes (gestational age, birth weight, small for gestational age, stillbirth, neonatal death, and perinatal death) between two studied periods (11 months before the pandemic (May 2019 to March 2020) vs. 9 months during the pandemic (April 2020 to March 1st 2020). Separate multinomial logistic and binary logistic regression models were used to compare the studied outcomes between the two studied periods after adjusting for the effects of mother's age, income, education, occupation, nationality, health sector, and multiplicity. RESULTS: There were 31106 registered babies during the study period; among them, 15311 (49.2%) and 15795 (50.8%) births occurred before and during the COVID-19 lockdown, respectively. We found no significant differences in preterm birth and stillbirth rates, neonatal mortality, or perinatal mortality before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings report a significantly lower incidence of extreme low birth weight (ELBW) infants (<1kg) during the COVID-19 lockdown period than that before the lockdown (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.3-0.5: P value <0.001) CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 lockdown period, the number of infants born with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) decreased significantly. More research is needed to determine the impact of cumulative socio-environmental and maternal behavioral changes that occurred during the pandemic on the factors that contribute to ELBW infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Jordan , Perinatal Mortality , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology
7.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 226(2): 236.e1-236.e14, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised regarding a potential surge of COVID-19 in pregnancy, secondary to the rising numbers of COVID-19 in the community, easing of societal restrictions, and vaccine hesitancy. Although COVID-19 vaccination is now offered to all pregnant women in the United Kingdom; limited data exist on its uptake and safety. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the uptake and safety of COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant women. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cohort study of pregnant women who gave birth at St George's University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom, between March 1, 2020, and July 4, 2021. The primary outcome was uptake of COVID-19 vaccination and its determinants. The secondary outcomes were perinatal safety outcomes. Data were collected on COVID-19 vaccination uptake, vaccination type, gestational age at vaccination, and maternal characteristics, including age, parity, ethnicity, index of multiple deprivation score, and comorbidities. Further data were collected on perinatal outcomes, including stillbirth (fetal death at ≥24 weeks' gestation), preterm birth, fetal and congenital abnormalities, and intrapartum complications. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of women who received the vaccine were compared with that of a matched cohort of women with balanced propensity scores. Effect magnitudes of vaccination on perinatal outcomes were reported as mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Factors associated with antenatal vaccination were assessed with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Data were available for 1328 pregnant women of whom 140 received at least 1 dose of the COVID-19 vaccine before giving birth and 1188 women who did not; 85.7% of those vaccinated received their vaccine in the third trimester of pregnancy and 14.3% in the second trimester of pregnancy. Of those vaccinated, 127 (90.7%) received a messenger RNA vaccine and 13 (9.3%) a viral vector vaccine. There was evidence of reduced vaccine uptake in younger women (P=.001), women with high levels of deprivation (ie, fifth quintile of the index of multiple deprivation; P=.008), and women of Afro-Caribbean or Asian ethnicity compared with women of White ethnicity (P<.001). Women with prepregnancy diabetes mellitus had increased vaccine uptake (P=.008). In the multivariable model the fifth deprivation quintile (most deprived) (adjusted odds ratio, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.10; P=.003) and Afro-Caribbean ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.85; P=.044) were significantly associated with lower antenatal vaccine uptake, whereas prepregnancy diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with higher antenatal vaccine uptake (adjusted odds ratio, 10.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.74-83.2; P=.014). In a propensity score-matched cohort, the rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes of 133 women who received at least 1 dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in pregnancy were similar to that of unvaccinated pregnant women (P>.05 for all): stillbirth (0.0% vs 0.2%), fetal abnormalities (2.2% vs 2.5%), postpartum hemorrhage (9.8% vs 9.0%), cesarean delivery (30.8% vs 34.1%), small for gestational age (12.0% vs 12.8%), maternal high-dependency unit or intensive care admission (6.0% vs 4.0%), or neonatal intensive care unit admission (5.3% vs 5.0%). Intrapartum pyrexia (3.7% vs 1.0%; P=.046) was significantly increased but the borderline statistical significance was lost after excluding women with antenatal COVID-19 infection (P=.079). Mixed-effects Cox regression showed that vaccination was not significantly associated with birth at <40 weeks' gestation (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.23; P=.624). CONCLUSION: Of pregnant women eligible for COVID-19 vaccination, less than one-third accepted COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy, and they experienced similar pregnancy outcomes with unvaccinated pregnant women. There was lower uptake among younger women, non-White ethnicity, and lower socioeconomic background. This study has contributed to the body of evidence that having COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy does not alter perinatal outcomes. Clear communication to improve awareness among pregnant women and healthcare professionals on vaccine safety is needed, alongside strategies to address vaccine hesitancy. These strategies include postvaccination surveillance to gather further data on pregnancy outcomes, particularly after first-trimester vaccination, and long-term infant follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , /therapeutic use , Adult , Age Factors , Caribbean Region , Case-Control Studies , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Congenital Abnormalities/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Intensive Care Units , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Logistic Models , Obstetric Labor Complications/epidemiology , Postpartum Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , Stillbirth/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251746, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medications already available to treat other conditions are presently being studied in clinical trials as potential treatments for COVID-19. Given that pregnant women are excluded from these trials, we aimed to investigate their safety when used during pregnancy within a unique population source. METHODS: Using the population-based Quebec Pregnancy Cohort, we identified women who delivered a singleton liveborn (1998-2015). Taking potential confounders into account including indications for use, the risk of prematurity, low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and major congenital malformation (MCM) associated with COVID-19 repurposed drug use during pregnancy were quantified using generalized estimation equations. RESULTS: Of the 231,075 eligible pregnancies, 107 were exposed to dexamethasone (0.05%), 31 to interferons (0.01%), 1,398 to heparins (0.60%), 24 to angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) (0.01%), 182 to chloroquine (0.08%), 103 to hydroxychloroquine (0.05%), 6,206 to azithromycin (2.70%), 230 to oseltamivir (0.10%), and 114 to HIV medications (0.05%). Adjusting for potential confounders, we observed an increased risk of prematurity related to dexamethasone (aOR 1.92, 95%CI 1.11-3.33; 15 exposed cases), anti-thrombotics (aOR 1.58, 95%CI 1.31-1.91; 177 exposed cases), and HIV medications (aOR 2.04, 95%CI 1.01-4.11; 20 exposed cases) use. An increased risk for LBW associated with anti-thrombotics (aOR 1.72, 95%CI 1.41-2.11; 152 exposed cases), and HIV medications (aOR 2.48, 95%CI 1.25-4.90; 21 exposed cases) use were also found. Gestational exposure to anti-thrombotics (aOR 1.20, 95%CI 1.00-1.44; 176 exposed cases), and HIV medications (aOR 2.61, 95%CI 1.51-4.51; 30 exposed cases) were associated with SGA. First-trimester dexamethasone (aOR 1.66, 95%CI 1.02-2.69; 20 exposed cases) and azithromycin (aOR 1.10, 95%CI 1.02-1.19; 747 exposed cases) exposures were associated with MCM. CONCLUSIONS: Many available medications considered as treatments for COVID-19 are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Caution is warranted when considering these medications during the gestational period.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Pregnancy/drug effects , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Live Birth/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/chemically induced , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Quebec/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2273-2282, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy. METHODS: From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the "v-safe after vaccination health checker" surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons. RESULTS: A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Injection-site pain was reported more frequently among pregnant persons than among nonpregnant women, whereas headache, myalgia, chills, and fever were reported less frequently. Among 3958 participants enrolled in the v-safe pregnancy registry, 827 had a completed pregnancy, of which 115 (13.9%) resulted in a pregnancy loss and 712 (86.1%) resulted in a live birth (mostly among participants with vaccination in the third trimester). Adverse neonatal outcomes included preterm birth (in 9.4%) and small size for gestational age (in 3.2%); no neonatal deaths were reported. Although not directly comparable, calculated proportions of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in persons vaccinated against Covid-19 who had a completed pregnancy were similar to incidences reported in studies involving pregnant women that were conducted before the Covid-19 pandemic. Among 221 pregnancy-related adverse events reported to the VAERS, the most frequently reported event was spontaneous abortion (46 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings did not show obvious safety signals among pregnant persons who received mRNA Covid-19 vaccines. However, more longitudinal follow-up, including follow-up of large numbers of women vaccinated earlier in pregnancy, is necessary to inform maternal, pregnancy, and infant outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Middle Aged , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Registries , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Young Adult
10.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 57(4): 573-581, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162971

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Few large cohort studies have reported data on maternal, fetal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnancy. We report the outcome of infected pregnancies from a collaboration formed early during the pandemic between the investigators of two registries, the UK and Global Pregnancy and Neonatal outcomes in COVID-19 (PAN-COVID) study and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Section on Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine (SONPM) National Perinatal COVID-19 Registry. METHODS: This was an analysis of data from the PAN-COVID registry (1 January to 25 July 2020), which includes pregnancies with suspected or confirmed maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection at any stage in pregnancy, and the AAP-SONPM National Perinatal COVID-19 registry (4 April to 8 August 2020), which includes pregnancies with positive maternal testing for SARS-CoV-2 from 14 days before delivery to 3 days after delivery. The registries collected data on maternal, fetal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes. The PAN-COVID results are presented overall for pregnancies with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and separately in those with confirmed infection. RESULTS: We report on 4005 pregnant women with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (1606 from PAN-COVID and 2399 from AAP-SONPM). For obstetric outcomes, in PAN-COVID overall and in those with confirmed infection in PAN-COVID and AAP-SONPM, respectively, maternal death occurred in 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.2% of cases, early neonatal death in 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.3% of cases and stillbirth in 0.5%, 0.6% and 0.4% of cases. Delivery was preterm (< 37 weeks' gestation) in 12.0% of all women in PAN-COVID, in 16.1% of those women with confirmed infection in PAN-COVID and in 15.7% of women in AAP-SONPM. Extreme preterm delivery (< 27 weeks' gestation) occurred in 0.5% of cases in PAN-COVID and 0.3% in AAP-SONPM. Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in 0.9% of all deliveries in PAN-COVID overall, in 2.0% in those with confirmed infection in PAN-COVID and in 1.8% in AAP-SONPM; the proportions of neonates tested were 9.5%, 20.7% and 87.2%, respectively. The rates of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate were 8.2% in PAN-COVID overall, 9.7% in those with confirmed infection and 9.6% in AAP-SONPM. Mean gestational-age-adjusted birth-weight Z-scores were -0.03 in PAN-COVID and -0.18 in AAP-SONPM. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from the UK and USA registries of pregnancies with SARS-CoV-2 infection were remarkably concordant. Preterm delivery affected a higher proportion of women than expected based on historical and contemporaneous national data. The proportions of pregnancies affected by stillbirth, a SGA infant or early neonatal death were comparable to those in historical and contemporaneous UK and USA data. Although maternal death was uncommon, the rate was higher than expected based on UK and USA population data, which is likely explained by underascertainment of women affected by milder or asymptomatic infection in pregnancy in the PAN-COVID study, although not in the AAP-SONPM study. The data presented support strong guidance for enhanced precautions to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, particularly in the context of increased risks of preterm delivery and maternal mortality, and for priority vaccination of pregnant women and women planning pregnancy. Copyright © 2021 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnosis , Fetal Growth Retardation/epidemiology , Fetal Growth Retardation/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Maternal Mortality , Pandemics , Perinatal Death , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Premature Birth/diagnosis , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , Registries , Stillbirth/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
11.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(3): 179-191, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High stress prenatally contributes to poor maternal and infant well-being. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created substantial stress for pregnant women. PURPOSE: To understand whether stress experienced by women pregnant at the beginning of the pandemic was associated with a greater prevalence of adverse perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Pregnant women across the USA aged ≥18 years old enrolled in a prospective cohort study during the pandemic onset (T1) in April-May 2020. This report focuses on the 1,367 participants who gave birth prior to July-August 2020 (T2). Hierarchical logistic regression models predicted preterm birth, small for gestational age infants, and unplanned operative delivery from T1 stress, sociodemographic, and medical factors. RESULTS: After controlling for sociodemographic and medical factors, preterm birth was predicted by high prenatal maternal stress, delivering an infant small for gestational age was predicted by interpersonal violence and by stress related to being unprepared for birth due to the pandemic, and unplanned cesarean or operative vaginal delivery was predicted by prenatal appointment alterations, experiencing a major stressful life event, and by stress related to being unprepared for birth due to the pandemic. Independent of these associations, African American women were more likely than other groups to deliver preterm. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women who are experiencing high stress during the COVID-19 pandemic are at risk of poorer perinatal outcomes. A longitudinal investigation is critical to determine whether prenatal maternal stress and resulting outcomes have longer-term consequences for the health and well-being of children born in the midst of the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Obstetric Labor Complications/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/ethnology , Exposure to Violence/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(6): 615.e1-615.e12, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Widespread lockdowns imposed during the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis may impact birth outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the association between the COVID-19 lockdown and the risk of adverse birth outcomes in Botswana. STUDY DESIGN: In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis, Botswana enforced a lockdown that restricted movement within the country. We used data from an ongoing nationwide birth outcomes surveillance study to evaluate adverse outcomes (stillbirth, preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age fetuses, and neonatal death) and severe adverse outcomes (stillbirth, very preterm birth, very-small-for-gestational-age fetuses, and neonatal death) recorded prelockdown (January 1, 2020-April 2, 2020), during lockdown (April 3, 2020-May 7, 2020), and postlockdown (May 8, 2020-July 20, 2020). Using difference-in-differences analyses, we compared the net change in each outcome from the prelockdown to lockdown periods in 2020 relative to the same 2 periods in 2017-2019 with the net change in each outcome from the prelockdown to postlockdown periods in 2020 relative to the same 2 periods in 2017-2019. RESULTS: In this study, 68,448 women delivered a singleton infant in 2017-2020 between January 1 and July 20 and were included in our analysis (mean [interquartile range] age of mothers, 26 [22-32] years). Across the included calendar years and periods, the risk of any adverse outcome ranged from 27.92% to 31.70%, and the risk of any severe adverse outcome ranged from 8.40% to 11.38%. The lockdown period was associated with a 0.81 percentage point reduction (95% confidence interval, -2.95% to 1.30%) in the risk of any adverse outcome (3% relative reduction) and a 0.02 percentage point reduction (95% confidence interval, -0.79% to 0.75%) in the risk of any severe adverse outcome (0% relative reduction). The postlockdown period was associated with a 1.72 percentage point reduction (95% confidence, -3.42% to 0.02%) in the risk of any adverse outcome (5% relative reduction) and a 1.62 percentage point reduction (95% confidence interval, -2.69% to -0.55%) in the risk of any severe adverse outcome (14% relative reduction). Reductions in adverse outcomes were largest among women with human immunodeficiency virus and among women delivering at urban delivery sites, driven primarily by reductions in preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age fetuses. CONCLUSION: Adverse birth outcomes decreased from the prelockdown to postlockdown periods in 2020, relative to the change during the same periods in 2017-2019. Our findings may provide insights into associations between mobility and birth outcomes in Botswana and other low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Quarantine , Adult , Botswana/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Perinatal Death , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Young Adult
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