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1.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 38(2): 441-445, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281269

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations, such as encephalitis, meningitis, ischemic, and hemorrhagic strokes, are reported with increasing frequency in patients affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In children, acute ischemic stroke is usually multifactorial: viral infection is an important precipitating factor for stroke. We present a case of a child with serological evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection whose onset was a massive right cerebral artery ischemia that led to a malignant cerebral infarction. The patient underwent a life-saving decompressive hemicraniectomy, with good functional recovery, except for residual hemiplegia. During rehabilitation, the patient also developed a lower extremity peripheral nerve neuropathy, likely related to a long-Covid syndrome.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Decompressive Craniectomy , Stroke , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Infarction/complications , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Child , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/surgery , Treatment Outcome
2.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 206: 106677, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230410

ABSTRACT

Owing to systemic inflammation and widespread vessel endotheliopathy, SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to confer an increased risk of cryptogenic stroke, particularly in patients without any traditional risk factors. In this report, we present a case of a 67-year-old female who presented with acute stroke from bilateral anterior circulation large vessel occlusions, and was incidentally found to be COVID-positive on routine hospital admission screening. The patient had a large area of penumbra bilaterally, and the decision was made to pursue bilateral simultaneous thrombectomy, with two endovascular neurosurgeons working on each side to achieve a faster time to recanalization. Our study highlights the utility and efficacy of simultaneous bilateral thrombectomy, and this treatment paradigm should be considered for use in patients who present with multifocal large vessel occlusions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/surgery , Endovascular Procedures , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery , Stroke/etiology , Thrombectomy , Aged , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/etiology , Female , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnosis , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/etiology
3.
World Neurosurg ; 144: 140-142, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of large-vessel occlusion in young patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been exceedingly rare. An extensive review of reported studies revealed a few reported cases. In the present report, we have described the clinical presentation, radiological findings, and outcome of large-vessel occlusion in a young patient with COVID-19 and reviewed the pertinent reported data on this condition. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 31-year-old woman was in her usual state of health until she had presented with a 3-day history of right-sided weakness, slurred speech, and decreased vision. The patient had been taken to several hospitals where she had been treated conservatively with analgesics and discharged. Shortly thereafter, her weakness had become progressive. She had become severely dysarthric and unresponsive. On arrival to the emergency department, her physical examination revealed that she was stuporous, with a Glasgow coma scale of 10 (eye response, 3; verbal response, 2; motor response, 5). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 19 on presentation. Brain computed tomography and computed tomography venography revealed an occluded left internal carotid artery and left middle cerebral artery with subacute left middle cerebral artery territory infarction and midline shift. Computed tomography angiography revealed complete occlusion of the left common carotid artery. An emergent decompressive craniectomy was successfully performed. The patient was shifted to the intensive care unit. She was later found to be positive for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Although rare, patients with COVID-19 can present with large-vessel occlusion. Prompt identification of COVID-19-related coagulopathy is essential to assess young patients with clinical manifestations of infarction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/etiology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/surgery , Carotid Artery, Common , Computed Tomography Angiography , Decompressive Craniectomy , Dysarthria/etiology , Epilepsy/complications , Female , Hemiplegia/etiology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery , Stupor/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 358, 2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic is associated with an increased incidence of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) secondary to large vessel occlusion (LVO). The treatment of these patients poses unique and significant challenges to health care providers requiring changes in existing protocols. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old COVID-19 positive patient developed sudden onset left hemiparesis secondary to an acute right middle cerebral artery occlusion (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score = 11). Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) was performed under a new protocol specifically designed to maximize protective measures for the team involved in the care of the patient. Mechanical Thrombectomy was performed successfully under general anesthesia resulting in TICI 3 recanalization. With regards to time metrics, time from door to reperfusion was 60 mins. The 24-h NIHSS score decreased to 2. Patient was discharged after 19 days after improvement of her pulmonary status with modified Rankin Scale = 1. CONCLUSION: Patients infected by COVID-19 can develop LVO that is multifactorial in etiology. Mechanical thrombectomy in a COVID-19 confirmed patient presenting with AIS due to LVO is feasible with current mechanical thrombectomy devices. A change in stroke workflow and protocols is now necessary in order to deliver the appropriate life-saving therapy for COVID-19 positive patients while protecting medical providers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombectomy/methods , Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/surgery , COVID-19 , Cerebral Angiography , Computed Tomography Angiography , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/complications , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Intubation, Intratracheal , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reperfusion , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/surgery , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
5.
Br J Neurosurg ; 35(2): 191-194, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696587

ABSTRACT

Stroke as a presenting feature of COVID-19 infection is being increasingly recognized. We describe a case of a 46-year-old healthcare worker with COVID-19 who developed malignant cerebral infarction requiring emergency decompressive craniectomy. This case illustrates the neurosurgical implications associated with inflammatory and pro-coagulopathic derangements in COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Decompressive Craniectomy , Stroke , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Cerebral Infarction/surgery , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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