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Tomography ; 8(4): 1836-1850, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939006


INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, primarily causes a respiratory tract infection that is not limited to respiratory distress syndrome, but it is also implicated in other body systems. Systemic complications were reported due to an exaggerated inflammatory response, which involves severe alveolar damage in the lungs and exacerbates the hypercoagulation that leads to venous thrombosis, ischemic attack, vascular dysfunction and infarction of visceral abdominal organs. Some complications are related to anticoagulant drugs that are administrated to stabilize hypercoagulability, but increase the risk of bleeding, hematoma and hemorrhage. The aim of this study is to report the diagnostic role of CT in the early diagnosis and management of patients with severe COVID-19 complications through the most interesting cases in our experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The retrospective analysis of patients studied for COVID-19 in our institution and hospitals, which are part of the university training network, was performed. CASES: Pneumomediastinum, cortical kidney necrosis, splenic infarction, cerebral ischemic stroke, thrombosis of the lower limb and hematomas are the most major complications that are reviewed in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the CT imaging modality with its high sensitivity and specificity remains the preferred imaging choice to diagnose early the different complications associated with COVID-19, such as thrombosis, ischemic stroke, infarction and pneumomediastinum, and their management, which significantly improved the outcomes.

COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Mediastinal Emphysema , Stroke , Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Infarction/complications , Mediastinal Emphysema/complications , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/etiology , Thrombosis/complications
Brain Behav ; 12(5): e2571, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850000


OBJECTIVE: Although small strokes typically result in "good" functional outcomes, significant cognitive impairment can occur. This longitudinal study examined a cohort of patients with minor stroke to determine the pattern of deficits, evolution over time, and factors associated with outcome. METHODS: Patients admitted to the hospital with their first clinical minor stroke (NIH Stroke Scale [NIHSS] ≤ 10, absence of severe hemiparesis, aphasia, or neglect) were assessed at 1 month post-infarct, and a subset were followed over time (with 6- and 12-month evaluations). Composite scores at each time point were generated for global cognition, verbal memory, spatial memory, motor speed, processing speed, and executive function. Paired t-tests evaluated change in scores over time. Regression models identified factors associated with initial performance and better recovery. RESULTS: Eighty patients were enrolled, evaluated at 1 month, and prospectively followed. The average age of the participants was 62.3 years, and mean education was 13.5 years. The average stroke volume was 6.6 cc; mean NIHSS score was 2.8. At 1 month, cognitive scores were below the normative range and > 1 standard deviation below the patient's peak ("recovery") score for every cognitive domain, strongly suggesting that they were well below patients' prestroke baselines. Forty-eight patients followed up at 6 months, and 39 at 12 months. Nearly all (98%) patients significantly improved in global cognition (averaged across domains) between 1 and 6 months. Between 6 and 12 months, recovery was variable. Higher education, occupational class, and Caucasian race were associated with higher recovery scores for most domains. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive impairment across multiple domains is common following minor stroke regardless of infarct location, suggesting a global process such as network dysfunction that improves over 6 months. Degree of recovery can be predicted using baseline factors.

Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , Stroke , Cognition , Cognition Disorders/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Humans , Infarction/complications , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Stroke/complications
Neurologist ; 27(3): 143-146, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831535


INTRODUCTION: Thrombotic events are potentially devastating complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Although less common than venous thromboembolism, arterial thrombosis has been reported in COVID-19 cohorts in almost 3% of patients. We describe a patient with COVID-19 infection and concurrent cerebral and noncerebral infarction. CASE REPORT: A 53-year-old man with history of COVID-19 pneumonia was admitted to a primary stroke center for speech disturbances and left hemiplegia. Urgent laboratory tests showed a great increase of inflammatory and coagulation parameters as D-dimer, ferritin, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Neuroimaging found occlusion of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery with early signs of ischemic stroke. He received intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy. Abdominal computed tomography discovered a splenic infarction with hemorrhagic transformation and bilateral renal infarction. Urgent angiography showed an associated splenic pseudoaneurysm, which was embolized without complications. He was treated with intermediate-dose anticoagulation (1 mg subcutaneous enoxaparin/kg/24 h), acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg and 5 days of intravenous corticosteroids. In the following days, inflammatory markers decreased so anticoagulant treatment was stopped and acetylsalicylic acid 300 mg was prescribed. His condition improved and he was discharged to a rehabilitation facility on hospital day 30. CONCLUSION: In this case, a patient with multiple thrombotic events in the acute phase of COVID-19 infection, the delimitation of the inflammatory state through analytical markers as D-dimer helped to individualize the antithrombotic treatment (full anticoagulation or anticoagulation at intermediate doses plus antiplatelet treatment as used in our patient) and its duration. However, more data are needed to better understand the mechanisms and treatment of stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection.

COVID-19 , Stroke , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants , Aspirin , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Infarction/complications , Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Stroke/complications , Thrombosis/drug therapy
Hamostaseologie ; 42(3): 195-197, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279924


The clinical spectrum of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranges from asymptomatic cases to severe pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome. COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic complications, notably pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Arterial cardiovascular complications and myocarditis have also been described in association with COVID-19, but appear to be less prevalent. In this report of a 57-year-old man with multiple splanchnic infarctions, arterial dissections and COVID-19 as the sole potential trigger, we describe a novel type of complications and put it in the context of a growing literature on this topic.

COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Arteries , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Infarction/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Thrombosis/complications
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(6): 1627-1630, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236855


Orbital infarction syndrome is an uncommon pathology with devastating consequences. It is frequently secondary to atherothrombotic phenomena in the internal carotid artery. We report a case of a 66-year-old male with uncontrolled diabetes and use of systemic steroids for COVID-19, who presented with a sudden loss of vision in the left eye, with total ophthalmoplegia and diffuse opacification of the retina. On imaging, he was found to have features of rhino-orbital cellulitis with ischemia of the orbital tissue secondary to isolated ophthalmic artery obstruction (OAO) with a patent internal carotid artery. KOH mount of deep nasal swab was confirmatory of mucor. This is the first reported case of orbital infarction syndrome in the setting of COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Aged , Humans , Infarction/complications , Infarction/diagnosis , Male , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(1): 128-132, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1034943


Abstract Thromboembolic events are frequent in patients with COVID-19 infection, and no cases of bilateral renal infarctions have been reported. We present the case of a 41-year-old female patient with diabetes mellitus and obesity who attended the emergency department for low back pain, respiratory failure associated with COVID-19 pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and shock. The patient had acute kidney injury and required hemodialysis. Contrast abdominal tomography showed bilateral renal infarction and anticoagulation was started. Kidney infarction cases require high diagnostic suspicion and possibility of starting anticoagulation.

Resumo Fenômenos tromboembólicos são frequentes em pacientes com infecção por COVID-19 e nenhum caso de infarto renal bilateral havia sido relatado. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 41 anos, com diabetes mellitus e obesidade, que deu entrada no serviço de urgência por lombalgia, insuficiência respiratória associada à pneumonia COVID-19, cetoacidose diabética e choque. A paciente apresentava lesão renal aguda e demandava hemodiálise. A tomografia abdominal contrastada mostrou infarto renal bilateral e foi iniciada anticoagulação. Os casos de infarto renal requerem alta suspeita diagnóstica e possibilidade de iniciar a anticoagulação.

Humans , Female , Adult , Diabetes Complications , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Infarction/complications , Kidney/blood supply , Obesity/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Renal Dialysis/methods , Fatal Outcome , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(8): 1926-1928, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245715