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1.
Malar J ; 20(1): 475, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the government of Uganda implemented a strict lockdown policy in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) was performed to assess whether major changes in outpatient attendance, malaria burden, and case management occurred after the onset of the COVID-19 epidemic in rural Uganda. METHODS: Individual level data from all outpatient visits collected from April 2017 to March 2021 at 17 facilities were analysed. Outcomes included total outpatient visits, malaria cases, non-malarial visits, proportion of patients with suspected malaria, proportion of patients tested using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and proportion of malaria cases prescribed artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations and fractional regression was used to model count and proportion outcomes, respectively. Pre-COVID trends (April 2017-March 2020) were used to predict the'expected' trend in the absence of COVID-19 introduction. Effects of COVID-19 were estimated over two six-month COVID-19 time periods (April 2020-September 2020 and October 2020-March 2021) by dividing observed values by expected values, and expressed as ratios. RESULTS: A total of 1,442,737 outpatient visits were recorded. Malaria was suspected in 55.3% of visits and 98.8% of these had a malaria diagnostic test performed. ITSA showed no differences between observed and expected total outpatient visits, malaria cases, non-malarial visits, or proportion of visits with suspected malaria after COVID-19 onset. However, in the second six months of the COVID-19 time period, there was a smaller mean proportion of patients tested with RDTs compared to expected (relative prevalence ratio (RPR) = 0.87, CI (0.78-0.97)) and a smaller mean proportion of malaria cases prescribed AL (RPR = 0.94, CI (0.90-0.99)). CONCLUSIONS: In the first year after the COVID-19 pandemic arrived in Uganda, there were no major effects on malaria disease burden and indicators of case management at these 17 rural health facilities, except for a modest decrease in the proportion of RDTs used for malaria diagnosis and the mean proportion of malaria cases prescribed AL in the second half of the COVID-19 pandemic year. Continued surveillance will be essential to monitor for changes in trends in malaria indicators so that Uganda can quickly and flexibly respond to challenges imposed by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Chronic Disease Indicators , Humans , Infection Control , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/therapy , Malaria/transmission , Rural Health , Uganda/epidemiology
2.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 352, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection control had many developments in the COVID 19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) pandemic, despite this, there were many complications in different health care facilities as well as dentists' clinics due to the lack of infection control knowledge and compliance failure. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge and compliance with the infection control measures in the dental clinics in the Nablus and Tulkarm districts. RESULTS: The results showed that the total positive response regard all infection control domains were (70.0 %). Whereas the participants gave the highest positive response for personnel protective equipment i.e. gloving was (96.10 %). They gave the instruments related to controls the lowest responses, i.e. instruments sterilization was (59.40 %). The analyzed data showed significant statistical differences in the compliance with infection control measures between Nablus and Tulkarm districts "p < 0.05" in the interest of dentists from Tulkarm. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that there is moderate compliance to infection control protocol in Nablus and Tulkarm dental clinics. Thus, there is a need to strengthen adherence to infection control measures. METHOD: A universal sampling was used to assess the infection control program at the dental clinics in Nablus and Tulkarm Districts. The study sample involved 265 dentists. Data was collected using a questionnaire which has been sent via email between July and August 2020. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, One-way ANOVA and Post-Hock tests have been used. Statistical significance was set at ″P <0.05″. Cronbach's alpha has been conducted to ensure the reliability and validity of the questionnaire.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Dental Clinics/organization & administration , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/standards , COVID-19 , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle East , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Breast Dis ; 41(1): 1-3, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604128

ABSTRACT

During the first hit of SARS-COVID pandemic, an important reorganization of Healthcare Services has been done, and new protocols and pathways to protect frail patients like oncological patients were designed. The second hit of pandemic had stressed these new pathways and suggests to health-workers some improvements for safer management of patents.We reported our experience in organizing the clinical pathway of neoadjuvant therapy candidate patients based on the execution of sentinel lympho-node biopsy and the placement of implantable venous access port in the same access to operating room before neoadjuvant chemotherapy suggesting a possible organizational model. In the period October-December 2020 we have included in this new type of path twelve patients and we have not registered any cases of COVID among the patients included. We think this new path, adopted amid the second hit, will be useful for all Breast Units that are facing the challenge of guaranteeing the highest standards of care in a historical moment where the health emergency occupies the efforts of health workers and the economic resources of health systems.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Infection Control/methods , Patient Safety , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Catheterization, Central Venous/instrumentation , Catheterization, Central Venous/standards , Central Venous Catheters , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Critical Pathways , Female , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Mastectomy , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/standards
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(50): e343, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594418

ABSTRACT

As hospitals cater to elderly and vulnerable patients, a high mortality rate is expected if a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurs. Consequently, policies to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in hospital settings are essential. This study was conducted to investigate how effectively national and international guidelines provide recommendations for infection control issues in hospitals. After selecting important issues in infection control, we performed a systematic review and analysis of recommendations and guidelines for preventing COVID-19 transmission within medical institutions at national and international levels. We analyzed guidelines from the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, and Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Recent guidelines do not provide specific solutions to infection control issues. Therefore, efforts need to be made to devise consistent advice and guidelines for COVID-19 control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Humans
5.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1252-E1259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, universities transitioned to primarily online delivery, and it is important to understand what implications the transition back to in-person activities may have on spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the student population. The specific aim of our study was to provide insights into the effect of timetabling decisions on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a population of undergraduate engineering students. METHODS: We developed an agent-based modelling simulation that used a Canadian first-year undergraduate engineering program with an enrolment of 180 students in 5 courses of 12.7 weeks in length. Each course involved 150 minutes of lectures and 110 minutes of tutorials or laboratories per week. We considered several online and in-person timetabling scenarios with different scheduling frequencies and section sizes, in combination with surveillance and testing interventions. The study was conducted from May 1 to Aug. 31, 2021. RESULTS: When timetabling interventions were applied, we found a reduction in the mean number of students who were infected and that a containment of widespread outbreaks could be achieved. Timetables with online lectures and small (1/6 class capacity) tutorial or laboratory sections reduced the mean number of students who were infected by 83% and reduced the risk of large outbreaks that occurred with in-person lectures. We also found that spread of SARS-CoV-2 was less sensitive to class size than to contact frequency when a biweekly timetable was implemented (i.e., alternating online and in-person sections on a biweekly basis). Including a contact-tracing policy and randomized testing to the timetabling interventions helped to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 further. Vaccination coverage had the largest effect on reducing the number of students who were infected. INTERPRETATION: Our modelling showed that by taking advantage of timetabling opportunities and applying appropriate interventions (contact tracing, randomized testing and vaccination), SARS-CoV-2 infections may be averted and disruptions (case isolations) reduced. However, given the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, transitions from online to in-person classes should proceed cautiously from small biweekly classes, for example, to manage risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decision Making, Organizational , Engineering/education , Infection Control/methods , Universities , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada , Humans , Students , Time Factors , Universities/organization & administration , Young Adult
6.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1232-E1241, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited space and resources are potential obstacles to infection prevention and control (IPAC) measures in in-centre hemodialysis units. We aimed to assess IPAC measures implemented in Quebec's hemodialysis units during the spring of 2020, describe the characteristics of these units and document the cumulative infection rates during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: For this cross-sectional survey, we invited leaders from 54 hemodialysis units in Quebec to report information on the physical characteristics of the unit and their perceptions of crowdedness, which IPAC measures were implemented from Mar. 1 to June 30, 2020, and adherence to and feasibility of appropriate IPAC measures. Participating units were contacted again in March 2021 to collect information on the number of COVID-19 cases in order to derive the cumulative infection rate of each unit. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 38 of the 54 units contacted (70% response rate), which provided care to 4485 patients at the time of survey completion. Fourteen units (37%) had implemented appropriate IPAC measures by 3 weeks after Mar. 1, and all 38 units had implemented them by 6 weeks after. One-third of units were perceived as crowded. General measures, masks and screening questionnaires were used in more than 80% of units, and various distancing measures in 55%-71%; reduction in dialysis frequency was rare. Data on cumulative infection rates were obtained from 27 units providing care to 4227 patients. The cumulative infection rate varied from 0% to 50% (median 11.3%, interquartile range 5.2%-20.2%) and was higher than the reported cumulative infection rate in the corresponding region in 23 (85%) of the 27 units. INTERPRETATION: Rates of COVID-19 infection among hemodialysis recipients in Quebec were elevated compared to the general population during the first year of the pandemic, and although hemodialysis units throughout the province implemented appropriate IPAC measures rapidly in the spring of 2020, many units were crowded and could not maintain physical distancing. Future hemodialysis units should be designed to minimize airborne and droplet transmission of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Infection Control , Renal Dialysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Quebec/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580853

ABSTRACT

This study examined the pandemic measures taken by nursing leaders to cope with COVID-19 at a nursing home in Singapore. The pandemic has affected over 215 countries, sparking a series of containment and pandemic measures by governments and healthcare organizations worldwide. Long-term care facilities are especially vulnerable to the pandemic, but little has been reported about the nursing homes' measures in handling the pandemic. The present study used Morley's (2014) three-stage critical reflection method to review meeting minutes, organizational emails, and government advisories on the COVID-19 pandemic measures undertaken by nursing leaders at a nursing home in Singapore between January and June 2020. The pandemic measures were broadly classified into four groups: (1) infection surveillance and containment measures; (2) ensuring continuity in clinical care and operational support; (3) resource and administrative coordination; and (4) staff training and development. Nurses have played a vital role in the fight against COVID-19 by ensuring continuity in patient care and demonstrating clinical leadership in pandemic efforts. This study proposes a useful nursing pandemic structure that outlines a set of functions and measures required for handling a pandemic and that can be applied to various medical emergencies and contingencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Infection Control , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 10-17, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577575

ABSTRACT

Aerosol therapy is used to deliver medical therapeutics directly to the airways to treat respiratory conditions. A potential consequence of this form of treatment is the release of fugitive aerosols, both patient derived and medical, into the environment and the subsequent exposure of caregivers and bystanders to potential viral infections. This study examined the release of these fugitive aerosols during a standard aerosol therapy to a simulated adult patient. An aerosol holding chamber and mouthpiece were connected to a representative head model and breathing simulator. A combination of laser and Schlieren imaging was used to non-invasively visualize the release and dispersion of fugitive aerosol particles. Time-varying aerosol particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured with optical particle sizers at clinically relevant positions to the simulated patient. The influence of breathing pattern, normal and distressed, supplemental air flow, at 0.2 and 6 LPM, and the addition of a bacterial filter to the exhalation port of the mouthpiece were assessed. Images showed large quantities of fugitive aerosols emitted from the unfiltered mouthpiece. The images and particle counter data show that the addition of a bacterial filter limited the release of these fugitive aerosols, with the peak fugitive aerosol concentrations decreasing by 47.3-83.3%, depending on distance from the simulated patient. The addition of a bacterial filter to the mouthpiece significantly reduces the levels of fugitive aerosols emitted during a simulated aerosol therapy, p≤ .05, and would greatly aid in reducing healthcare worker and bystander exposure to potentially harmful fugitive aerosols.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , COVID-19 , Drug Delivery Systems , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Respiratory Therapy , Aerosols/administration & dosage , Aerosols/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Computer Simulation , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Equipment Design , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Models, Biological , Particle Size , Respiratory Therapy/adverse effects , Respiratory Therapy/instrumentation , Respiratory Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(1): 20-21, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586198
11.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(6): 828-838, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585701

ABSTRACT

The past two decades have witnessed the emergence of three zoonotic coronaviruses which have jumped species to cause lethal disease in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2. MERS-CoV emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and the origins of MERS-CoV are not fully understood. Genomic analysis indicates it originated in bats and transmitted to camels. Human-to-human transmission occurs in varying frequency, being highest in healthcare environment and to a lesser degree in the community and among family members. Several nosocomial outbreaks of human-to-human transmission have occurred, the largest in Riyadh and Jeddah in 2014 and South Korea in 2015. MERS-CoV remains a high-threat pathogen identified by World Health Organization as a priority pathogen because it causes severe disease that has a high mortality rate, epidemic potential, and no medical countermeasures. MERS-CoV has been identified in dromedaries in several countries in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia. MERS-CoV-2 causes a wide range of clinical presentations, although the respiratory system is predominantly affected. There are no specific antiviral treatments, although recent trials indicate that combination antivirals may be useful in severely ill patients. Diagnosing MERS-CoV early and implementation infection control measures are critical to preventing hospital-associated outbreaks. Preventing MERS relies on avoiding unpasteurized or uncooked animal products, practicing safe hygiene habits in health care settings and around dromedaries, community education and awareness training for health workers, as well as implementing effective control measures. Effective vaccines for MERS-COV are urgently needed but still under development.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity
12.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 170, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582005

ABSTRACT

A survey of hospitals on three continents was performed to assess their infection control preparedness and measures, and their infection rate in hospital health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. All surveyed hospitals used similar PPE but differences in preparedness, PPE shortages, and infection rates were reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(11): 1333-1339, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We sought to contain a healthcare-associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, to evaluate contributory factors, and to prevent future outbreaks. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental cluster-control outbreak evaluation. METHODS: All patients and staff on the outbreak ward (case cluster), and randomly selected patients and staff on COVID-19 wards (positive control cluster) and a non-COVID-19 wards (negative control cluster) underwent reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Hand hygiene and personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance, detection of environmental SARS-COV-2 RNA, patient behavior, and SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody prevalence were assessed. RESULTS: In total, 145 staff and 26 patients were exposed, resulting in 24 secondary cases. Also, 4 of 14 (29%) staff and 7 of 10 (70%) patients were asymptomatic or presymptomatic. There was no difference in mean cycle threshold between asymptomatic or presymptomatic versus symptomatic individuals. None of 32 randomly selected staff from the control wards tested positive. Environmental RNA detection levels were higher on the COVID-19 ward than on the negative control ward (OR, 19.98; 95% CI, 2.63-906.38; P < .001). RNA levels on the COVID-19 ward (where there were no outbreaks) and the outbreak ward were similar (OR, 2.38; P = .18). Mean monthly hand hygiene compliance, based on 20,146 observations (over preceding year), was lower on the outbreak ward (P < .006). Compared to both control wards, the proportion of staff with detectable antibodies was higher on the outbreak ward (OR, 3.78; 95% CI, 1.01-14.25; P = .008). CONCLUSION: Staff seroconversion was more likely during a short-term outbreak than from sustained duty on a COVID-19 ward. Environmental contamination and PPE use were similar on the outbreak and control wards. Patient noncompliance, decreased hand hygiene, and asymptomatic or presymptomatic transmission were more frequent on the outbreak ward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Stroke , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Infection Control , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e22197, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To control the COVID-19 pandemic, people should adopt protective behaviors at home (self-isolation, social distancing, putting shopping and packages aside, wearing face coverings, cleaning and disinfecting, and handwashing). There is currently limited support to help individuals conduct these behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to report current household infection control behaviors in the United Kingdom and examine how they might be improved. METHODS: This was a pragmatic cross-sectional observational study of anonymous participant data from Germ Defence between May 6-24, 2020. Germ Defence is an open-access fully automated website providing behavioral advice for infection control within households. A total of 28,285 users sought advice from four website pathways based on household status (advice to protect themselves generally, to protect others if the user was showing symptoms, to protect themselves if household members were showing symptoms, and to protect a household member who is at high risk). Users reported current infection control behaviors within the home and intentions to change these behaviors. RESULTS: Current behaviors varied across all infection control measures but were between sometimes (face covering: mean 1.61, SD 1.19; social distancing: mean 2.40, SD 1.22; isolating: mean 2.78, SD 1.29; putting packages and shopping aside: mean 2.75, SD 1.55) and quite often (cleaning and disinfecting: mean 3.17, SD 1.18), except for handwashing (very often: mean 4.00, SD 1.03). Behaviors were similar regardless of the website pathway used. After using Germ Defence, users recorded intentions to improve infection control behavior across all website pathways and for all behaviors (overall average infection control score mean difference 0.30, 95% CI 0.29-0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported infection control behaviors other than handwashing are lower than is optimal for infection prevention, although handwashing is much higher. Advice using behavior change techniques in Germ Defence led to intentions to improve these behaviors. Promoting Germ Defence within national and local public health and primary care guidance could reduce COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Internet-Based Intervention , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Family Characteristics , Health Behavior , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1175-E1180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reliable reports on hand hygiene performance throughout the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking as most hospitals continue to rely on direct observation to measure this quality indicator. Using group electronic hand hygiene monitoring, we sought to assess the impact of COVID-19 on adherence to hand hygiene. METHODS: Across 12 Ontario hospitals (5 university and 7 community teaching hospitals), a group electronic hand hygiene monitoring system was installed before the pandemic to provide continuous measurement of hand hygiene adherence across 978 ward and 367 critical care beds. We performed an interrupted time-series study of institutional hand hygiene adherence in association with a COVID-19 inpatient census and the Ontario daily count of COVID-19 cases during a baseline period (Nov. 1, 2019, to Feb. 29, 2020), the pre-peak period of the first wave of the pandemic (Mar. 1 to Apr. 24, 2020), and the post-peak period of the first wave (Apr. 25 to July 5, 2020). We used a Poisson regression model to assess the association between the hospital COVID-19 census and institutional hand hygiene adherence while adjusting for the correlation within inpatient units. RESULTS: At baseline, the rate of hand hygiene adherence was 46.0% (6 325 401 of 13 750 968 opportunities) and this improved beginning in March 2020 to a daily peak of 79.3% (66 640 of 84 026 opportunities) on Mar. 30, 2020. Each patient admitted with COVID-19 was associated with improved hand hygiene adherence (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.0621, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0619-1.0623). Increasing Ontario daily case count was similarly associated with improved hand hygiene (IRR 1.0026, 95% CI 1.0021-1.0032). After peak COVID-19 community and inpatient numbers, hand hygiene adherence declined and returned to baseline. INTERPRETATION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with significant improvement in hand hygiene adherence, measured using a group electronic monitoring system. Future research should seek to determine whether strategies that focus on health care worker perception of personal risk can achieve sustainable improvements in hand hygiene performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Health Impact Assessment , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Public Health Surveillance
16.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 55(10): e87-e91, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562002

ABSTRACT

GOALS: The present survey from the Italian Society of Digestive Endoscopy (SIED-Società Italiana di Endoscopia Digestiva) was aimed at reporting infection control practice and outcomes at Digestive Endoscopy Units in a high-incidence area. BACKGROUND: Lombardy was the Italian region with the highest coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) prevalence, at the end of March 2020 accounting for 20% of all worldwide deaths. Joint Gastro-Intestinal societies released recommendations for Endoscopy Units to reduce the risk of the contagion. However, there are few data from high-prevalence areas on adherence to these recommendations and on their efficacy. METHODS: A survey was designed by the Lombardy section of SIED to analyze (a) changes in activity and organization, (b) adherence to recommendations, (c) rate of health care professionals' (HCP) infection during the COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: In total, 35/61 invited centers (57.4%) participated; most modified activities were according to recommendations and had filtering face piece 2/filtering face piece 3 and water-repellent gowns available, but few had negative-pressure rooms or provided telephonic follow-up; 15% of HCPs called in sick and 6% had confirmed COVID-19. There was a trend (P=0.07) toward different confirmed COVID-19 rates among endoscopists (7.9%), nurses (6.6%), intermediate-care technicians (3.4%), and administrative personnel (2.2%). There was no correlation between the rate of sick HCPs and COVID-19 incidence in the provinces and personal protective equipment availability and use, whereas an inverse correlation with hospital volume was found. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to recommendations was rather good, though a minority were able to follow all recommendations. Confirmed COVID-19 seemed higher among endoscopists and nurses, suggesting that activities in the endoscopy rooms are at considerable viral spread risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Humans , Infection Control , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(4): 715-725, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561175

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected infection control and prevention measures. We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on postoperative infections and infection control measures in patients underwent gastrointestinal surgery for malignancies. We retrospectively evaluated changes in clinicopathological features, frequency of alcohol-based hand sanitizer use, frequency of postoperative complications, and microbial findings among our patients in February-May in 2019 (Control group) and 2020 (Pandemic group), respectively. Surgical resection in pathological stage III or IV patients was more frequently performed in the Pandemic group than in the Control group (P = 0.02). The total length of hospitalization and preoperative hospitalization was significantly shorter in the Pandemic group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.008, respectively). During the pandemic, hand sanitizer was used by a patients for an average of 14.9±3.0 times/day during the pandemic as opposed to 9.6±3.0 times/day in 2019 (p<0.0001). Superficial surgical site infection and infectious colitis occurred less frequently during the pandemic (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0002, respectively). In Pandemic group, Enterobacter, Haemophilus, and Candida were significantly decreased in microbiological cultures (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P = 0.02, respectively) compared with Control group. Furthermore, a significant decrease in Streptococcus from drainage cultures was observed in the Pandemic group (P < 0.05). During the COVID-19 pandemic, a decrease in nosocomial infections was observed in the presence of an increase in alcohol-based hand sanitizer use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/surgery , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/organization & administration , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/pathology , Hand Sanitizers , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 38(1): 55-60, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556154

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 global pandemic resulted in a radical change in the provision and delivery of endoscopy services worldwide. As we emerge from this pandemic, various strategies were advocated to resume endoscopy whilst prioritizing the safety and wellbeing of patients and staff. RECENT FINDINGS: This review summarizes the main changes including infection control and prevention measures in endoscopy and explores the overarching impact of the pandemic on the gastrointestinal lab. Various solutions are outlined to enable the well tolerated resumption of endoscopy services including retention of certain infection control measures, use of personal protective equipment, testing and vaccination. Strategies to deal with the mounting backlog of cases are also discussed. SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic wreaked havoc on healthcare systems worldwide and affected the provision and delivery of gastrointestinal diagnostic services, such as endoscopy necessitating a new way of working and an emphasis on infection control and better use of technology that are likely to be here to stay in the post pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Infection Control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ind Health ; 59(5): 318-324, 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547178

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is around the world. We attempt to apply three-step method in ISO/IEC Guide 51: 2014 to COVID-19 infection control in the workplace. The results show that the COVID-19 infection control measures include the eradication of the virus, the destruction of infectivity, the detoxification and weakening and the elimination of opportunities for infection as "Inherently Safe Design Measures", the avoidance of contact as "Safeguarding and Complementary Protective Measures" and the reduction of contact and the avoidance of seriousness as "Information for Use". Among these specific measures, the New Normal, especially in the manufacturing industries, would be "telecommuting" and "unmanned workplaces", which are part of the elimination of opportunities for infection, and "changes in flow lines" and "changes in airflow", which are part of the avoidance of contact. Where "telecommuting" and "unmanned workplaces" are feasible, they should be implemented as much as possible, and where they are not, attempts should be made to minimize human-to-human contact by "changes in flow lines". In addition, in the area of "changes in airflow", there are high expectations for future research on how to establish a ventilation design for COVID-19, in which but also the source would be workers themselves, not only combustible gases and toxic gases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Occupational Health/standards , Workplace/organization & administration , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Manufacturing and Industrial Facilities/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Teleworking , Ventilation/standards , Workplace/standards
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