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4.
Oral Oncol ; 108: 104821, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753019

ABSTRACT

Outbreak pneumonia announced in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, had its causative factor classified as a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Since saliva can host several viruses including SARS-CoV-2, the transmission chance of viruses through saliva, particularly those causing respiratory infections, is unavoidable. COVID-19 can be detected through salivary diagnostic testing which has lots of advantages for medical care professionals and patients. It should be noted that not only does saliva offer an ecological niche for the colonization and development of oral microorganisms, but it also prevents the overgrowth of particular pathogens such as viral factors. The aim of this study is to gather all the information about saliva and its association with COVID-19 for the whole health care professionals across the world.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Saliva/immunology , Saliva/virology , Sialadenitis/diagnosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dental Care , Dentists/psychology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Practice Patterns, Dentists' , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/diagnosis , Salivary Glands/metabolism , Salivary Glands/virology , Salivary Proteins and Peptides/immunology , Sialadenitis/virology , Telemedicine/methods , Xerostomia
6.
Euro Surveill ; 25(35)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745113

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 community-wide transmission declined in Spain by early May 2020, being replaced by outbreaks and sporadic cases. From mid-June to 2 August, excluding single household outbreaks, 673 outbreaks were notified nationally, 551 active (>6,200 cases) at the time. More than half of these outbreaks and cases coincided with: (i) social (family/friends' gatherings or leisure venues) and (ii) occupational (mainly involving workers in vulnerable conditions) settings. Control measures were accordingly applied.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Humans , Leisure Activities , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology
7.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 87(9): 526-531, 2020 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742877

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 management practices devised for the medical intensive care unit are centered on 2 main goals: ensuring caregiver safety and providing the highest quality patient care through adherence to evidence-based best practices. Rapid, sweeping changes for successful management are based on creating an educational platform to introduce and then further cement these concepts through a unified approach to clinical care. Creating a culture change in a short period of time requires overcoming a host of challenges; however, the result is a more unified and focused approach.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Humans , Pandemics
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e20586, 2020 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frontline health care workers, including physicians, are at high risk of contracting coronavirus disease (COVID-19) owing to their exposure to patients suspected of having COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits and feasibility of a double triage and telemedicine protocol in improving infection control in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: In this retrospective study, we recruited patients aged ≥20 years referred to the ED of the National Taiwan University Hospital between March 1 and April 30, 2020. A double triage and telemedicine protocol was developed to triage suggested COVID-19 cases and minimize health workers' exposure to this disease. We categorized patients attending video interviews into a telemedicine group and patients experiencing face-to-face interviews into a conventional group. A questionnaire was used to assess how patients perceived the quality of the interviews and their communication with physicians as well as perceptions of stress, discrimination, and privacy. Each question was evaluated using a 5-point Likert scale. Physicians' total exposure time and total evaluation time were treated as primary outcomes, and the mean scores of the questions were treated as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: The final sample included 198 patients, including 93 cases (47.0%) in the telemedicine group and 105 cases (53.0%) in the conventional group. The total exposure time in the telemedicine group was significantly shorter than that in the conventional group (4.7 minutes vs 8.9 minutes, P<.001), whereas the total evaluation time in the telemedicine group was significantly longer than that in the conventional group (12.2 minutes vs 8.9 minutes, P<.001). After controlling for potential confounders, the total exposure time in the telemedicine group was 4.6 minutes shorter than that in the conventional group (95% CI -5.7 to -3.5, P<.001), whereas the total evaluation time in the telemedicine group was 2.8 minutes longer than that in the conventional group (95% CI -1.6 to -4.0, P<.001). The mean scores of the patient questionnaire were high in both groups (4.5/5 to 4.7/5 points). CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the double triage and telemedicine protocol in the ED during the COVID-19 pandemic has high potential to improve infection control.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Telemedicine/methods , Triage/methods , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Feasibility Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Retrospective Studies , Taiwan/epidemiology
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21699, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740199

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of dry eye symptoms (DES) among doctors and nurses in the period of 2019, novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak.To evaluate the DES of doctors and nurses worked at front-line hospitals with protective glasses for a mean time of 4 to 6 hours, a questionnaire developed by the researchers with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) was used. These data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and correlation test with SPSS 22.0.The study included 13 doctors and 40 nurses, among which 16 were male and 37 were female, and the mean age of the participants was 32.43 ±â€Š5.15 years old. According to the OSDI scores, 64.15, 24.52, 7.54, and 3.77% of the participants experienced occasional, mild, moderate, and severe DES, respectively. The factors significantly correlated with OSDI scores were age and duration of wearing protective glasses, while the duration of wearing protective glasses may be a protective factor of dry eye symptoms.Our study showed that most of the doctors and nurses worked at the front-line of combating COVID-19 did not experience DES, while the symptoms of those who experienced DES might be improved by wearing protective glasses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Dry Eye Syndromes , Eye Protective Devices , Infection Control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/etiology , Dry Eye Syndromes/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors
10.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 76(2): 107-118, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739595

ABSTRACT

Knowledge about the new infectious disease COVID-19, which first spread in the city of Wuhan in China, in December 2019, is based on the evidence retrieved from coronaviruses previously known to humans. The main transmission ways of the new SARS-CoV-2 virus are respiratory droplets and direct and close contact with infected individuals and contaminated surfaces. To date, some scientific publications provide initial evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the air, thus assuming a further route of infection, that airborne, although these results are to be considered preliminary and they need careful interpretation. In support of this hypothesis, ventilation systems, aimed to improve indoor air, could represent an easy way to spread and promote the virus infection especially in hospitals and in all health facilities where the presence of infected individuals is potentially high as well as the possibility of infection by air. Indeed, by generating jets of air at different speeds, they can interfere with the mission of respiratory particles and determine an environmental diffusion of the potentially contaminating droplet. Therefore, ventilation systems could provide a potential transmission channel for the viral load able to spread out in indoor air. Nonetheless, good management, technical and operational practices may lead to a low risk of contagion, both in community and health environments.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Ventilation , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
11.
Ann Ital Chir ; 91: 273-276, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739593

ABSTRACT

CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old woman presented to our emergency department during the outbreak of the covid-19 emergency in Italy with syncope, anosmia, mild dyspnoea and atypical chest and dorsal pain. A chest CT scan showed an acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) and bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity, compatible with interstitial pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal swabs resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2. For the persistence of chest pain, despite the analgesic therapy, we decided to treat her with a TEVAR. Patient's chest and back pain resolved during the first few days after the procedure. No surgical or respiratory complications occurred and the patient was discharged 14 days after surgery. DISCUSSION: By performing the operation under local anesthesia, it was possible to limit both the staff inside the operatory room and droplet/aerosol release. Since we had to perform the operation in a hemodynamics room, thanks to the limited extension of the endoprosthesis and the good caliber of the right vertebral artery we were able to reduce the risk of spinal cord ischemia despite the lack of a revascularization of the left subclavian artery. CONCLUSIONS: A minimally invasive total endovascular approach allows, through local anesthesia and percutaneous access, to avoid surgical cut down and orotracheal intubation. This, combined with a defined management protocol for infected patients, seems to be a reasonable way to perform endovascular aortic procedures in urgent setting, even in a SARSCoV- 2 positive patient. KEY WORDS: COVID-19, Dissection, TEVAR.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Anesthesia, Local , Aneurysm, Dissecting/complications , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/complications , Contraindications, Procedure , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Drug Therapy, Combination , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Operating Rooms , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Spinal Cord Ischemia/prevention & control , Vertebral Artery/surgery
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1192-1194, 2020 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739121

ABSTRACT

As an emerging infectious disease, the COVID-19 threatened the safety of personnel in the prevention and control during the COVID-19 pandemic. Beijing Association of Preventive Medicine organizes the Beijing CDC and other organizations drafted the group standard entitled "Guidelines for personal protection against coronavirus disease 2019 for diseases control person (T/BPMA 0002-2020)" , according to years of scientific research on personal protection. Based on the principles of emphasizing the scientific, normative and safe nature, the standard was drafted to put forward the reasonable selection and correct use of personal protective equipment for disease control personnel, as well as the procedures for personal protective equipment. The standard provided a standardized basis for ensuring the safety of disease control personnel in contacting and handling of the new coronary pneumonia outbreaks with high risks.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Guidelines as Topic , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
15.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 100, 2020 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736810

ABSTRACT

Background: Brazil faces some challenges in the battle against the COVID-19 pandemic, including: the risks for cross-infection (community infection) increase in densely populated areas; low access to health services in areas where the number of beds in intensive care units (ICUs) is scarce and poorly distributed, mainly in states with low population density. Objective: To describe and intercorrelate epidemiology and geographic data from Brazil about the number of intensive care unit (ICU) beds at the onset of COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The epidemiology and geographic data were correlated with the distribution of ICU beds (public and private health systems) and the number of beneficiaries of private health insurance using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The same data were correlated using partial correlation controlled by gross domestic product (GDP) and number of beneficiaries of private health insurance. Findings: Brazil has a large geographical area and diverse demographic and economic aspects. This diversity is also present in the states and the Federal District regarding the number of COVID-19 cases, deaths and case fatality rate. The effective management of severe COVID-19 patients requires ICU services, and the scenario was also dissimilar as for ICU beds and ICU beds/10,000 inhabitants for the public (SUS) and private health systems mainly at the onset of COVID-19 pandemic. The distribution of ICUs was uneven between public and private services, and most patients rely on SUS, which had the lowest number of ICU beds. In only a few states, the number of ICU beds at SUS was above 1 to 3 by 10,000 inhabitants, which is the number recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Conclusions: Brazil needed to improve the number of ICU beds units to deal with COVID-19 pandemic, mainly for the SUS showing a late involvement of government and health authorities to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/supply & distribution , Pandemics , Patient Care Management , Pneumonia, Viral , Private Sector/statistics & numerical data , Public Sector/statistics & numerical data , Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Patient Care Management/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Severity of Illness Index
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(34): e314, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736660

ABSTRACT

A 14-day quarantine is implemented in many countries in response to the coronavirus disease pandemic. Korea implemented a mandatory quarantine for those who had close contact with infected patients and those returning from abroad. The present study explored the implications of mandatory coronavirus disease 2019 testing before releasing individuals from the 14-day quarantine in Incheon, Korea. From February 11 to July 5, 2020, 19,296 people were self-quarantined, and 56 (0.3%) of them were confirmed cases of COVID-19. Twenty (35.7%) were identified through the reporting of symptoms during quarantine, and 32 (57.1%) were identified using mandatory pre-release RT-PCR tests. Among the 32, 14 (25%) individuals reported mild symptoms and 18 (32.1%) were asymptomatic. It is suggested that mandatory diagnostic testing prior to release and the symptom-based surveillance after the 14-day quarantine may help control delayed or asymptomatic COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Young Adult
18.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(7): 885-892, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734051

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020 because of its rapid worldwide spread. In the operating room, as part of hospital outbreak response measures, anesthesiologists are required to have heightened precautions and tailor anesthetic practices to individual patients. In particular, by minimizing the many aerosol-generating procedures performed during general anesthesia, anesthesiologists can reduce exposure to patients' respiratory secretions and the risk of perioperative viral transmission to healthcare workers and other patients. To avoid any airway manipulation, regional anesthesia should be considered whenever surgery is planned for a suspect or confirmed COVID-19 patient or any patient who poses an infection risk. Regional anesthesia has benefits of preservation of respiratory function, avoidance of aerosolization and hence viral transmission. This article explores the practical considerations and recommended measures for performing regional anesthesia in this group of patients, focusing on control measures geared towards ensuring patient and staff safety, equipment protection, and infection prevention. By doing so, we hope to address an issue that may have downstream implications in the way we practice infection control in anesthesia, with particular relevance to this new era of emerging infectious diseases and novel pathogens. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is not the first, and certainly will not be the last novel virus that will lead to worldwide outbreaks. Having a well thought out regional anesthesia plan to manage these patients in this new normal will ensure the best possible outcome for both the patient and the perioperative management team.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Anesthesiologists , Anesthesiology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Operating Rooms/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
19.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(8): 1313-1316, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733905

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised ethical questions for the cardiovascular leader and practitioner. Attention has been redirected from a system that focuses on individual patient benefit toward one that focuses on protecting society as a whole. Challenging resource allocation questions highlight the need for a clearly articulated ethics framework that integrates principled decision making into how different cardiovascular care services are prioritized. A practical application of the principles of harm minimisation, fairness, proportionality, respect, reciprocity, flexibility, and procedural justice is provided, and a model for prioritisation of the restoration of cardiovascular services is outlined. The prioritisation model may be used to determine how and when cardiovascular services should be continued or restored. There should be a focus on an iterative and responsive approach to broader health care system needs, such as other disease groups and local outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Cardiology Service, Hospital , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Ethics, Institutional , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics , Patient Care Management , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Canada/epidemiology , Cardiology Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Cardiology Service, Hospital/trends , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Organizational , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care Management/ethics , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
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