Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 3.725
Filter
1.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(3): 319-324, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235516

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infection caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) originated in China in December 2020 and declared pandemic by WHO. This coronavirus mainly spreads through the respiratory tract and enters cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, and fatigue. Gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, anorexia, and vomiting) may be present in 50% of patients and may be associated with worst prognosis. Other risk factors are older age, male gender, and underlying chronic diseases. Mitigation measures are essential to reduce the number of people infected. Hospitals are a place of increased SARS-CoV-2 exposure. This has implications in the organization of healthcare services and specifically endoscopy departments. Patients and healthcare workers safety must be optimized in this new reality. Comprehension of COVID-19 gastrointestinal manifestations and implications of SARS-CoV-2 in the management of patients with gastrointestinal diseases, under or not immunosuppressant therapies, is essential. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress and major societies recommendations regarding the implications of COVID-19 in gastroenterology, namely the adaptations that gastroenterology/endoscopy departments and professionals must do in order to optimize the provided assistance, as well as the implications that this infection will have, in particularly vulnerable patients such as those with chronic liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease under or not immunosuppressant therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastroenterologists , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Liver Diseases/therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Clinical Decision-Making , Decision Support Techniques , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/immunology , Occupational Health , Patient Safety , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
6.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 44(6): 1034-1035, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239557

Subject(s)
Infection Control , Humans
7.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1155980, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234940

ABSTRACT

The need to improve career development and training for residential aged care workers in Australia to achieve required essential competencies, including infection prevention and control competencies, has been repeatedly highlighted. In Australia long-term care settings for older adults are known as residential aged care facilities (RACFs). The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to light the lack of preparedness of the aged care sector to respond to emergencies, and the urgent need to improve the infection prevention and control training in residential aged care facilities. The government in the Australian State of Victoria allocated funds to support older Australians in RACFs, including funds toward infection prevention and control training of RACF staff. The School of Nursing and Midwifery at Monash University addressed some of these challenges in delivering an education program on effective infection prevention and control practices to the RACF workforce in Victoria, Australia. This was the largest state-funded program delivered to RACF workers to date in the State of Victoria. The aim of this paper is to provide a community case study, where we share our experience of program planning and implementation during early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic and lessons learned.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Victoria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Infection Control , Workforce
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 111, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) is critical in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic and is one of the pillars of the WHO COVID-19 Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan 2020. We conducted an Intra-Action Review (IAR) of IPC response efforts to the COVID-19 pandemic in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, to identify best practices, challenges, and recommendations for improvement of the current and future responses. METHODS: We conducted two meetings with 54 participants purposively selected from different organizations and agencies involved in the frontline implementation of IPC in Cox's Bazar district, Bangladesh. We used the IPC trigger questions from the WHO country COVID-19 IAR: trigger question database to guide the discussions. Meeting notes and transcripts were then analyzed manually using content analysis, and results were presented in text and quotes. RESULTS: Best practices included: assessments, a response plan, a working group, trainings, early case identification and isolation, hand hygiene in Health Facilities (HFs), monitoring and feedback, general masking in HFs, supportive supervision, design, infrastructure and environmental controls in Severe Acute Respiratory Infection Isolation and Treatment Centers (SARI ITCs) and HFs and waste management. Challenges included: frequent breakdown of incinerators, limited PPE supply, inconsistent adherence to IPC, lack of availability of uniforms for health workers, in particular cultural and gender appropriate uniforms and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Recommendations from the IAR were: (1) to promote the institutionalization of IPC, programs in HFs (2) establishment of IPC monitoring mechanisms in all HCFs, (3) strengthening IPC education and training in health care facilities, and (4) strengthen public health and social measures in communities. CONCLUSION: Establishing IPC programmes that include monitoring and continuous training are critical in promoting consistent and adaptive IPC practices. Response to a pandemic crisis combined with concurrent emergencies, such as protracted displacement of populations with many diverse actors, can only be successful with highly coordinated planning, leadership, resource mobilization, and close supervision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Bangladesh , Refugee Camps , Pandemics/prevention & control , Infection Control
10.
PLoS Med ; 20(6): e1004240, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Circulation of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MRB) in healthcare facilities is a major public health problem. These settings have been greatly impacted by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, notably due to surges in COVID-19 caseloads and the implementation of infection control measures. We sought to evaluate how such collateral impacts of COVID-19 impacted the nosocomial spread of MRB in an early pandemic context. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a mathematical model in which Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and MRB cocirculate among patients and staff in a theoretical hospital population. Responses to COVID-19 were captured mechanistically via a range of parameters that reflect impacts of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on factors relevant for pathogen transmission. COVID-19 responses include both "policy responses" willingly enacted to limit SARS-CoV-2 transmission (e.g., universal masking, patient lockdown, and reinforced hand hygiene) and "caseload responses" unwillingly resulting from surges in COVID-19 caseloads (e.g., abandonment of antibiotic stewardship, disorganization of infection control programmes, and extended length of stay for COVID-19 patients). We conducted 2 main sets of model simulations, in which we quantified impacts of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on MRB colonization incidence and antibiotic resistance rates (the share of colonization due to antibiotic-resistant versus antibiotic-sensitive strains). The first set of simulations represents diverse MRB and nosocomial environments, accounting for high levels of heterogeneity across bacterial parameters (e.g., rates of transmission, antibiotic sensitivity, and colonization prevalence among newly admitted patients) and hospital parameters (e.g., rates of interindividual contact, antibiotic exposure, and patient admission/discharge). On average, COVID-19 control policies coincided with MRB prevention, including 28.2% [95% uncertainty interval: 2.5%, 60.2%] fewer incident cases of patient MRB colonization. Conversely, surges in COVID-19 caseloads favoured MRB transmission, resulting in a 13.8% [-3.5%, 77.0%] increase in colonization incidence and a 10.4% [0.2%, 46.9%] increase in antibiotic resistance rates in the absence of concomitant COVID-19 control policies. When COVID-19 policy responses and caseload responses were combined, MRB colonization incidence decreased by 24.2% [-7.8%, 59.3%], while resistance rates increased by 2.9% [-5.4%, 23.2%]. Impacts of COVID-19 responses varied across patients and staff and their respective routes of pathogen acquisition. The second set of simulations was tailored to specific hospital wards and nosocomial bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli). Consequences of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks were found to be highly context specific, with impacts depending on the specific ward and bacteria evaluated. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks significantly impacted patient MRB colonization only in settings with high underlying risk of bacterial transmission. Yet across settings and species, antibiotic resistance burden was reduced in facilities with timelier implementation of effective COVID-19 control policies. CONCLUSIONS: Our model suggests that surges in nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 transmission generate selection for the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Timely implementation of efficient COVID-19 control measures thus has 2-fold benefits, preventing the transmission of both SARS-CoV-2 and MRB, and highlighting antibiotic resistance control as a collateral benefit of pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
11.
Nurs Health Sci ; 25(2): 247-256, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242876

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify the stress level, knowledge, attitude, and infection control performance of nurses at long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) designated for infectious disease management and to investigate factors contributing to infection control performance. A total of 178 nurses who had worked for at least 1 month at seven LTCHs designated for infectious disease management and provided care for patients confirmed with COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. Data were collected from February to March 2022 using written and online self-report questionnaires. COVID-19 infection control performance was higher among married than among single participants (t = -3.71, p < 0.001), among those aged 40-49 versus 30-39 years (F = 4.10, p = 0.003), and those with 1-2, 3-4, or ≥5 sessions versus no prior education (F = 6.41, p < 0.001). COVID-19 infection control performance was negatively correlated with stress (r = 0.26, p < 0.001) and positively correlated with knowledge (r = 0.40, p < 0.001) and attitude toward COVID-19 (r = -0.36, p < 0.001). Stress (ß = -0.17, p = 0.012), knowledge of COVID-19 (ß = 0.28, p < 0.001), attitude toward COVID-19 (ß = 0.20, p = 0.004), and marital status (ß = 0.18, p = 0.009) were identified as predictors of COVID-19 infection control performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Humans , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Long-Term Care , Infection Control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hospitals
12.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 42(6): 841-848, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242349

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been an unprecedented challenge in carceral facilities. As COVID-19 outbreaks spread in the US in early 2020, many jails, prisons, juvenile detention centers, and other carceral facilities undertook infection control measures such as increased quarantine and reduced outside visitation. However, the implementation of these decisions varied widely across facilities and jurisdictions. We explored how carceral decision makers grappled with ethically fraught public health challenges during the pandemic. We conducted semistructured interviews during May-October 2021 with thirty-two medical and security leaders from a diverse array of US jails and prisons. Although some facilities had existing detailed outbreak plans, most plans were inadequate for a rapidly evolving pandemic such as COVID-19. Frequently, this caused facilities to enact improvised containment plans. Quarantine and isolation were rapidly adopted across facilities in response to COVID-19, but in an inconsistent manner. Decision makers generally approached quarantine and isolation protocols as a logistical challenge, rather than an ethical one. Although they recognized the hardships imposed on incarcerated people, they generally saw the measures as justified. Comprehensive outbreak control guidelines for pandemic diseases in carceral facilities are urgently needed to ensure that future responses are more equitable and effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Prisons , Jails , Quarantine , Infection Control
13.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0286002, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the suspension of relatives' visits was a common measure in healthcare facilities to prevent the spread of the virus among patients. This measure caused significant adverse consequences for hospitalized patients. Volunteers' intervention was an alternative but could also lead to cross transmission events. AIMS: in order to secure their intervention with patients, we implemented an infection control training to evaluate and to improve the knowledge of volunteers about infection control measures. METHOD: We performed a before-after study in a group of five tertiary referral teaching hospitals in the suburbs of Paris. A total of 226 volunteers from three groups (religious representatives, civilian volunteers and users' representatives) were included. Basic theoretical and practical knowledge about infection control, hand hygiene, and glove and mask use were evaluated just before and immediately after a three-hour training program. The contribution of the characteristics of the volunteers to the results was studied. FINDINGS: The initial conformity rate for theoretical and practical infection control measures ranged from 53% to 68%, depending on the participants' activity status and education level. Some critical shortcomings in hand hygiene as well as mask and glove wearing putatively endangered the patients and volunteers. Surprisingly, serious gaps were also identified among volunteers who experienced care activities. Regardless of their origin, the program significantly improved both their theoretical and practical knowledge (p<0.001). Real-life observance and long-term sustainability should be monitored. CONCLUSIONS: To become a secure alternative to relatives' visits, volunteers' interventions must be preceded by the assessment of their theoretical knowledge and practical skills in infection control. Additional study, including practice audit, must confirm the implementation of the acquired knowledge in the real-life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control , Volunteers/education
14.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 45(2): 171-177, 2023 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322740

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infectious diseases (RID) are the major public health problems threatening the people's lives and health.Infection control (IC) is one of the effective tools to contain the occurrence and spread of RID.We collected the articles and data on IC published since January 1,2018 and summarized the achievements,problems,and challenges of IC from administrative control,management control,environment and engineering control,and personal protection in the medical institutions and public places in China.The efforts for IC vary in different regions and medical institutions of different levels.There are still links to be improved for IC from administrative control,management control,environment and engineering control,and personal protection,especially in community-level medical institutions and public areas.It is urgent to strengthen the implementation of IC policies and conduct IC precisely according to local situations.We proposed the following suggestions.First,the existing IC products and tools should be applied to precisely implement the IC measures;second,modern high technology should be employed to develop efficient and convenient IC products and tools;finally,a digital or intelligent IC platform should be built for monitoring infections,so as to contain the occurrence and spread of RID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Infection Control , China/epidemiology
16.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 12(1): 45, 2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physiotherapists and physiotherapy undergraduates have direct contact with patients which make them transmitters of infections if they do not follow standard precautions. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of nosocomial infections, standard precautions, and source of information among physiotherapy undergraduates in Sri Lanka. METHODS: An observational Google based survey study was conducted among 294 physiotherapy undergraduates, of which there were 103 in University of Peradeniya, 103 in University of Colombo, and 88 in General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University. The Infection Control Standardized Questionnaire comprising three domains: knowledge of nosocomial infections, standard precautions and hand hygiene was used for data collection along with a self-constructed data sheet for socio-demographic information and source of information. RESULTS: Participants achieved mean knowledge of 67.1 ± 16.8, 84.4 ± 14.7 and 66.4 ± 15.4 for nosocomial infections, standard precautions, and hand hygiene respectively. Of the total sample, 225 (76.5%) achieved adequate level of total knowledge. Eighty-three of them (28.3%) equally mentioned, formal teaching at faculty and informal sources as the most important source of knowledge. There was no significant impact of university and the duration of clinical exposure on knowledge of nosocomial infections, standard precautions, hand hygiene and total knowledge. The study year has a significant impact on standard precautions (P = 0.004) and total knowledge (P = 0.035) and final years had highest knowledge compared to the other study years. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of nosocomial infections and infection control measures were satisfactory among the physiotherapy undergraduates in Sri Lanka. Further developments of formal sources of information about nosocomial infections are recommended.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Sri Lanka , Information Sources , Infection Control , Physical Therapy Modalities
17.
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Suplemento COVID): 110-122, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318299

ABSTRACT

The authors of the image chapters of the National Association of Cardiologists of Mexico (ANCAM) and the Mexican Society of Cardiology (SMC), as well as personnel from the Department of Medicine and Nutrition of the University of Guanajuato, together with prominent experts in cardiovascular imaging from Mexico, have collaborated in the review, analysis and expansion of the various health strategies published in the first year of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, to safely perform cardiac imaging studies. This update aims to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission among patients and health-care personnel in the CT, MRI, and nuclear cardiology services. This work was expanded with supplementary information available free of charge on the website www.ancam-imagen.com.


Los capítulos de imagen de la Asociación Nacional de Cardiólogos de México (ANCAM) y de la Sociedad Mexicana de Cardiología (SMC), así como personal del Departamento de Medicina y Nutrición de la Universidad de Guanajuato, en conjunto con destacados expertos de la imagen cardiovascular en México, han colaborado en la revisión, análisis y ampliación de las diversas estrategias sanitarias publicadas en los primeros 15 meses de la pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) para realizar con seguridad los estudios de imagen cardiaca; esta actualización tiene como objetivo principal disminuir el riesgo de transmisión de la COVID-19 entre los pacientes y el personal de salud en los servicios de tomografía, resonancia y cardiología nuclear. Este trabajo se amplió con información suplementaria disponible sin costo en el sitio www.ancam-imagen.com.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Infection Control , Societies, Medical , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular System/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Mexico
19.
J Occup Health ; 65(1): e12403, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A substantial number of workers' experience mistreatment in the workplace, impacting workers' health and companies' functioning. Vulnerability of those with lower income has been reported, yet little is known about mistreatment during COVID-19. This study aims to examine whether workers in financial distress are particularly prone to mistreatment at the workplace with reference to pandemic-related infection prevention measures. METHODS: An internet-based, year-long prospective cohort study was conducted from 2020 to 2021. Participants were recruited from workers aged 20 and 65 years and currently employed at baseline. In total, 27 036 were included in the analysis and 18 170 responded to the follow-up survey. The odds ratio (OR) of mistreatment at the workplace regarding COVID-19 associated with the financial condition at baseline was estimated using multilevel logistic regression analysis nested by participant residence. RESULTS: Compared with workers in a comfortable financial condition, those under financial stress showed significantly higher ORs of mistreatment (age- and sex-adjusted model: 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.47, P < .001, model adjusted for socioeconomic factors: 2.14, 95% CI 1.79-2.55, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Workers in financial distress were shown to be vulnerable to mistreatment at work regarding infection prevention measures in the COVID-19 pandemic, underscoring a double burden of poverty and mistreatment. The perspective of vulnerable groups needs to be taken into account when implementing countermeasures against emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19. As unfair treatment in the workplace might distort vulnerable employees' reactions to infection control (e.g., hiding infection), financial deprivation should be considered a public health issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Workplace , Infection Control
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL