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1.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 34(12): 651-655, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528177

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of hand dermatitis among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic and factors affecting its prevalence. METHODS: The research sample consisted of 175 nurses working in state hospitals. Research data were collected via Google survey between September and October 2020. The data were collected using a sociodemographic data collection form, and a self-assessment form was used to determine dermatologic symptoms. RESULTS: The frequency of hand dermatitis among nurses was 70.9%. A statistically significant difference was found between sex, allergy history, and increased frequency of handwashing and the frequency of hand dermatitis. No significant difference in terms of the frequency of hand dermatitis was found between nurses who provided care to patients who were COVID-19 positive versus nurses who provided care to patients who were COVID-19 negative. However, the frequency of washing hands and using hand disinfectants and hand creams was found to have increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the prepandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of hand dermatitis increased among nurses during the pandemic. The increased frequency of handwashing during the pandemic poses a risk for hand dermatitis among nurses, although this should not discourage nurses from appropriate hygiene.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis/diagnosis , Hand/physiopathology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Dermatitis/epidemiology , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Turkey/epidemiology
2.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(5): 374-379, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511065

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of slit lamp shields has been recommended by the American Academy of Ophthalmology as an infection control measure during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. However, there is limited evidence regarding its efficacy to reduce viral transmission risks. We aim to provide an evidence-based approach to optimize the use of slit lamp shields during clinical examination. RECENT FINDINGS: Respiratory droplets from coughing and sneezing can travel up to 50 m/s and over a distance of 2 m, with a potential area of spread of 616 cm. Slit lamp shields confer added protection against large droplets but are limited against smaller particles. A larger shield curved toward the ophthalmologist and positioned closer to the patient increases protection against large droplets. A potential improvement to the design of such shields is the use of hydrophilic materials with antiviral properties which may help to minimize splashing of infectious droplets, reducing transmission risks. These include gold or silver nanoparticles and graphene oxide. SUMMARY: Slit lamp shields serve as a barrier for large droplets, but its protection against smaller droplets is undetermined. It should be large, positioned close to the patient, and used in tandem with routine basic disinfection practices.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Protective Devices , Slit Lamp , COVID-19 , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMJ ; 369: m2195, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430181

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the protective effects of appropriate personal protective equipment for frontline healthcare professionals who provided care for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Four hospitals in Wuhan, China. PARTICIPANTS: 420 healthcare professionals (116 doctors and 304 nurses) who were deployed to Wuhan by two affiliated hospitals of Sun Yat-sen University and Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University for 6-8 weeks from 24 January to 7 April 2020. These study participants were provided with appropriate personal protective equipment to deliver healthcare to patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 and were involved in aerosol generating procedures. 77 healthcare professionals with no exposure history to covid-19 and 80 patients who had recovered from covid-19 were recruited to verify the accuracy of antibody testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Covid-19 related symptoms (fever, cough, and dyspnoea) and evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, defined as a positive test for virus specific nucleic acids in nasopharyngeal swabs, or a positive test for IgM or IgG antibodies in the serum samples. RESULTS: The average age of study participants was 35.8 years and 68.1% (286/420) were women. These study participants worked 4-6 hour shifts for an average of 5.4 days a week; they worked an average of 16.2 hours each week in intensive care units. All 420 study participants had direct contact with patients with covid-19 and performed at least one aerosol generating procedure. During the deployment period in Wuhan, none of the study participants reported covid-19 related symptoms. When the participants returned home, they all tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 specific nucleic acids and IgM or IgG antibodies (95% confidence interval 0.0 to 0.7%). CONCLUSION: Before a safe and effective vaccine becomes available, healthcare professionals remain susceptible to covid-19. Despite being at high risk of exposure, study participants were appropriately protected and did not contract infection or develop protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Healthcare systems must give priority to the procurement and distribution of personal protective equipment, and provide adequate training to healthcare professionals in its use.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infection Control/instrumentation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1074-1079, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405468

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Public life in China is gradually returning to normal with strong measures in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) control. Because of the long-term effects of COVID-19, medical institutions had to make timely adjustments to control policies and priorities to balance between COVID-19 prevention and daily medical services. METHODOLOGY: The framework for infection prevention and control in the inpatient department was effectively organized at both hospital and department levels. A series of prevention and control strategies was implemented under this leadership: application of rigorous risk assessment and triage before admission through a query list; classifying patients into three risk levels and providing corresponding medical treatment and emergency handling; establishing new ward visiting criteria for visitors; designing procedures for PPE and stockpile management; executing specialized disinfection and medical waste policies. RESULTS: Till June 2020, the bed occupancy had recovered from 20.0% to 88.1%. In total, 13045 patients were received in our hospital, of which 54 and 127 patients were identified as high-risk and medium-risk, respectively, and 2 patients in the high-risk group were eventually laboratory-confirmed with COVID-19. No hospital-acquired infection of COVID-19 has been observed since the emergency appeared. CONCLUSIONS: The strategies ensured early detection and targeted prevention of COVID-19 following the COVID-19 pandemic, which improved the recovery of medical services after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/standards , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Patient Isolation/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Risk Assessment , Triage
7.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 21(12): 325-328, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384081

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility and practicality of ultraviolet (UV) germicidal irradiation of the inner bore of a computed tomography (CT) gantry as a means of viral decontamination. METHOD: A UV lamp (PADNUT 38 W, 253 nm UV-C light tube) and UV-C dosimeter (GENERAL UV-C Digital Light Meter No. UV512C) were used to measure irradiance throughout the inner bore of a CT scanner gantry. Irradiance (units µW/cm2 ) was related to the time required to achieve 6-log viral kill (10-6 survival fraction). RESULTS: A warm-up time of ~120 s was required for the lamp to reach stable irradiance. Irradiance at the scan plane (z = 0 cm) of the CT scanner was 580.9 µW/cm2 , reducing to ~350 µW/cm2 at z = ±20 cm toward the front or back of the gantry. The angular distribution of irradiation was uniform within 10% coefficient of variation. A conservative estimate suggests at least 6-log kill (survival fraction ≤ 10-6 ) of viral RNA within ±20 cm of the scan plane with an irradiation time of 120 s from cold start. More conservatively, running the lamp for 180 s (3 min) or 300 s (5 min) from cold start is estimated to yield survival fraction <<10-7 survival fraction within ±20 cm of the scan plane. CONCLUSION: Ultraviolet irradiation of the inner bore of the CT gantry can be achieved with a simple UV-C lamp attached to the CT couch. Such practice could augment manual wipe-down procedures, improve safety for CT technologists or housekeeping staff, and could potentially reduce turnover time between scanning sessions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Infection Control/methods , Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Calibration , Decontamination/instrumentation , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Infection Control/instrumentation , RNA, Viral/radiation effects , Radiometry , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays
12.
Natl Med J India ; 34(1): 10-14, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359327

ABSTRACT

Background: . Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) was first described in December 2019 and has evolved into an ongoing global pandemic. Cancer patients on chemotherapy are immunocompromised and are at the highest risk of Covid-19-related complications. We describe our experience with the management of haematology-oncology and stem cell transplant (SCT) patients receiving curative chemotherapy in a hospital with a high influx of Covid-19 patients. Methods: . We did a prospective observational study at a 99-bedded cancer centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital from April 2020 to September 2020. Preventive measures taken were categorized as follows: (i) staff: screening, mandatory use of personal protective equipment (PPE), risk stratification of potential exposure and testing and isolation as needed; (ii) patients: mandatory viral polymerase chain reaction testing, segregation of positive and untested patients and testing of family members; and (iii) environment: mandatory regular cleaning, visitor restriction, telemedicine services and reassignment of priority to clinic visits. Treatment of the underlying conditions was continued with added precautions. Results: . A total of 54 patients were included in the analysis, including 48 with haematological malignancies and 6 for stem cell therapy. Preventive measures were universally applied, and chemotherapy with a curative intent was initiated as per protocol. Three patients were detected to have Covid-19 infection before admission and one after the institution of chemotherapy. Nine patients died after the first cycle of chemotherapy, 2 due to severe Covid-19-related illness and 7 due to complications of chemotherapy or disease progression. Conclusions: . In the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic, treatment for haematological malignancies must continue while balancing the risk of Covid-19 infections. Our report emphasizes the effectiveness of measures such as hand hygiene, social isolation, patient segregation, use of masks and PPE and universal pre-treatment testing for Covid-19 in reducing the risk of infection in a high-risk clinical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Infection Control , Risk Management , Stem Cell Transplantation , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Contact Tracing/methods , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , India/epidemiology , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Management/methods , Risk Management/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Stem Cell Transplantation/statistics & numerical data
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5369133, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348197

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study is aimed at describing a score to assess infection control structures in Oral Health Teams (OHT) in Primary Health Care (PHC) in Brazil. Methods: Secondary data from a national external evaluation of PHC conducted in 2017 and 2018 were analyzed. The construction of the score used 14 variables, divided into the following: structural characteristics of the PHC, infection control equipment under conditions of use, and biosafety supplies in sufficient quantity. The questions were mostly dichotomous (yes/no). Descriptive analyses were carried out to characterize the OHT and factor analyses to reduce the number of observed variables to a specific number of factors. Results: Among 20,301 health units with OHT, 4,510 (22.2%) units did not have washable floors, ceilings, and walls; 8,406 (41.4%) did not have a sealer; 16,780 (82.7%) did not have taps with noncontact activation, and 4,663 (23.0%) units did not have rubber gloves. Regarding personal protective equipment (PPE), 1,618 (8.0%) units did not have a sufficient quantity of basic PPE. Three factors were defined to explain the 14 evaluated variables. The South region had the best score of infection control, while the North had the worst. Conclusions: Regional inequalities in the failures in infection control structures identified in PHC with OHT were related to the physical structure, equipment, and supplies used for infection control and the absence of PPE for OHT.


Subject(s)
Dental Care/instrumentation , Infection Control/instrumentation , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Brazil , Delivery of Health Care , Dental Health Services , Humans , Oral Health , Primary Health Care
14.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(4): 410-419, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has been estimated that approximately 10% of health care professionals (HCPs) have been diagnosed contacting  COVID-19. Aerosol-generating procedures have led to change in safety practices among HCPs. We thus evaluated the efficacy of the endoscopic safety measures among HCPs posted in the endoscopy unit. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, all endoscopic procedures performed over a period of 4 months, from 1 April to 31 July 2020 were included. We noted indications and number of COVID-positive procedures as well as comprehensive screening of HCPs posted in our endoscopy unit. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence and outcome of COVID-19 among HCPs. RESULTS: Three thousand four hundred and sixty procedures were included in the analysis. Indications were divided as urgent (n = 190, 5.49%), semi-urgent (n = 553, 16%) and non-urgent group (n = 2717, 78.52%). Thirty-four procedures (0.98%) were done on diagnosed COVID-19 patients. The most common indications were gastrointestinal bleed (n = 12/34, 35.30%) followed by biliary sepsis (n = 9/34, 26.5%). Among the HCPs, the incidence of symptomatic COVID-19 was 6.58% (n = 5/76). All HCPs recovered with excellent outcomes. A comprehensive screening showed 7.90% (n = 6/76) HCPs having Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody in their sera. CONCLUSION: Addition of safety measures in endoscopy leads to low risk of transmission among HCPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy/methods , Health Personnel , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Incidence , India , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/standards , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Health/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
15.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 34(12): 651-655, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of hand dermatitis among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic and factors affecting its prevalence. METHODS: The research sample consisted of 175 nurses working in state hospitals. Research data were collected via Google survey between September and October 2020. The data were collected using a sociodemographic data collection form, and a self-assessment form was used to determine dermatologic symptoms. RESULTS: The frequency of hand dermatitis among nurses was 70.9%. A statistically significant difference was found between sex, allergy history, and increased frequency of handwashing and the frequency of hand dermatitis. No significant difference in terms of the frequency of hand dermatitis was found between nurses who provided care to patients who were COVID-19 positive versus nurses who provided care to patients who were COVID-19 negative. However, the frequency of washing hands and using hand disinfectants and hand creams was found to have increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the prepandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of hand dermatitis increased among nurses during the pandemic. The increased frequency of handwashing during the pandemic poses a risk for hand dermatitis among nurses, although this should not discourage nurses from appropriate hygiene.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis/diagnosis , Hand/physiopathology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Dermatitis/epidemiology , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Turkey/epidemiology
19.
Surgeon ; 19(2): e42-e48, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294258

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic has created havoc all over the globe and spared no one regardless of status, gender, location and ethnicity. There were questions raised if trauma and orthopaedic (T&O) procedures actually generated aerosols? The need for a review of literature highlighting the nature and impact of aerosol generation within T&O surgery was noted. METHODS: A comprehensive online search was performed for all published articles in the English language, evaluating AGPs in T&O surgery and the relevant personal protection equipment used. RESULTS: The search strategy populated 43 studies. Six studies were identified as duplicates. The shortlisted 37 studies were screened and nine studies were included in the review. An additional four studies were included from the bibliography review. CONCLUSION: Most orthopaedic procedures are high-risk aerosol generating procedures (AGPs). Conventional surgical masks do not offer protection against high-risk AGPs. In the current era of COVID-19 pandemic, there is a significant risk to the transmission of infection to the theatre staff. For protection against airborne transmission, appropriate masks should be used. These need proper fitting and sizing to ensure full protection when used.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Traumatology/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment
20.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 56, 2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296122

ABSTRACT

Background: The adherence of medical laboratory technicians (MLT) to infection control guidelines is essential for reducing the risk of exposure to infectious agents. This study explored the adherence of MLT towards infection control practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: The study population consisted of MLT (n = 444) who worked in private and government health sectors in Jordan. A self-reported survey was used to collect data from participants. Findings: More than 87% of the participants reported adherence to hand-washing guidelines and using personal protective equipment (PPE) when interacting with patients (74.5%), and handling clinical samples (70.0%). Besides, 88.1%, 48.2%, and 7.7% reported wearing of lab coats, face masks, and goggles, at all times, respectively. The majority reported increased adherence to infection control practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes increased PPE use at the workplace (94.2%), increased frequency of disinfection of laboratory surfaces (92.4%) and laboratory equipment (86.7%), and increased frequency of handwashing/use of antiseptics (94.6%). Having a graduate degree was significantly associated with increased adherence of participants to the daily use of goggles/eye protection (p = 0.002), and the use of PPE while handling clinical samples (p = 0.011). Having work experience of >10 years was associated with increased adherence to the use of PPE while handling clinical samples (p = 0.001). Conclusion: MLT reported very good adherence with most assessed infection control practices. In addition, they reported increased conformity with infection control guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guideline Adherence , Infection Control , Laboratories , Medical Laboratory Personnel , Personal Protective Equipment , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Guideline Adherence/standards , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Jordan/epidemiology , Laboratories/organization & administration , Laboratories/standards , Male , Medical Laboratory Personnel/standards , Medical Laboratory Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
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