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4.
PLoS Med ; 20(6): e1004240, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Circulation of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MRB) in healthcare facilities is a major public health problem. These settings have been greatly impacted by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, notably due to surges in COVID-19 caseloads and the implementation of infection control measures. We sought to evaluate how such collateral impacts of COVID-19 impacted the nosocomial spread of MRB in an early pandemic context. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a mathematical model in which Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and MRB cocirculate among patients and staff in a theoretical hospital population. Responses to COVID-19 were captured mechanistically via a range of parameters that reflect impacts of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on factors relevant for pathogen transmission. COVID-19 responses include both "policy responses" willingly enacted to limit SARS-CoV-2 transmission (e.g., universal masking, patient lockdown, and reinforced hand hygiene) and "caseload responses" unwillingly resulting from surges in COVID-19 caseloads (e.g., abandonment of antibiotic stewardship, disorganization of infection control programmes, and extended length of stay for COVID-19 patients). We conducted 2 main sets of model simulations, in which we quantified impacts of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on MRB colonization incidence and antibiotic resistance rates (the share of colonization due to antibiotic-resistant versus antibiotic-sensitive strains). The first set of simulations represents diverse MRB and nosocomial environments, accounting for high levels of heterogeneity across bacterial parameters (e.g., rates of transmission, antibiotic sensitivity, and colonization prevalence among newly admitted patients) and hospital parameters (e.g., rates of interindividual contact, antibiotic exposure, and patient admission/discharge). On average, COVID-19 control policies coincided with MRB prevention, including 28.2% [95% uncertainty interval: 2.5%, 60.2%] fewer incident cases of patient MRB colonization. Conversely, surges in COVID-19 caseloads favoured MRB transmission, resulting in a 13.8% [-3.5%, 77.0%] increase in colonization incidence and a 10.4% [0.2%, 46.9%] increase in antibiotic resistance rates in the absence of concomitant COVID-19 control policies. When COVID-19 policy responses and caseload responses were combined, MRB colonization incidence decreased by 24.2% [-7.8%, 59.3%], while resistance rates increased by 2.9% [-5.4%, 23.2%]. Impacts of COVID-19 responses varied across patients and staff and their respective routes of pathogen acquisition. The second set of simulations was tailored to specific hospital wards and nosocomial bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli). Consequences of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks were found to be highly context specific, with impacts depending on the specific ward and bacteria evaluated. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks significantly impacted patient MRB colonization only in settings with high underlying risk of bacterial transmission. Yet across settings and species, antibiotic resistance burden was reduced in facilities with timelier implementation of effective COVID-19 control policies. CONCLUSIONS: Our model suggests that surges in nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 transmission generate selection for the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Timely implementation of efficient COVID-19 control measures thus has 2-fold benefits, preventing the transmission of both SARS-CoV-2 and MRB, and highlighting antibiotic resistance control as a collateral benefit of pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
6.
Nurs Stand ; 38(5): 62-67, 2023 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317503

ABSTRACT

Managing community-acquired infections remains an ongoing challenge for community nursing teams. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic meant that community nurses had to ensure they were using evidence-based infection prevention and control measures to limit the effects of the pandemic and maintain patient safety. Community environments can be unpredictable, and compared with acute settings nurses will often lack the appropriate resources when visiting patients in their homes or in residential care. This article outlines effective infection prevention and control measures that nurses can implement in the community, such as the appropriate use of personal protective equipment, optimal hand hygiene, safe waste management and adherence to an aseptic technique.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Infection Control/methods
7.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 12(1): 11, 2023 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The core components (CCs) of infection prevention and control (IPC) from World Health Organization (WHO) are crucial for the safety and quality of health care. Our objective was to examine the level of implementation of WHO infection prevention and control core components (IPC CC) in a developing country. We also aimed to evaluate health care-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in intensive care units (ICUs) in association with implemented IPC CCs. METHODS: Members of the Turkish Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Specialization Association (EKMUD) were invited to the study via e-mail. Volunteer members of any healt care facilities (HCFs) participated in the study. The investigating doctor of each HCF filled out a questionnaire to collect data on IPC implementations, including the Infection Prevention and Control Assessment Framework (IPCAF) and HAIs/AMR in ICUs in 2021. RESULTS: A total of 68 HCFs from seven regions in Türkiye and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus participated while 85% of these were tertiary care hospitals. Fifty (73.5%) HCFs had advanced IPC level, whereas 16 (23.5%) of the 68 hospitals had intermediate IPC levels. The hospitals' median (IQR) IPCAF score was 668.8 (125.0) points. Workload, staffing and occupancy (CC7; median 70 points) and multimodal strategies (CC5; median 75 points) had the lowest scores. The limited number of nurses were the most important problems. Hospitals with a bed capacity of > 1000 beds had higher rates of HAIs. Certified IPC specialists, frequent feedback, and enough nurses reduced HAIs. The most common HAIs were central line-associated blood stream infections. Most HAIs were caused by gram negative bacteria, which have a high AMR. CONCLUSIONS: Most HCFs had an advanced level of IPC implementation, for which staffing was an important driver. To further improve care quality and ensure everyone has access to safe care, it is a key element to have enough staff, the availability of certified IPC specialists, and frequent feedback. Although there is a significant decrease in HAI rates compared to previous years, HAI rates are still high and AMR is an important problem. Increasing nurses and reducing workload can prevent HAIs and AMR. Nationwide "Antibiotic Stewardship Programme" should be initiated.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Infection Control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/microbiology , World Health Organization , Surveys and Questionnaires , Delivery of Health Care
8.
Infect Dis Health ; 28(2): 102-114, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection prevention and control (IPC) in the medical imaging (MI) setting is recognised as an important factor in providing high-quality patient care and safe working conditions. Surveys are commonly used and have advantages for IPC research. The aim of this study was to identify the core concepts in surveys published in the literature that examined IPC in MI environments. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to identify studies that employed a survey relating to IPC in the MI setting. For each included study, descriptive study information and survey information were extracted. For IPC-specific survey items, directed content analysis was undertaken, using eleven pre-determined codes based on the 'Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare'. Content that related to 'Knowledge', 'Attitudes' and 'Practice' were also identified. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies and 21 unique surveys were included in this review. IPC-specific survey items assessed diverse dimensions of IPC, most commonly relating to 'transmission-based precautions' and 'applying standard and transmission-based precautions during procedures'. 'Practice' and 'Knowledge' related survey items were most frequent, compared to 'Attitudes'. CONCLUSION: MI research using survey methods have focused on the 'entry' points of IPC, rather than systemic IPC matters around policy, education, and stewardship. The concepts of 'Knowledge', 'Attitudes' and 'Practice' are integrated in IPC surveys in the MI context, with a greater focus evident on staff knowledge and practice. Existing topics within IPC surveys in MI are tailored to individual studies and locales, with lack of consistency to national frameworks.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Australia , Infection Control/methods , Health Facilities , Diagnostic Imaging
9.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(7): 772-776, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To prevent and control public health emergencies, we set up a prescreening and triage workflow and analyzed the effects on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: In accordance with the requirements of the level 1 emergency response of public health emergencies in Shaanxi Province, China, a triage process for COVID-19 was established to guide patients through a 4-level triage process during their hospital visits. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on positive COVID-19 nucleic acid testing according to the unified triage standards of the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (Trial version 4),4 issued by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. RESULTS: The screened rate of suspected COVID-19 was 1.63% (4 of 246) in the general fever outpatient clinic and 8.28% (13 of 157) in the COVID-19 outpatient clinic, and they showed a significant difference (P = .00). CONCLUSIONS: The triage procedure effectively screened the patients and identified the high-risk population.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Triage/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fever/virology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mass Screening , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Triage/methods , Triage/standards , Workflow
10.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 36(6): 393-398, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264691

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 has swept the world causing suffering, death, loss, and massive economy damage. The dialysis population is vulnerable and the dialysis facility is critical in maintaining operations and avoiding disease transmission. The present information regarding the clinical features of COVID-19 infection in the dialysis population was collected, and the useful measures of COVID-19 infection prevention and infection control in the dialysis facilities were summarized. Leadership, education, preparedness, management, and recovery phase were determined to be the critical procedures. It is hoped this updated interim review might provide information for medical professionals to take proactive action to best prepare and mitigate damage when facing the COVID-19 pandemic challenge.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Renal Dialysis , Ambulatory Care Facilities , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Education , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology , Triage
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 253, 2023 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic created unexpected challenges for health care workers. The global and national supply chain system was disrupted, and affected infection, prevention and control (IPC) practices. This study aimed at documenting health workers knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on IPC in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The descriptive, mixed-methods cross-sectional study was conducted in Ebonyi, Ondo and Niger states in October 2020. A structured questionnaire was administered to the health workers, complemented by semi-structured interviews that were audio recorded, transcribed and analyzed in Atlas.ti. Quantitative data were entered into REDCap and cleaned, transformed and analyzed using descriptive statistics in SPSS version 25.0 Findings from the qualitative interviews were used to explain the trends observed from quantitative study. RESULTS: There were demographic differences between community and facility-based health workers in our population. A greater proportion of facility-based providers reported having IPC training compared to community-based health workers ever (p < 0.01) and during the pandemic (p < 0.05). Health care workers had moderate knowledge of general IPC, and attitudes toward and practice of IPC during COVID-19 pandemic. However, the knowledge of the relative effectiveness of prevention measures was low. The mean knowledge scores were greater among facility-based workers compared to community based healthcare workers (p = 0.001). Self-reported IPC practices increased during the pandemic compared to prior to the pandemic, with the exception of the use of N-95 masks and hand sanitizer. CONCLUSION: This study found moderate IPC knowledge, attitudes and practices in our study population during the pandemic as compared to pre-pandemic for the study found gaps in correct hand hygienevaried application of different IPC practices to ensure adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures. The study recommends sustained training for IPC and encourages policy makers that budget line specific to COVID-19 response across all the levels of health care delivery will enhance compliance and emergency readiness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control/methods , Health Personnel
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253467

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly changed our lives. Since the SARS-CoV-2 was discovered, many studies have been done on the transmission mode, its replication within humans, and its survival even in the outside environment and on inanimate surfaces. Undoubtedly, health care workers have faced the greatest risks because of their close contact with potentially infected patients. Of these, dental health care professionals are certainly among the most vulnerable categories, precisely because infection occurs with the airborne virus. The treatment of patients within the dental office has changed profoundly, respecting all preventive measures towards the patient and the practitioners themselves. The aim of this paper is to understand whether the protocols changed for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection among dentists remained even after the most acute phase of the pandemic. In particular, this study analyzed habits, protocols, preventive measures, and any costs incurred in the COVID-19 era for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection among dental workers and patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Dentists , Infection Control/methods
13.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 12(1): 27, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly challenged societies and healthcare systems in particular. To prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies had to be developed on the local, national and international level. The aim of this study is to provide details of the COVID-19 experience at the Vienna General Hospital (VGH) in the context of the national and international COVID-19 response for learning and improvement. METHODS: This is a retrospective report, outlining the evolution of IPC measures and challenges encountered at the health facility (VGH), the national (Austria) and global level between February 2020 and October 2022. RESULTS: The IPC strategy at the VGH has been continuously adapted to changes in the epidemiological setting, new legal directives and Austrian by-laws. The current strategy, nationally and internationally, focuses on endemicity rather than maximum transmission risk reduction. For the VGH, this has recently resulted in an increase in COVID-19 clusters. To protect our particularly vulnerable patients, many COVID-19 precautions have been maintained. Barriers to adequate IPC implementation at the VGH and other hospitals include a lack of sufficient isolation options and non-adherence with universal face mask regulations. Globally, misinformation on COVID-19 hampered an effective response. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective analysis of the COVID-19 response at the VGH and international reports underline the need for pandemic preparedness, readiness and response by improving future hospital design and infrastructure, conducting regular trainings for protective attire and increasing health literacy as now recently published in a concise document by WHO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Infection Control/methods
14.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 24(2): 112-118, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259439

ABSTRACT

Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance programs are recommended to be included in national infection prevention and control (IPC) programs, yet few exist in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs). Our goal was to identify components of surveillance in existing programs that could be replicated elsewhere and note opportunities for improvement to build awareness for other countries in the process of developing their own national surgical site infection surveillance (nSSIS) programs. Methods: We administered a survey built upon the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's framework for surveillance system evaluation to systematically deconstruct logistical infrastructure of existing nSSIS programs in LMICs. Qualitative analyses of survey responses by thematic elements were used to identify successful surveillance system components and recognize opportunities for improvement. Results: Three respondents representing countries in Europe and Central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia designated as upper middle-income, lower middle-income, and low-income responded. Notable strengths described by respondents included use of local paper documentation, staggered data entry, and limited data entry fields. Opportunities for improvement included outpatient data capture, broader coverage of healthcare centers within a nation, improved audit processes, defining the denominator of number of surgical procedures, and presence of an easily accessible, free SSI surveillance training program for healthcare workers. Conclusions: Outpatient post-surgery surveillance, national coverage of healthcare facilities, and training on how to take local SSI surveillance data and integrate it within a broader nSSIS program at the national level remain areas of opportunities for countries looking to implement a nSSIS program.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Surgical Wound Infection , Humans , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Facilities
15.
Gastroenterol Clin North Am ; 52(1): 157-172, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282914

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the practice of gastroenterology and how we perform endoscopy. As with any new or emerging pathogen, early in the pandemic, there was limited evidence and understanding of disease transmission, limited testing capability, and resource constraints, especially availability of personal protective equipment (PPE). As the COVID-19 pandemic progressed, enhanced protocols with particular emphasis on assessing the risk status of patients and proper use of PPE have been incorporated into routine patient care. The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us important lessons for the future of gastroenterology and endoscopy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastroenterology , Humans , Pandemics , Infection Control/methods , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Gastroenterology/methods
16.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e298, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infection prevention and control (IPC) measures are easily adoptable activities to prevent the spread of infection to patients as well as among health-care workers (HCWs). METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated the adherence to IPC measures among HCWs working at coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment centers in Punjab, Pakistan. HCWs were recruited by means of convenient sampling through Google Form® using the World Health Organization risk assessment tool. All data were analyzed using SPSS 20. RESULTS: A total of 414 HCWs completed the survey (response rate = 67.8%), and majority of them were males (56.3%). Most of the HCWs were nurses (39.6%) followed by medical doctors (27.3%). Approximately 53% reported insufficiency of personal protective equipment (PPE), 58.2% did not receive IPC training and 40.8% did not have functional IPC team at their health facilities. The majority of HCWs (90%) used disposable gloves and N95 facemasks while interacting with COVID-19 patients. Nearly 45% used protective face shields and gowns before providing care to their patients. Hand hygiene practices while touching, and performing any aseptic procedure was adopted by 70.5% and 74.1% of HCWs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the adherence to IPC measures among Pakistani HCWs working in COVID-19 treatment centers is good despite the limited availability of PPEs. Their practices can be optimized by establishing institutional IPC teams, periodic provision of IPC training, and necessary PPE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pakistan , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Personal Protective Equipment , Health Personnel , Infection Control/methods
18.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 49(2): 36-42, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225864

ABSTRACT

The devastating effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) highlight the critical need for effective infection prevention and control (IPC) practices in nursing homes. Nursing management and infection preventionists should be cognizant of the most common reasons underlying federal IPC citations during the pandemic. Analysis of IPC citation data from the first 7 months of the public health emergency identified that adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE) and mask use, appropriate transmission-based precautions, and hand hygiene were the most common reasons for COVID-19-related F880 citations, including those that placed a person at immediate risk for serious injury or death. More specific staff practices and other factors leading to a citation are also highlighted. Although nursing homes may have limited control over factors such as PPE supply and staffing resources, nursing management and infection preventionists can use these results to help ensure that operational mechanisms, staff training, and adherence monitoring efforts effectively address the areas most associated with COVID-19 IPC noncompliance. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 49(2), 36-42.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Nursing Homes , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Infection Control/methods
20.
J Clin Anesth ; 86: 111057, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2210701

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The global COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of protecting frontline healthcare workers from novel respiratory infections while also exposing the limited instruction that medical students receive on proper donning of personal protective equipment (PPE) and more importantly the safe doffing of contaminated PPE to minimize their risk of nosocomial infection. The best methods of providing this kind of instruction have not yet been determined. METHODS: Anesthesiology interns and CA-1 residents were trained on proper PPE donning and doffing for AGPs using a methodology based on Miller's pyramid and following a "knows-knows how-shows-does" progression. Participants donned PPE without instruction and were sprayed with Glo Germ® to identify areas of contamination, after which they received both video and in-person instruction on best practices for donning and doffing PPE for AGPs. Following instruction, they again donned PPE and were sprayed with Glo Germ® to identify areas of contamination. RESULTS: 54 participants completed the study. Before training, overall donning compliance was 60% and overall doffing compliance was 48%. Overall, 70% were contaminated after PPE doffing, with 46% having multiple sites of contamination. After training, donning compliance increased by nearly 30% (P < 0.001), doffing compliance increased by over 20% (P < 0.001), and overall contamination decreased by nearly 30% (P = 0.029), with multiple-site contamination decreasing to only 6% (P = 0.013). DISCUSSION: While best methods for providing instruction regarding topics such as PPE donning and doffing have not yet been determined, we have demonstrated that the underlying knowledge base from medical school regarding proper donning and doffing for respiratory isolation is insufficient for preventing self-contamination, and that Miller's pyramid-based training using both video and in-person instruction combined with task execution by learners can improve compliance with PPE donning and doffing protocols and more importantly decrease skin contamination among a group of early training anesthesiology residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Infection Control/methods , Health Personnel
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