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1.
BMJ ; 376: e067519, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909703

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on hospital admission rates and mortality outcomes for childhood respiratory infections, severe invasive infections, and vaccine preventable disease in England. DESIGN: Population based observational study of 19 common childhood respiratory, severe invasive, and vaccine preventable infections, comparing hospital admission rates and mortality outcomes before and after the onset of the pandemic in England. SETTING: Hospital admission data from every NHS hospital in England from 1 March 2017 to 30 June 2021 with record linkage to national mortality data. POPULATION: Children aged 0-14 years admitted to an NHS hospital with a selected childhood infection from 1 March 2017 to 30 June 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each infection, numbers of hospital admissions every month from 1 March 2017 to 30 June 2021, percentage changes in the number of hospital admissions before and after 1 March 2020, and adjusted odds ratios to compare 60 day case fatality outcomes before and after 1 March 2020. RESULTS: After 1 March 2020, substantial and sustained reductions in hospital admissions were found for all but one of the 19 infective conditions studied. Among the respiratory infections, the greatest percentage reductions were for influenza (mean annual number admitted between 1 March 2017 and 29 February 2020 was 5379 and number of children admitted from 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021 was 304, 94% reduction, 95% confidence interval 89% to 97%), and bronchiolitis (from 51 655 to 9423, 82% reduction, 95% confidence interval 79% to 84%). Among the severe invasive infections, the greatest reduction was for meningitis (50% reduction, 47% to 52%). For the vaccine preventable infections, reductions ranged from 53% (32% to 68%) for mumps to 90% (80% to 95%) for measles. Reductions were seen across all demographic subgroups and in children with underlying comorbidities. Corresponding decreases were also found for the absolute numbers of 60 day case fatalities, although the proportion of children admitted for pneumonia who died within 60 days increased (age-sex adjusted odds ratio 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 2.05). More recent data indicate that some respiratory infections increased to higher levels than usual after May 2021. CONCLUSIONS: During the covid-19 pandemic, a range of behavioural changes (adoption of non-pharmacological interventions) and societal strategies (school closures, lockdowns, and restricted travel) were used to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, which also reduced admissions for common and severe childhood infections. Continued monitoring of these infections is required as social restrictions evolve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infections/mortality , Male , Quarantine , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/mortality
2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(2): e1009795, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753173

ABSTRACT

Mathematical models have come to play a key role in global pandemic preparedness and outbreak response: helping to plan for disease burden, hospital capacity, and inform nonpharmaceutical interventions. Such models have played a pivotal role in the COVID-19 pandemic, with transmission models-and, by consequence, modelers-guiding global, national, and local responses to SARS-CoV-2. However, these models have largely not accounted for the social and structural factors, which lead to socioeconomic, racial, and geographic health disparities. In this piece, we raise and attempt to clarify several questions relating to this important gap in the research and practice of infectious disease modeling: Why do epidemiologic models of emerging infections typically ignore known structural drivers of disparate health outcomes? What have been the consequences of a framework focused primarily on aggregate outcomes on infection equity? What should be done to develop a more holistic approach to modeling-based decision-making during pandemics? In this review, we evaluate potential historical and political explanations for the exclusion of drivers of disparity in infectious disease models for emerging infections, which have often been characterized as "equal opportunity infectors" despite ample evidence to the contrary. We look to examples from other disease systems (HIV, STIs) and successes in including social inequity in models of acute infection transmission as a blueprint for how social connections, environmental, and structural factors can be integrated into a coherent, rigorous, and interpretable modeling framework. We conclude by outlining principles to guide modeling of emerging infections in ways that represent the causes of inequity in infection as central rather than peripheral mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Infections , Models, Statistical , Socioeconomic Factors , COVID-19 , Computational Biology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Infections/epidemiology , Infections/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(1): xiii-xiv, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747959
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253110, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends inpatient hospital treatment of young infants up to two months old with any sign of possible serious infection. However, each sign may have a different risk of death. The current study aims to calculate the case fatality ratio for infants with individual or combined signs of possible serious infection, stratified by inpatient or outpatient treatment. METHODS: We analysed data from the African Neonatal Sepsis Trial conducted in five sites in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Nigeria. Trained study nurses classified sick infants as pneumonia (fast breathing in 7-59 days old), severe pneumonia (fast breathing in 0-6 days old), clinical severe infection [severe chest indrawing, high (> = 38°C) or low body temperature (<35.5°C), stopped feeding well, or movement only when stimulated] or critical illness (convulsions, not able to feed at all, or no movement at all), and referred them to a hospital for inpatient treatment. Infants whose caregivers refused referral received outpatient treatment. The case fatality ratio by day 15 was calculated for individual and combined clinical signs and stratified by place of treatment. An infant with signs of clinical severe infection or severe pneumonia was recategorised as having low- (case fatality ratio ≤2%) or moderate- (case fatality ratio >2%) mortality risk. RESULTS: Of 7129 young infants with a possible serious infection, fast breathing (in 7-59 days old) was the most prevalent sign (26%), followed by high body temperature (20%) and severe chest indrawing (19%). Infants with pneumonia had the lowest case fatality ratio (0.2%), followed by severe pneumonia (2.0%), clinical severe infection (2.3%) and critical illness (16.9%). Infants with clinical severe infection had a wide range of case fatality ratios for individual signs (from 0.8% to 11.0%). Infants with pneumonia had similar case fatality ratio for outpatient and inpatient treatment (0.2% vs. 0.3%, p = 0.74). Infants with clinical severe infection or severe pneumonia had a lower case fatality ratio among those who received outpatient treatment compared to inpatient treatment (1.9% vs. 6.5%, p<0.0001). We recategorised infants into low-mortality risk signs (case fatality ratio ≤2%) of clinical severe infection (high body temperature, or severe chest indrawing) or severe pneumonia and moderate-mortality risk signs (case fatality ratio >2%) (stopped feeding well, movement only when stimulated, low body temperature or multiple signs of clinical severe infection). We found that both categories had four times lower case fatality ratio when treated as outpatient than inpatient treatment, i.e., 1.0% vs. 4.0% (p<0.0001) and 5.3% vs. 22.4% (p<0.0001), respectively. In contrast, infants with signs of critical illness had nearly two times higher case fatality ratio when treated as outpatient versus inpatient treatment (21.7% vs. 12.1%, p = 0.097). CONCLUSIONS: The mortality risk differs with clinical signs. Young infants with a possible serious infection can be grouped into those with low-mortality risk signs (high body temperature, or severe chest indrawing or severe pneumonia); moderate-mortality risk signs (stopped feeding well, movement only when stimulated, low body temperature or multiple signs of clinical severe infection), or high-mortality risk signs (signs of critical illness). New treatment strategies that consider differential mortality risks for the place of treatment and duration of inpatient treatment could be developed and evaluated based on these findings. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry under ID ACTRN 12610000286044.


Subject(s)
Fever/complications , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infant Mortality/trends , Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Body Temperature , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infections/drug therapy , Infections/epidemiology , Kenya/epidemiology , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology
6.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(4): 611-620, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447566

ABSTRACT

The reproductive number, or reproduction number, is a valuable metric in understanding infectious disease dynamics. There is a large body of literature related to its use and estimation. In the last 15 years, there has been tremendous progress in statistically estimating this number using case notification data. These approaches are appealing because they are relevant in an ongoing outbreak (e.g., for assessing the effectiveness of interventions) and do not require substantial modeling expertise to be implemented. In this article, we describe these methods and the extensions that have been developed. We provide insight into the distinct interpretations of the estimators proposed and provide real data examples to illustrate how they are implemented. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of available software and opportunities for future development.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Infections/epidemiology , Basic Reproduction Number , Global Health , Humans , Morbidity/trends , Software
7.
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 22(5): 693-707, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pivotal phase III studies demonstrated that abrocitinib, an oral, once-daily, JAK1-selective inhibitor, is effective treatment for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) as monotherapy and in combination with topical therapy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety of abrocitinib 200 mg and 100 mg in an integrated analysis of a phase IIb study, four phase III studies, and one long-term extension study. METHODS: Two cohorts were analyzed: a placebo-controlled cohort from 12- to 16-week studies and an all-abrocitinib cohort including patients who received one or more abrocitinib doses. Adverse events (AEs) of interest and laboratory data are reported. RESULTS: Total exposure in the all-abrocitinib cohort (n = 2856) was 1614 patient-years (PY); exposure was ≥ 24 weeks in 1248 patients and ≥ 48 weeks in 606 (maximum 108 weeks). In the placebo-controlled cohort (n = 1540), dose-related AEs (200 mg, 100 mg, placebo) were nausea (14.6%, 6.1%, 2.0%), headache (7.8%, 5.9%, 3.5%), and acne (4.7%, 1.6%, 0%). Platelet count was reduced transiently in a dose-dependent manner; 2/2718 patients (200-mg group) had confirmed platelet counts of < 50 × 103/mm3 at week 4. Incidence rates (IRs) were 2.33/100PY and 2.65/100 PY for serious infection, 4.34/100PY and 2.04/100PY for herpes zoster, and 11.83/100PY and 8.73/100PY for herpes simplex in the 200-mg and 100-mg groups, respectively. IRs for nonmelanoma skin cancer, other malignancies, and major adverse cardiovascular events were < 0.5/100PY for both doses. Five venous thromboembolism events occurred (IR 0.30/100PY), all in the 200-mg group. There were three deaths due to gastric carcinoma (diagnosed at day 43), sudden death, and COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Abrocitinib, with proper patient and dose selection, has a manageable tolerability and longer-term safety profile appropriate for long-term use in patients with moderate-to-severe AD. TRIAL REGISTRIES: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02780167, NCT03349060, NCT03575871, NCT03720470, NCT03627767, NCT03422822.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Infections/epidemiology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrimidines/adverse effects , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Acne Vulgaris/chemically induced , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Female , Headache/chemically induced , Herpes Simplex/epidemiology , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/chemically induced , Platelet Count , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Risk Factors , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 121, 2021 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pathogen whole genome sequencing (WGS) is being incorporated into public health surveillance and disease control systems worldwide and has the potential to make significant contributions to infectious disease surveillance, outbreak investigation and infection prevention and control. However, to date, there are limited data regarding (i) the optimal models for integration of genomic data into epidemiological investigations and (ii) how to quantify and evaluate public health impacts resulting from genomic epidemiological investigations. METHODS: We developed the Pathogen Genomics in Public HeAlth Surveillance Evaluation (PG-PHASE) Framework to guide examination of the use of WGS in public health surveillance and disease control. We illustrate the use of this framework with three pathogens as case studies: Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The framework utilises an adaptable whole-of-system approach towards understanding how interconnected elements in the public health application of pathogen genomics contribute to public health processes and outcomes. The three phases of the PG-PHASE Framework are designed to support understanding of WGS laboratory processes, analysis, reporting and data sharing, and how genomic data are utilised in public health practice across all stages, from the decision to send an isolate or sample for sequencing to the use of sequence data in public health surveillance, investigation and decision-making. Importantly, the phases can be used separately or in conjunction, depending on the need of the evaluator. Subsequent to conducting evaluation underpinned by the framework, avenues may be developed for strategic investment or interventions to improve utilisation of whole genome sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive evaluation is critical to support health departments, public health laboratories and other stakeholders to successfully incorporate microbial genomics into public health practice. The PG-PHASE Framework aims to assist public health laboratories, health departments and authorities who are either considering transitioning to whole genome sequencing or intending to assess the integration of WGS in public health practice, including the capacity to detect and respond to outbreaks and associated costs, challenges and facilitators in the utilisation of microbial genomics and public health impacts.


Subject(s)
Implementation Science , Infections/diagnosis , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods , Genome, Bacterial , Genome, Viral , Humans , Infections/epidemiology , Listeria monocytogenes/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Population Surveillance , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(5): 418-423, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225247

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, reduced incidence of many viral and bacterial infections has been reported in children: bronchiolitis, varicella, measles, pertussis, pneumococcal and meningococcal invasive diseases. The purpose of this opinion paper is to discuss various situations that could lead to larger epidemics when the non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) imposed by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic will no longer be necessary. While NPIs limited the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, they also reduced the spread of other pathogens during and after lockdown periods, despite the re-opening of schools since June 2020 in France. This positive collateral effect in the short term is welcome as it prevents additional overload of the healthcare system. The lack of immune stimulation due to the reduced circulation of microbial agents and to the related reduced vaccine uptake induced an "immunity debt" which could have negative consequences when the pandemic is under control and NPIs are lifted. The longer these periods of "viral or bacterial low-exposure" are, the greater the likelihood of future epidemics. This is due to a growing proportion of "susceptible" people and a declined herd immunity in the population. The observed delay in vaccination program without effective catch-up and the decrease in viral and bacterial exposures lead to a rebound risk of vaccine-preventable diseases. With a vaccination schedule that does not include vaccines against rotavirus, varicella, and serogroup B and ACYW Neisseria meningitidis, France could become more vulnerable to some of these rebound effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune System Phenomena , Infections/epidemiology , Vaccines/immunology , Child , Humans
10.
Laryngoscope ; 131(11): 2471-2477, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of at home drain removal in head and neck surgery patients. METHODS: The study population included patients who underwent head and neck surgery at an academic tertiary care center between February 2020 and November 2020 and were discharged with one to four drains with instructions for home removal. Prior to discharge, patients received thorough drain removal education. Patients were prospectively followed to evaluate for associated outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred patients were evaluated in the study. There was record for ninety-seven patients receiving education at discharge. The most common methods of education were face-to-face education and written instructions with educational video link provided. Of 123 drains upon discharge, 110 drains (89.4%) were removed at home while 13 (10.6%) were removed in office. Most drains were located in the neck (86.4%). There was one seroma, two hematomas, two drain site infections, and five ED visits; however, none of these complications were directly associated with the action of drain removal at home. Calculated cost savings for travel and lost wages was $259.82 per round trip saved. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that home drain removal can provide a safe and efficacious option for patients following head and neck surgery. This approach was safe and associated with patient cost savings and better utilization of provider's time. Furthermore, patients and healthcare providers avoided additional in-person encounters and exposures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings warrant further investigation into cost savings and formal patient satisfaction associated with home drain removal. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:2471-2477, 2021.


Subject(s)
Device Removal/adverse effects , Drainage/instrumentation , Home Care Services/statistics & numerical data , Neck Dissection/methods , Patient Discharge/standards , Postoperative Care/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Device Removal/economics , Drainage/methods , Efficiency , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hematoma/epidemiology , Hematoma/etiology , Home Care Services/trends , Humans , Infections/epidemiology , Infections/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neck Dissection/statistics & numerical data , Patient Education as Topic/standards , Patient Education as Topic/trends , Postoperative Care/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Safety , Seroma/epidemiology , Seroma/etiology , Time Factors
11.
Evol Psychol ; 19(1): 14747049211000714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146437

ABSTRACT

It is puzzling why countries do not all implement stringent behavioral control measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 even though preventive behaviors have been proven to be the only effective means to stop the pandemic. We provide a novel evolutionary life history explanation whereby pathogenic and parasitic prevalence represents intrinsic rather than extrinsic mortality risk that drives slower life history strategies and the related disease control motivation in all animals but especially humans. Our theory was tested and supported based on publicly available data involving over 150 countries. Countries having a higher historical prevalence of infectious diseases are found to adopt slower life history strategies that are related to prompter COVID-19 containment actions by the government and greater compliance by the population. Findings could afford governments novel insight into the design of more effective COVID-19 strategies that are based on enhancing a sense of control, vigilance, and compliance in the general population.


Subject(s)
Behavior Control , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Infections , Life History Traits , Risk Reduction Behavior , Behavior Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Behavior Control/methods , Behavior Control/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Cooperative Behavior , Global Health , Government Regulation , Humans , Infections/epidemiology , Infections/psychology , Infections/transmission , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Evolution
12.
J Travel Med ; 27(6)2020 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, cruise travel had experienced exponential growth in the preceding decade. Travel medicine practitioners were increasingly called upon to provide pre-cruise travel advice and medical clearance. Demand for these services will return at some time in the future. METHODS: The clinical conditions seen in those presenting for care on six small-vessel scientific cruises to Antarctica were analysed. RESULTS: Personnel presented on 196 occasions resulting in 257 consultations (when initial plus all follow-up consultations were included). Personnel presented with a clinical condition at a rate of 17.9 per 1000 person-days at sea. The total consultation rate was 23.5 per 1000 person-days at sea. Injury accounted for 24% of all presentations at a rate of 4.3 per 1000 person-days at sea. Dermatological, soft tissue and musculoskeletal, general malaise and motion sickness were the four most common presentations. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-cruise advice for travellers planning small-vessel cruises to polar regions needs to include skin care, prevention and management of sea sickness and how to reduce the risk of injury. Those providing medical care on such cruises should be prepared to manage a wide range of clinical presentations.


Subject(s)
Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Ships , Travel Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Antarctic Regions , Humans , Infections/epidemiology , Infections/therapy , Motion Sickness/epidemiology , Motion Sickness/therapy , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Skin Diseases/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 136: 319-333, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104104

ABSTRACT

Considering the importance of evidence on interventions to tackle mental health problems in healthcare workers (HCWs) during pandemics, we conducted a systematic review, aiming to identify and summarize the implemented interventions to deal with mental health issues of HCWs during infectious disease outbreaks and report their effectiveness. Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, CINAHL and PsycInfo electronic databases were searched until October 2nd, 2020. Primary-data articles, describing any implemented interventions and their effectiveness were considered pertinent. Studies were screened according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria and subsequently data extraction was performed. Twenty-four articles, referring to SARS, Ebola, Influenza AH1N1 and COVID-19 were included. Interventions addressing mental health issues in HCWs during pandemics/epidemics were grouped into four categories: 1) informational support (training, guidelines, prevention programs), 2) instrumental support (personal protective equipment, protection protocols); 3) organizational support (manpower allocation, working hours, re-organization of facilities/structures, provision of rest areas); 4) emotional and psychological support (psychoeducation and training, mental health support team, peer-support and counselling, therapy, digital platforms and tele-support). These results might be helpful for researchers, stakeholders, and policymakers to develop evidence-based sustainable interventions and guidelines, aiming to prevent or reduce the immediate and long-term effect of pandemics on mental health status of HCWs.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Infections/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
14.
Ann Neurol ; 89(1): 11-12, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059272
15.
Econ Hum Biol ; 40: 100947, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921967

ABSTRACT

In this paper we document the evolution of the supermarket sales in one of the European countries, Spain, that has been most hardly hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a very detailed dataset at the weekly and municipality level on the sales of a supermarket chain, we are able to separately identify the effects on sales for 12 different food products and for three population age groups. Furthermore, we distinguish between the impact of the lockdown, which affected the entire territory by mid-March, from the effect of the number of new confirmed positive COVID-19 cases at the municipal level. Our results show strong stockpiling effects for most of the products in the first week of adoption of the lockdown measures. On the other hand, the number of new cases at the municipal level is associated with reductions in sales, pointing towards increased fears of being infected as the main driver of the slowdown in sales. Finally, when we do a separate analysis for different age groups, we find no effects for individuals aged 66 and over.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Isolation , Supermarkets , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control , Databases, Factual , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Lung ; 198(6): 879-887, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917116

ABSTRACT

Lung transplantation is a lifesaving intervention for patients with advanced lung disease. Due to a combination of immunosuppression, continuous exposure of the lungs to the environment, and complications at the anastomotic sites, lung transplant recipients are at high risk for infectious complications. The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in the field of infectious diseases as it pertains to lung transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
Donor Selection , Infections/diagnosis , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Humans , Infections/epidemiology
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(11)2020 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918231

ABSTRACT

Pathogens are various organisms, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, which can cause severe illnesses to their hosts. Throughout history, pathogens have accompanied human populations and caused various epidemics. One of the most significant outbreaks was the Black Death, which occurred in the 14th century and caused the death of one-third of Europe's population. Pathogens have also been studied for their use as biological warfare agents by the former Soviet Union, Japan, and the USA. Among bacteria and viruses, there are high priority agents that have a significant impact on public health. Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Variola virus, Filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg), Arenoviruses (Lassa), and influenza viruses are included in this group of agents. Outbreaks and infections caused by them might result in social disruption and panic, which is why special operations are needed for public health preparedness. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria that significantly impede treatment and recovery of patients are also valid threats. Furthermore, recent events related to the massive spread of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are an example of how virus-induced diseases cannot be ignored. The impact of outbreaks, such as SARS-CoV-2, have had far-reaching consequences beyond public health. The economic losses due to lockdowns are difficult to estimate, but it would take years to restore countries to pre-outbreak status. For countries affected by the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), their health systems have been overwhelmed, resulting in an increase in the mortality rate caused by diseases or injuries. Furthermore, outbreaks, such as SARS-CoV-2, will induce serious, wide-ranging (and possibly long-lasting) psychological problems among, not only health workers, but ordinary citizens (this is due to isolation, quarantine, etc.). The aim of this paper is to present the most dangerous pathogens, as well as general characterizations, mechanisms of action, and treatments.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health , Betacoronavirus , Biological Warfare/methods , Biological Warfare/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Infections/epidemiology , Infections/microbiology , Infections/therapy , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Psychology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 315, 2020 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-897545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemics of infectious disease occur frequently in low-income and humanitarian settings and pose a serious threat to populations. However, relatively little is known about responses to these epidemics. Robust evaluations can generate evidence on response efforts and inform future improvements. This systematic review aimed to (i) identify epidemics reported in low-income and crisis settings, (ii) determine the frequency with which evaluations of responses to these epidemics were conducted, (iii) describe the main typologies of evaluations undertaken and (iv) identify key gaps and strengths of recent evaluation practice. METHODS: Reported epidemics were extracted from the following sources: World Health Organization Disease Outbreak News (WHO DON), UNICEF Cholera platform, Reliefweb, PROMED and Global Incidence Map. A systematic review for evaluation reports was conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Web of Science, WPRIM, Reliefweb, PDQ Evidence and CINAHL Plus databases, complemented by grey literature searches using Google and Google Scholar. Evaluation records were quality-scored and linked to epidemics based on time and place. The time period for the review was 2010-2019. RESULTS: A total of 429 epidemics were identified, primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. A total of 15,424 potential evaluations records were screened, 699 assessed for eligibility and 132 included for narrative synthesis. Only one tenth of epidemics had a corresponding response evaluation. Overall, there was wide variability in the quality, content as well as in the disease coverage of evaluation reports. CONCLUSION: The current state of evaluations of responses to these epidemics reveals large gaps in coverage and quality and bears important implications for health equity and accountability to affected populations. The limited availability of epidemic response evaluations prevents improvements to future public health response. The diversity of emphasis and methods of available evaluations limits comparison across responses and time. In order to improve future response and save lives, there is a pressing need to develop a standardized and practical approach as well as governance arrangements to ensure the systematic conduct of epidemic response evaluations in low-income and crisis settings.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/economics , Infections/economics , Infections/epidemiology , Poverty/economics , Altruism , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Epidemics , Humans , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Public Health
19.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1889-1894, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The link between diabetes and increased risk of infectious disease has long been recognized, but has re-entered sharp focus following the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles in English on diabetes and infection. RESULTS: Diabetes predisposes to infections through alterations in innate and acquired immune defenses. Outcomes of infection are worse in people with uncontrolled diabetes, and infection can worsen hyperglycemia in hitherto well controlled diabetes (bidirectional relationship). Diabetes does not increase the risk of infection with COVID-19 per se, but predisposes to severe disease and poor outcomes. COVID-19 has also been linked to deterioration of glycemic control as well as new-onset diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians caring for people with diabetes should be aware of the increased risk of infections in this population, as well as the possibility of worsening hyperglycemia. A holistic approach with frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels and appropriate titration of medications, along with close attention to nutritional status, is essential to ensure the best possible outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Glycemic Control , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , India/epidemiology , Infections/epidemiology , Infections/immunology , Infections/metabolism , Reproductive Tract Infections/epidemiology , Reproductive Tract Infections/immunology , Reproductive Tract Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/metabolism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/epidemiology , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/immunology , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/metabolism , Soft Tissue Infections/epidemiology , Soft Tissue Infections/immunology , Soft Tissue Infections/metabolism , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/metabolism , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Urinary Tract Infections/immunology , Urinary Tract Infections/metabolism
20.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3156-3168, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748838

ABSTRACT

Understanding the relationship between infection and stroke has taken on new urgency in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This association is not a new concept, as several infections have long been recognized to contribute to stroke risk. The association of infection and stroke is also bidirectional. Although infection can lead to stroke, stroke also induces immune suppression which increases risk of infection. Apart from their short-term effects, emerging evidence suggests that poststroke immune changes may also adversely affect long-term cognitive outcomes in patients with stroke, increasing the risk of poststroke neurodegeneration and dementia. Infections at the time of stroke may also increase immune dysregulation after the stroke, further exacerbating the risk of cognitive decline. This review will cover the role of acute infections, including respiratory infections such as COVID-19, as a trigger for stroke; the role of infectious burden, or the cumulative number of infections throughout life, as a contributor to long-term risk of atherosclerotic disease and stroke; immune dysregulation after stroke and its effect on the risk of stroke-associated infection; and the impact of infection at the time of a stroke on the immune reaction to brain injury and subsequent long-term cognitive and functional outcomes. Finally, we will present a model to conceptualize the many relationships among chronic and acute infections and their short- and long-term neurological consequences. This model will suggest several directions for future research.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Infections/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Atherosclerosis/immunology , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/immunology , Bacteremia/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/physiopathology , Endothelium/physiopathology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Infections/immunology , Infections/physiopathology , Inflammation/immunology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Pandemics , Platelet Activation , Platelet Aggregation , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/immunology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/immunology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/epidemiology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/immunology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/physiopathology
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