Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 54
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267587, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883700

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The emergence of the novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has led to huge disruptions in the medical field and society. The significance of training and education for experts has been increasingly acknowledged in Japan, where the number of infectious disease (ID) specialists is reportedly insufficient. In this paper, we report the results of a web-based survey that was conducted to reveal the ways in which the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced medical students' awareness of ID specialists and future career choices. METHOD: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in March 2021 and targeted 717 medical students belonging to Medical School of Okayama University, Japan. The questionnaire consisted of four questions meant to assess students' knowledge and future intentions of becoming ID specialists. RESULTS: We obtained 328 eligible questionnaires (response rate: 45.7%). Of 227 (69.2%) students who were aware of ID specialists, 99 (43.6%) answered that they came to know about them only after the pandemic, 12 (3.7%) answered that their interest in being an ID specialist arose during the pandemic, while 36 (11.0%) responded that they would rather not become ID specialists. At the time of the survey, 5 students (1.5%) were aiming to become ID specialists. CONCLUSION: We observed a very low rate of interest to be an ID specialist among medical students. The experience of the pandemic does not seem to have influenced Japanese medical students to choose ID as a specialty for their careers. Continuous efforts to increase the number of ID specialists are necessary in Japan as a countermeasure against the coming pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Career Choice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infectious Disease Medicine , Internet , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 232, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630738

ABSTRACT

In this article, we describe the advances in the field of pediatrics that have been published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2020. We report progresses in understanding allergy, autoinflammatory disorders, critical care, endocrinology, genetics, infectious diseases, microbiota, neonatology, neurology, nutrition, orthopedics, respiratory tract illnesses, rheumatology in childhood.


Subject(s)
Pediatrics/trends , COVID-19 , Child Nutrition Sciences , Critical Care , Endocrinology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Infectious Disease Medicine , Neonatology , Neurology , Orthopedics , Rare Diseases , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Rheumatology
4.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 687-695, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511960

ABSTRACT

Trainees represent the medical practice of tomorrow. Interactions and collaborations at the early stage in career will strengthen the future of our specialties, clinical microbiology and infectious diseases. Trainee networks at the national level help access the best education and career opportunities. The aim of this collaborative white paper between the Trainee Association of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and four national trainee networks is to discuss the motivation for building such networks and offer guidance for their creation and sustainability even during a health crisis.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Medicine/education , Microbiology/education , Humans
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21812, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505841

ABSTRACT

An estimation of the impact of climatic conditions-measured with an index that combines temperature and humidity, the IPTCC-on the hospitalizations and deaths attributed to SARS-CoV-2 is proposed. The present paper uses weekly data from 54 French administrative regions between March 23, 2020 and January 10, 2021. Firstly, a Granger causal analysis is developed and reveals that past values of the IPTCC contain information that allow for a better prediction of hospitalizations or deaths than that obtained without the IPTCC. Finally, a vector autoregressive model is estimated to evaluate the dynamic response of hospitalizations and deaths after an increase in the IPTCC. It is estimated that a 10-point increase in the IPTCC causes hospitalizations to rise by 2.9% (90% CI 0.7-5.0) one week after the increase, and by 4.1% (90% CI 2.1-6.4) and 4.4% (90% CI 2.5-6.3) in the two following weeks. Over ten weeks, the cumulative effect is estimated to reach 20.1%. Two weeks after the increase in the IPTCC, deaths are estimated to rise by 3.7% (90% CI 1.6-5.8). The cumulative effect from the second to the tenth weeks reaches 15.8%. The results are robust to the inclusion of air pollution indicators.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Climate , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Bayes Theorem , Decision Making , France/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Humidity , Infectious Disease Medicine , Reproducibility of Results , Respiration Disorders , Seasons , Temperature
6.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259257, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504723

ABSTRACT

Protective behaviors such as mask wearing and physical distancing are critical to slow the spread of COVID-19, even in the context of vaccine scale-up. Understanding the variation in self-reported COVID-19 protective behaviors is critical to developing public health messaging. The purpose of the study is to provide nationally representative estimates of five self-reported COVID-19 protective behaviors and correlates of such behaviors. In this cross-sectional survey study of US adults, surveys were administered via internet and telephone. Adults were surveyed from April 30-May 4, 2020, a time of peaking COVID-19 incidence within the US. Participants were recruited from the probability-based AmeriSpeak® national panel. Brief surveys were completed by 994 adults, with 73.0% of respondents reported mask wearing, 82.7% reported physical distancing, 75.1% reported crowd avoidance, 89.8% reported increased hand-washing, and 7.7% reported having prior COVID-19 testing. Multivariate analysis (p critical value .05) indicates that women were more likely to report protective behaviors than men, as were those over age 60. Respondents who self-identified as having low incomes, histories of criminal justice involvement, and Republican Party affiliation, were less likely to report four protective behaviors, though Republicans and individuals with criminal justice histories were more likely to report having received COVID-19 testing. The majority of Americans engaged in COVID-19 protective behaviors, with low-income Americans, those with histories of criminal justice involvement, and self-identified Republicans less likely to engage in these preventive behaviors. Culturally competent public health messaging and interventions might focus on these latter groups to prevent future infections. These findings will remain highly relevant even with vaccines widely available, given the complementarities between vaccines and protective behaviors, as well as the many challenges in delivering vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection , Masks , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Geography , Health Behavior , Humans , Infectious Disease Medicine/methods , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Poverty , Probability , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Pharmacol Res ; 174: 105955, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487920

ABSTRACT

Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by numerous complications, complex disease, and high mortality, making its treatment a top priority in the treatment of COVID-19. Integrated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine played an important role in the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of COVID-19 during the epidemic. However, currently there are no evidence-based guidelines for the integrated treatment of severe COVID-19 with TCM and western medicine. Therefore, it is important to develop an evidence-based guideline on the treatment of severe COVID-19 with integrated TCM and western medicine, in order to provide clinical guidance and decision basis for healthcare professionals, public health personnel, and scientific researchers involved in the diagnosis, treatment, and care of COVID-19 patients. We developed and completed the guideline by referring to the standardization process of the "WHO handbook for guideline development", the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, and the Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in Healthcare (RIGHT).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Infectious Disease Medicine/trends , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/trends , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Evidence-Based Medicine/trends , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
12.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(11): 1693.e1-1693.e8, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To define the status of infectious diseases (ID) as an approved specialty in Europe; to enumerate the number of specialists (in general and in relation to the overall population) and specialist trainees and describe the content, delivery and evaluation of postgraduate training in ID in different countries. METHODS: Structured web-based questionnaire surveys in March 2021 of responsible national authorities, specialist societies and individual country representatives to the Section of Infectious Diseases of the European Union for Medical Specialties. Descriptive analysis of quantitative and qualitative responses. RESULTS: In responses received from 33/35 (94.3%) countries, ID is recognized as a specialty in 24 and as a subspecialty of general internal medicine (GIM) in eight, but it is not recognized in Spain. The number of ID specialists per country varies from <5 per million inhabitants to 78 per million inhabitants. Median length of training is 5 years (interquartile range 4.0-6.0 years) with variable amounts of preceding and/or concurrent GIM. Only 21.2% of countries (7/33) provide the minimum recommended training of 6 months in microbiology and 30% cover competencies such as palliative care, team working and leadership, audit, and quality control. Training is monitored by personal logbook or e-portfolio in 75.8% (25/33) and assessed by final examinations in 69.7% (23/33) of countries, but yearly reviews with trainees only occur in 54.5% (18/33) of countries. CONCLUSIONS: There are substantial gaps in modernization of ID training in many countries to match current European training requirements. Joint training with clinical microbiology (CM) and in multidisciplinary team working should be extended. Training/monitoring trainers should find greater focus, together with regular feedback to trainees within many national training programmes.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Education, Medical , Infectious Disease Medicine/education , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Curriculum , Education, Medical/trends , Europe , Humans , Specialization , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323314

ABSTRACT

Dendrimers comprise a specific group of macromolecules, which combine structural properties of both single molecules and long expanded polymers. The three-dimensional form of dendrimers and the extensive possibilities for use of additional substrates for their construction creates a multivalent potential and a wide possibility for medical, diagnostic and environmental purposes. Depending on their composition and structure, dendrimers have been of interest in many fields of science, ranging from chemistry, biotechnology to biochemical applications. These compounds have found wide application from the production of catalysts for their use as antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral agents. Of particular interest are peptide dendrimers as a medium for transport of therapeutic substances: synthetic vaccines against parasites, bacteria and viruses, contrast agents used in MRI, antibodies and genetic material. This review focuses on the description of the current classes of dendrimers, the methodology for their synthesis and briefly drawbacks of their properties and their use as potential therapies against infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Dendrimers/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Animals , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Biotechnology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catalysis , Contrast Media , Drug Delivery Systems , Drug Design , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Infectious Disease Medicine/trends , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mice , Nanotechnology , Polypropylenes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Stereoisomerism , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/trends , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
14.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(1): 1-7, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314808

ABSTRACT

The Korean government's strategy to combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has focused on non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as social distancing and wearing masks, along with testing, tracing, and treatment; overall, its performance has been relatively good compared to that of many other countries heavily affected by COVID-19. However, little attention has been paid to health equity in measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aimed to examine the unequal impacts of COVID-19 across socioeconomic groups and to suggest potential solutions to tackle these inequalities. The pathways linking social determinants and health could be entry points to tackle the unequal consequences of this public health emergency. It is crucial for infectious disease policy to consider social determinants of health including poor housing, precarious working conditions, disrupted healthcare services, and suspension of social services. Moreover, the high levels of uncertainty and complexity inherent in this public health emergency, as well as the health and socioeconomic inequalities caused by the pandemic, underscore the need for good governance other than top-down measures by the government. We emphasize that a people-centered perspective is a key approach during the pandemic era. Mutual trust between the state and civil society, strong accountability of the government, and civic participation are essential components of cooperative disaster governance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Equity/standards , Health Policy , Infectious Disease Medicine/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/physiopathology , Government Programs/legislation & jurisprudence , Government Programs/methods , Health Equity/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infectious Disease Medicine/methods , Infectious Disease Medicine/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Health/methods , Public Health/trends , Republic of Korea
15.
Annu Rev Biomed Eng ; 23: 547-577, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307981

ABSTRACT

The host-to-host transmission of respiratory infectious diseases is fundamentally enabled by the interaction of pathogens with a variety of fluids (gas or liquid) that shape pathogen encapsulation and emission, transport and persistence in the environment, and new host invasion and infection. Deciphering the mechanisms and fluid properties that govern and promote these steps of pathogen transmission will enable better risk assessment and infection control strategies, and may reveal previously underappreciated ways in which the pathogens might actually adapt to or manipulate the physical and chemical characteristics of these carrier fluids to benefit their own transmission. In this article, I review our current understanding of the mechanisms shaping the fluid dynamics of respiratory infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/physiopathology , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Hydrodynamics , Respiration Disorders/physiopathology , Aerosols , COVID-19/transmission , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Infectious Disease Medicine/history , Physical Distancing , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Respiratory System/virology , Rheology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Ventilation
16.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(13-14): 904-907, 2021 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307355

ABSTRACT

From an infectious disease perspective, there have been outstanding findings since January 2020 far beyond the knowledge gained about SARS-CoV, which hopefully will help us to manage future pandemics. Positive highlights include the increased public awareness of infectious disease epidemiology, the increase in immunological knowledge, and the successful use of existing vaccine development platforms and technologies. This article presents a personal selection of interesting developments in recent months.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Infectious Disease Medicine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Interferon Type I/blood
17.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(11): 1595-1600, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has demonstrated the value of highly skilled and extensively trained specialists in clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious diseases (ID). Training curricula in CM and ID must constantly evolve to prepare trainees for future pandemics and to allow trainees to reach their full clinical and academic potential. OBJECTIVES: In this narrative review, we aim to outline necessary future adaptations in CM and ID training curricula and identify current structural barriers in training with the aim of discussing possibilities to address these shortcomings. SOURCES: We reviewed literature from PubMed and included selected books and online publications as appropriate. There was no time constraint on the included publications. CONTENT: Drawing from the lessons learnt during the pandemic, we summarize novel digital technologies relevant to CM and ID trainees and highlight interdisciplinary teamwork and networking skills as important competencies. We centre CM and ID training within the One Health framework and discuss gender inequalities and structural racism as barriers in both CM and ID training and patient care. IMPLICATIONS: CM and ID trainees should receive training and support developing skills in novel digital technologies, leadership, interdisciplinary teamwork and networking. Equally important is the need for equity of opportunity, with firm commitments to end gender inequality and structural racism in CM and ID. Policy-makers and CM and ID societies should ensure that trainees are better equipped to achieve their professional goals and are better prepared for the challenges awaiting in their fields.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Infectious Disease Medicine/education , Microbiology/education , Specialization , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Gender Equity , Humans , One Health , Pandemics , Racism
18.
J Hosp Med ; 16(6): 353-356, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270269

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically disrupted the educational experience of medical trainees. However, a detailed characterization of exactly how trainees' clinical experiences have been affected is lacking. Here, we profile residents' inpatient clinical experiences across the four training hospitals of NYU's Internal Medicine Residency Program during the pandemic's first wave. We mined ICD-10 principal diagnosis codes attributed to residents from February 1, 2020, to May 31, 2020. We translated these codes into discrete medical content areas using a newly developed "crosswalk tool." Residents' clinical exposure was enriched in infectious diseases (ID) and cardiovascular disease content at baseline. During the pandemic's surge, ID became the dominant content area. Exposure to other content was dramatically reduced, with clinical diversity repopulating only toward the end of the study period. Such characterization can be leveraged to provide effective practice habits feedback, guide didactic and self-directed learning, and potentially predict competency-based outcomes for trainees in the COVID era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology/education , Infectious Disease Medicine/education , Internship and Residency , Pandemics , Humans , International Classification of Diseases , New York City
20.
Indian J Tuberc ; 67(4S): S79-S85, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125905

ABSTRACT

Training is the backbone of any public health program and it is true for a vast program like TB. It is urgent when the program is aiming to End TB. The strategy that is followed in India for capacity building of TB workers is presented in this article. Various types of trainings that are needed are described in detail. Also enlisted are the different trainings undertaken at NTI for the last five years. Recent times the effect of Covid-19 has resulted in the acceleration of the effort of going for digital platforms and onlinetrainings and is described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Medicine/education , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/transmission
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL