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1.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(3): 319-324, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235516

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infection caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) originated in China in December 2020 and declared pandemic by WHO. This coronavirus mainly spreads through the respiratory tract and enters cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, and fatigue. Gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, anorexia, and vomiting) may be present in 50% of patients and may be associated with worst prognosis. Other risk factors are older age, male gender, and underlying chronic diseases. Mitigation measures are essential to reduce the number of people infected. Hospitals are a place of increased SARS-CoV-2 exposure. This has implications in the organization of healthcare services and specifically endoscopy departments. Patients and healthcare workers safety must be optimized in this new reality. Comprehension of COVID-19 gastrointestinal manifestations and implications of SARS-CoV-2 in the management of patients with gastrointestinal diseases, under or not immunosuppressant therapies, is essential. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress and major societies recommendations regarding the implications of COVID-19 in gastroenterology, namely the adaptations that gastroenterology/endoscopy departments and professionals must do in order to optimize the provided assistance, as well as the implications that this infection will have, in particularly vulnerable patients such as those with chronic liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease under or not immunosuppressant therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastroenterologists , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Liver Diseases/therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Clinical Decision-Making , Decision Support Techniques , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/immunology , Occupational Health , Patient Safety , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
6.
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(3): 196-198, 2020 Mar.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320523

ABSTRACT

It has been more than 2 months since the outbreak of coronavirus disease(COVID-19). The Chinese Ear & Nose & Throat Department(ENT) health care workers are brave in defending against the disease. The COVID-19 patients without predominant symptoms may consult ENT doctors, even though the ENT department isn't thought first front of the battle. The ENT health care workers have high risks of exposing to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This article gives some recommendations of infection prevention and control to ENT health care workers of the outpatient and inpatient department.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Otolaryngology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 12(1): 43, 2023 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314288

ABSTRACT

We conducted a qualitative interview-based study to examine the perception of infection prevention and control (IPC) measures implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare workers (HCWs) without patient contact in a tertiary academic care center. We compared these findings to those derived from interviews of HCWs with patient contact from the same institution using the same study design. The following main four themes were identified: (1) As for HCWs with patient contact, transparent communication strongly contributes to employees' sense of security. (2) Information on personal protective equipment (PPE) usage needs to be stratified according to different educational backgrounds and professions. (3) Consistency of IPC measures was positively perceived yet a desire for constant reminders to counteract the fatigue effect played a more significant role for HCWs without patient contact. (4) As compared to HCWs with patient contact, HCWs without patient contact preferred uniform digital training resources rather than more face-to-face training. This study shows that the needs of HCWs with and without patient contact differ and need to be considered in pandemic management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Perception
8.
Clin Chest Med ; 44(2): 215-226, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297437

ABSTRACT

Because of the potential for high aerosol transmission during pulmonary function testing and pulmonary procedures, performing these tests and procedures must be considered carefully during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Much has been learned about the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by aerosols and the potential for such transmission through pulmonary function tests and pulmonary procedures, and subsequently preventative practices have been enhanced and developed to reduce the risk of transmission of virus to patients and personnel. This article reviews what is known about the potential for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during pulmonary function testing and pulmonary procedures and the recommended mitigation steps to prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Respiratory Function Tests
10.
Cancer ; 127(14): 2476-2488, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to provide data on the safety of head and neck cancer surgery currently being undertaken during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This international, observational cohort study comprised 1137 consecutive patients with head and neck cancer undergoing primary surgery with curative intent in 26 countries. Factors associated with severe pulmonary complications in COVID-19-positive patients and infections in the surgical team were determined by univariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 1137 patients, the commonest sites were the oral cavity (38%) and the thyroid (21%). For oropharynx and larynx tumors, nonsurgical therapy was favored in most cases. There was evidence of surgical de-escalation of neck management and reconstruction. Overall 30-day mortality was 1.2%. Twenty-nine patients (3%) tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within 30 days of surgery; 13 of these patients (44.8%) developed severe respiratory complications, and 3.51 (10.3%) died. There were significant correlations with an advanced tumor stage and admission to critical care. Members of the surgical team tested positive within 30 days of surgery in 40 cases (3%). There were significant associations with operations in which the patients also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 within 30 days, with a high community incidence of SARS-CoV-2, with screened patients, with oral tumor sites, and with tracheostomy. CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck cancer surgery in the COVID-19 era appears safe even when surgery is prolonged and complex. The overlap in COVID-19 between patients and members of the surgical team raises the suspicion of failures in cross-infection measures or the use of personal protective equipment. LAY SUMMARY: Head and neck surgery is safe for patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic even when it is lengthy and complex. This is significant because concerns over patient safety raised in many guidelines appear not to be reflected by outcomes, even for those who have other serious illnesses or require complex reconstructions. Patients subjected to suboptimal or nonstandard treatments should be carefully followed up to optimize their cancer outcomes. The overlap between patients and surgeons testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is notable and emphasizes the need for fastidious cross-infection controls and effective personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Surgeons , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Care , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , International Cooperation , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Young Adult
11.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20257, 2020 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 epidemic is evolving rapidly. Healthcare workers are at increased risk for infection, and specific requirements for their protection are advisable to ensure the functioning of the basic healthcare system, including the availability of general practitioners (GPs). Understanding the transmission risk is particularly important for guiding evidence-based protective measures in the primary healthcare setting. METHODS: Healthcare worker contacts of an initially undiagnosed COVID-19 case, who were without personal protective equipment, in particular not wearing facemasks, were screened with nasopharyngeal swabs and polymerase chain reaction tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), irrespective of respiratory symptoms or fever seven days after initial contact. The details of exposure to the index case were obtained during routine contact investigation after unintentional pathogen exposure. RESULTS: Twenty-one healthcare workers reported contacts with the index case. Three healthcare workers reported respiratory symptoms (cough) or low-grade fever within 4 days. None of them tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at the time of symptom onset. All 21 healthcare workers tested SARS-CoV-2 negative 7 days after initial index case contact, including the three healthcare workers with previous symptoms. Ten of the 21 healthcare workers reported a cumulative exposure time of >15 minutes. Longer cumulative contact times were associated with more individual contacts, reduced contact time per contact and activities with physical patient contact. The closest relative of the index patient tested SARS-CoV-2 positive 2 days after the index case presented at the hospital emergency department. CONCLUSION: We found a low risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a primary care setting. These findings are compatible with previous reports of the highest transmission probability in household settings with prolonged close contacts. The current protective measures for healthcare workers, including strict adherence to basic standard hygiene and facemasks, offer considerable protection during short periods of contact with symptomatic COVID-19 cases by diminishing the risk of direct and indirect transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(5): 411-418, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261643

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a highly contagious RNA virus termed as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Ophthalmologists are at high-risk due to their proximity and short working distance at the time of slit-lamp examination. Eye care professionals can be caught unaware because conjunctivitis may be one of the first signs of COVID-19 at presentation, even precluding the emergence of additional symptoms such as dry cough and anosmia. Breath and eye shields as well as N95 masks, should be worn while examining patients with fever, breathlessness, or any history of international travel or travel from any hotspot besides maintaining hand hygiene. All elective surgeries need to be deferred. Adults or children with sudden-onset painful or painless visual loss, or sudden-onset squint, or sudden-onset floaters or severe lid oedema need a referral for urgent care. Patients should be told to discontinue contact lens wear if they have any symptoms of COVID-19. Cornea retrieval should be avoided in confirmed cases and suspects, and long-term preservation medium for storage of corneas should be encouraged. Retinal screening is unnecessary for coronavirus patients taking chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as the probability of toxic damage to the retina is less due to short-duration of drug therapy. Tele-ophthalmology and artificial intelligence should be preferred for increasing doctor-patient interaction.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Health/standards , Ophthalmology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , Conjunctivitis/virology , Corneal Transplantation , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Ophthalmology/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Factors , Tears/virology , Telemedicine , Tissue and Organ Procurement/standards
15.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 44(3): 340-348, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248942

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a significant occupational risk factor to health care workers (HCWs). As in previous events, this occupational risk amplifies and compounds the adverse impact of the pandemic. We conducted a narrative review summarizing risk factors associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission in HCWs. We searched for original observational studies (including case-control, cross-sectional, prospective and retrospective cohorts) using PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. A total of 22 articles were reviewed, including eligible English articles published between April 2020 and May 2022. Job category, work environment, personal protective equipment (PPE) noncompliance, lack of PPE awareness and training, unvaccinated status, and competing community and household exposures were identified as risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission among HCWs. Effective measures to protect HCWs from SARS-CoV-2 need to account for the identified occupational risk factors. Identifying and understanding COVID-19 risk factors among HCWs must be considered a public health priority for policy makers to mitigate occupational and community transmission in current and future epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Risk Factors
16.
Workplace Health Saf ; 71(3): 137-143, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, healthcare workers (HCW) have relied on reusable personal protective equipment (PPE), including respirators and face shields (FSs). The effectiveness of decontamination procedures outside experimental settings is unclear. We examined the prevalence of surface contamination on reusable PPE used by HCWs at a hospital incorporating daily centralized decontamination and post-use wiping by sampling for common pathogens. METHOD: Samples were collected from HCWs' CleanSpace Halo respirator face masks (FMs) and FSs at the start of shift, immediately after use, and after cleaning with disinfecting wipes. Samples were analyzed for pathogens using the Applied Biosystems™ TaqPath™ COVID-19 Combo Kit and ThermoFisher TaqMan Array Card. Patient charts were reviewed for clinical correlation. FINDINGS: Of the 89 samples, 51 from FMs and 38 from FSs, none tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, despite 58 being obtained from PPE used in the care of patients with COVID-19, many with recent aerosol-generating procedures. Four samples tested positive (4.5%) for Staphylococcus aureus, two each from FMs and FSs. FMs that tested positive were not worn concurrently with FSs that tested positive. The FM and FS samples testing positive were worn in the care of patients without diagnosed S. aureus infection. No FMs tested positive following wipe-based disinfection, but both positive FS samples were found after disinfection wiping. CONCLUSION/APPLICATION TO PRACTICE: Contamination of reusable PPE appears uncommon, especially with SARS-CoV-2, when regular decontamination programs are in place. The rare presence of S. aureus highlights the importance of doffing procedures and hand hygiene by HCW to prevent surface contamination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Staphylococcus aureus , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Health Personnel , Ventilators, Mechanical
17.
Am J Infect Control ; 51(6): 718-719, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229389

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infectious disease transmission decreased within the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. Within emergency departments, use of personal protective equipment along with masking requirements for COVID-19 helped in this reduction. This report focuses on how COVID-19 precautions reduced the risk of emerging infectious diseases transmission in emergency departments, specifically with patients suspected of measles and mumps.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Infection Control , Personal Protective Equipment , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225170

ABSTRACT

During the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) necessitated unprecedented and non-validated approaches to conserve PPE at healthcare facilities, especially in high income countries where single-use disposable PPE was ubiquitous. Our team conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate historic approaches for conserving single-use PPE, expecting that lower-income countries or developing contexts may already be uniquely conserving PPE. However, of the 50 included studies, only 3 originated from middle-income countries and none originated from low-income countries. Data from the included studies suggest PPE remained effective with extended use and with multiple or repeated use in clinical settings, as long as donning and doffing were performed in a standard manner. Multiple decontamination techniques were effective in disinfecting single use PPE for repeated use. These findings can inform healthcare facilities and providers in establishing protocols for safe conservation of PPE supplies and updating existing protocols to improve sustainability and overall resilience. Future studies should evaluate conservation practices in low-resource settings during non-pandemic times to develop strategies for more sustainable and resilient healthcare worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Personal Protective Equipment
19.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 23(1): 24-30, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Personal protective equipment (PPE) and infection control guidelines help limit transmission. However, poor confidence leads to higher levels of anxiety rates and infection. We assessed knowledge and confidence in PPE among HCWs and associated anxiety. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-centre survey using a validated questionnaire assessing actual and self-perceived knowledge on PPE was distributed among HCWs across the UK. Confidence in PPE and levels of anxiety were assessed using the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) tool. RESULTS: In total, 1,055 responses were received; 99% had familiarity with PPE guidance; however, only 15% correctly answered questions on PPE guidance; 86% and 80% had received mask-fitting and donning-doffing training, respectively; 33% indicated poor/very poor hospital communication. Confidence and anxiety were related to: profession; comorbidities; self-perceived knowledge; and PPE training and communication. CONCLUSION: Confidence in PPE was poor and anxiety was related to inadequate information and training. Thus, improved communication is required for effective response to subsequent COVID-19 waves and similar pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Protective Devices , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Health Personnel/education , Anxiety , United Kingdom/epidemiology
20.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 30(3): 201-204, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217869

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the analysis was to determine the probable places of coronavirus transmission in association with the work and compare the situation between 2020 and 2021. METHODS: The work analysed data from the Information System of Infectious Diseases managed by the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic in the period from March 2020 - December 2021. RESULTS: 2,483,219 COVID-19 cases were officially confirmed (732,202 during 2020 and 1,338,790 in 2021), from them 140,368 (6%) represented work-related disease, 520,830 cases (21%) work-related contact, and 1,822,021 (73%) out-of-work contact. There were identified 13 occupations with the highest incidence of COVID-19 in the observed period (458,341 cases), in descending order - clerk, machinist, teacher, craftsman, worker/agency worker, driver, sales worker/cashier, warehouse worker/expediter, nurse, manager, food worker, paramedic, and social worker. Comparing 2020 and 2021, there was a difference in the ranking of occupations by incidence of disease. In 2021, the risk of infection acquiring increased for the occupations clerk, machinist, craftsman, worker/agency worker, manager, and food worker, while it decreased for the health professions (nurse, other paramedic, physician) and for social worker; 5,514 cases of COVID-19 were recognized as an occupational disease in 2020 and 2021, from them 5,483 cases (99.4%) in the health and social care economic activity sector. CONCLUSION: The available data show probable exposures to an infectious agent (without proof of specific contact with the source of the infection), of which 27% cases of COVID-19 are related to work (cases of work-related disease and work-related contact represented together the closest relationship to work). Different relevant anti-epidemic measures in the workplace have considerable practical importance for epidemic control. The use of personal protection of the mouth and nose with respirators/muffs is essential to reduce the risk of airborne transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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