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1.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(3): 319-324, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235516

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infection caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) originated in China in December 2020 and declared pandemic by WHO. This coronavirus mainly spreads through the respiratory tract and enters cells through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, and fatigue. Gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, anorexia, and vomiting) may be present in 50% of patients and may be associated with worst prognosis. Other risk factors are older age, male gender, and underlying chronic diseases. Mitigation measures are essential to reduce the number of people infected. Hospitals are a place of increased SARS-CoV-2 exposure. This has implications in the organization of healthcare services and specifically endoscopy departments. Patients and healthcare workers safety must be optimized in this new reality. Comprehension of COVID-19 gastrointestinal manifestations and implications of SARS-CoV-2 in the management of patients with gastrointestinal diseases, under or not immunosuppressant therapies, is essential. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress and major societies recommendations regarding the implications of COVID-19 in gastroenterology, namely the adaptations that gastroenterology/endoscopy departments and professionals must do in order to optimize the provided assistance, as well as the implications that this infection will have, in particularly vulnerable patients such as those with chronic liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease under or not immunosuppressant therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastroenterologists , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Liver Diseases/therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Clinical Decision-Making , Decision Support Techniques , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/immunology , Occupational Health , Patient Safety , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
6.
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(3): 196-198, 2020 Mar.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320523

ABSTRACT

It has been more than 2 months since the outbreak of coronavirus disease(COVID-19). The Chinese Ear & Nose & Throat Department(ENT) health care workers are brave in defending against the disease. The COVID-19 patients without predominant symptoms may consult ENT doctors, even though the ENT department isn't thought first front of the battle. The ENT health care workers have high risks of exposing to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This article gives some recommendations of infection prevention and control to ENT health care workers of the outpatient and inpatient department.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Otolaryngology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 12(1): 43, 2023 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314288

ABSTRACT

We conducted a qualitative interview-based study to examine the perception of infection prevention and control (IPC) measures implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare workers (HCWs) without patient contact in a tertiary academic care center. We compared these findings to those derived from interviews of HCWs with patient contact from the same institution using the same study design. The following main four themes were identified: (1) As for HCWs with patient contact, transparent communication strongly contributes to employees' sense of security. (2) Information on personal protective equipment (PPE) usage needs to be stratified according to different educational backgrounds and professions. (3) Consistency of IPC measures was positively perceived yet a desire for constant reminders to counteract the fatigue effect played a more significant role for HCWs without patient contact. (4) As compared to HCWs with patient contact, HCWs without patient contact preferred uniform digital training resources rather than more face-to-face training. This study shows that the needs of HCWs with and without patient contact differ and need to be considered in pandemic management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Perception
8.
Clin Chest Med ; 44(2): 215-226, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297437

ABSTRACT

Because of the potential for high aerosol transmission during pulmonary function testing and pulmonary procedures, performing these tests and procedures must be considered carefully during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Much has been learned about the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by aerosols and the potential for such transmission through pulmonary function tests and pulmonary procedures, and subsequently preventative practices have been enhanced and developed to reduce the risk of transmission of virus to patients and personnel. This article reviews what is known about the potential for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during pulmonary function testing and pulmonary procedures and the recommended mitigation steps to prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Respiratory Function Tests
10.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(5): 411-418, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261643

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a highly contagious RNA virus termed as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Ophthalmologists are at high-risk due to their proximity and short working distance at the time of slit-lamp examination. Eye care professionals can be caught unaware because conjunctivitis may be one of the first signs of COVID-19 at presentation, even precluding the emergence of additional symptoms such as dry cough and anosmia. Breath and eye shields as well as N95 masks, should be worn while examining patients with fever, breathlessness, or any history of international travel or travel from any hotspot besides maintaining hand hygiene. All elective surgeries need to be deferred. Adults or children with sudden-onset painful or painless visual loss, or sudden-onset squint, or sudden-onset floaters or severe lid oedema need a referral for urgent care. Patients should be told to discontinue contact lens wear if they have any symptoms of COVID-19. Cornea retrieval should be avoided in confirmed cases and suspects, and long-term preservation medium for storage of corneas should be encouraged. Retinal screening is unnecessary for coronavirus patients taking chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine as the probability of toxic damage to the retina is less due to short-duration of drug therapy. Tele-ophthalmology and artificial intelligence should be preferred for increasing doctor-patient interaction.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Health/standards , Ophthalmology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , Conjunctivitis/virology , Corneal Transplantation , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Ophthalmology/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Factors , Tears/virology , Telemedicine , Tissue and Organ Procurement/standards
11.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 44(3): 340-348, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248942

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a significant occupational risk factor to health care workers (HCWs). As in previous events, this occupational risk amplifies and compounds the adverse impact of the pandemic. We conducted a narrative review summarizing risk factors associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission in HCWs. We searched for original observational studies (including case-control, cross-sectional, prospective and retrospective cohorts) using PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. A total of 22 articles were reviewed, including eligible English articles published between April 2020 and May 2022. Job category, work environment, personal protective equipment (PPE) noncompliance, lack of PPE awareness and training, unvaccinated status, and competing community and household exposures were identified as risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission among HCWs. Effective measures to protect HCWs from SARS-CoV-2 need to account for the identified occupational risk factors. Identifying and understanding COVID-19 risk factors among HCWs must be considered a public health priority for policy makers to mitigate occupational and community transmission in current and future epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Prospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Risk Factors
12.
Workplace Health Saf ; 71(3): 137-143, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, healthcare workers (HCW) have relied on reusable personal protective equipment (PPE), including respirators and face shields (FSs). The effectiveness of decontamination procedures outside experimental settings is unclear. We examined the prevalence of surface contamination on reusable PPE used by HCWs at a hospital incorporating daily centralized decontamination and post-use wiping by sampling for common pathogens. METHOD: Samples were collected from HCWs' CleanSpace Halo respirator face masks (FMs) and FSs at the start of shift, immediately after use, and after cleaning with disinfecting wipes. Samples were analyzed for pathogens using the Applied Biosystems™ TaqPath™ COVID-19 Combo Kit and ThermoFisher TaqMan Array Card. Patient charts were reviewed for clinical correlation. FINDINGS: Of the 89 samples, 51 from FMs and 38 from FSs, none tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, despite 58 being obtained from PPE used in the care of patients with COVID-19, many with recent aerosol-generating procedures. Four samples tested positive (4.5%) for Staphylococcus aureus, two each from FMs and FSs. FMs that tested positive were not worn concurrently with FSs that tested positive. The FM and FS samples testing positive were worn in the care of patients without diagnosed S. aureus infection. No FMs tested positive following wipe-based disinfection, but both positive FS samples were found after disinfection wiping. CONCLUSION/APPLICATION TO PRACTICE: Contamination of reusable PPE appears uncommon, especially with SARS-CoV-2, when regular decontamination programs are in place. The rare presence of S. aureus highlights the importance of doffing procedures and hand hygiene by HCW to prevent surface contamination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Staphylococcus aureus , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Health Personnel , Ventilators, Mechanical
13.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 23(1): 24-30, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Personal protective equipment (PPE) and infection control guidelines help limit transmission. However, poor confidence leads to higher levels of anxiety rates and infection. We assessed knowledge and confidence in PPE among HCWs and associated anxiety. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-centre survey using a validated questionnaire assessing actual and self-perceived knowledge on PPE was distributed among HCWs across the UK. Confidence in PPE and levels of anxiety were assessed using the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) tool. RESULTS: In total, 1,055 responses were received; 99% had familiarity with PPE guidance; however, only 15% correctly answered questions on PPE guidance; 86% and 80% had received mask-fitting and donning-doffing training, respectively; 33% indicated poor/very poor hospital communication. Confidence and anxiety were related to: profession; comorbidities; self-perceived knowledge; and PPE training and communication. CONCLUSION: Confidence in PPE was poor and anxiety was related to inadequate information and training. Thus, improved communication is required for effective response to subsequent COVID-19 waves and similar pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Protective Devices , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Health Personnel/education , Anxiety , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 30(3): 201-204, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217869

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the analysis was to determine the probable places of coronavirus transmission in association with the work and compare the situation between 2020 and 2021. METHODS: The work analysed data from the Information System of Infectious Diseases managed by the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic in the period from March 2020 - December 2021. RESULTS: 2,483,219 COVID-19 cases were officially confirmed (732,202 during 2020 and 1,338,790 in 2021), from them 140,368 (6%) represented work-related disease, 520,830 cases (21%) work-related contact, and 1,822,021 (73%) out-of-work contact. There were identified 13 occupations with the highest incidence of COVID-19 in the observed period (458,341 cases), in descending order - clerk, machinist, teacher, craftsman, worker/agency worker, driver, sales worker/cashier, warehouse worker/expediter, nurse, manager, food worker, paramedic, and social worker. Comparing 2020 and 2021, there was a difference in the ranking of occupations by incidence of disease. In 2021, the risk of infection acquiring increased for the occupations clerk, machinist, craftsman, worker/agency worker, manager, and food worker, while it decreased for the health professions (nurse, other paramedic, physician) and for social worker; 5,514 cases of COVID-19 were recognized as an occupational disease in 2020 and 2021, from them 5,483 cases (99.4%) in the health and social care economic activity sector. CONCLUSION: The available data show probable exposures to an infectious agent (without proof of specific contact with the source of the infection), of which 27% cases of COVID-19 are related to work (cases of work-related disease and work-related contact represented together the closest relationship to work). Different relevant anti-epidemic measures in the workplace have considerable practical importance for epidemic control. The use of personal protection of the mouth and nose with respirators/muffs is essential to reduce the risk of airborne transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26781, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191045

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted our clinical practice. Many gastroenterologists have changed their attitudes toward various gastroenterological clinical settings. The aim of the present study is to explore the gastroenterologist's attitudes in several clinical settings encountered in the clinical practice.An online based survey was completed by 101 of 250 Israeli gastroenterologists (40.5%).Most of the participants were males (76.2%), and most of them were in the age range of 40 to 50 (37.6%). For all questionnaire components, the 2 most common chosen options were "I perform endoscopy with N95 mask, gloves and gown protection in a standard endoscopy room without preendoscopy severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing" and "Tend to postpone endoscopy until SARS-CoV-2 test is performed because of fear from being infected, or virus spreading in the endoscopy suite." Notably, 12 (11.9%) gastroenterologists were infected by Coronavirus disease 2019 during their work. Classifying the clinical settings to either elective and non-elective, most gastroenterologists (77.4%) chose the attitude of "I perform endoscopy with N95 mask, gloves and gown protection in a standard endoscopy room without SARS-COV-2 testing" in the nonelective settings as compared to 54.2% for the elective settings, (P < .00001), whereas 32.9% of the responders chose the attitude of "Tend to postpone endoscopy until SARS-COV-2 test is performed because of fear from being infected, or virus spreading in the endoscopy suite" in the elective settings (P < .00001).Gastroenterologists' attitude in various gastroenterological settings was based on the clinical indication. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term consequences of the different attitudes.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastroenterologists/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Digestive System/adverse effects , Endoscopy, Digestive System/psychology , Female , Gastroenterologists/psychology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0272716, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196974

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic renewed interest in infectious aerosols and reducing risk of airborne respiratory pathogen transmission, prompting development of devices to protect healthcare workers during airway procedures. However, there are no standard methods for assessing the efficacy of particle containment with these protective devices. We designed and built an aerosol bio-containment device (ABCD) to contain and remove aerosol via an external suction system and tested the aerosol containment of the device in an environmental chamber using a novel, quantitative assessment method. The ABCD exhibited a strong ability to control aerosol exposure in experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulated scenarios with appropriate suction use and maintenance of device seals. Using a log-risk-reduction framework, we assessed device containment efficacy and showed that, when combined with other protective equipment, the ABCD can significantly reduce airborne clinical exposure. We propose this type of quantitative analysis serves as a basis for rating efficacy of aerosol protective enclosures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Personal Protective Equipment , Protective Devices , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2023 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some data support that health care workers (HCWs) must have sufficient and good quality personal protective equipment (PPE) and the necessary training to manage COVID patients to avoid contagion that can lead to death. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between biosafety on the biological risks of SARS-CoV-2 and risks of fatigue, anxiety, or depression in health workers who care for patients in COVID hospitals, from September 2020 to August 2021. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The questionnaire used in this study (Q6S64I) consisted of 6 spheres: Sociodemographic aspects, working conditions; Personal Protection Equipment; safety and health; training and knowledge about COVID-19, the form of transport, and personal health conditions. The answers were online. The Goldberg questionnaire (EADG) measures anxiety and depression, and the questionnaire measures fatigue (Barrientos-Gutiérrez et al.) (PSSF). RESULTS: In total, 76.5% of the HCWs were doctors, 25.2% worked in the emergency services, 79.3% received PPE from their institution, 82.9% cared for COVID-19 patients, and 27.9% tested positive for COVID-19. The PPE provided by the employer was 80%, but the quality was deficient, insufficient, and associated with a relative risk of 4.6. A total of 99% acquired better PPE on their own. The exposure to COVID-19 and the surgical mask provided by the institution had an associated relative risk of 2.8 for the HCWs. A total of 39% of the HCWs reported being calm. CONCLUSIONS: PPE, risk exposure, and safety at work were significantly associated with drowsiness and heaviness, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, and depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Biosecurity , Mexico/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Hospitals , Health Personnel
18.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268974, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885351

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease pandemic has raised concerns regarding the transmission of infections to healthcare workers. We developed a new protective device to reduce the risk of aerosol diffusion and droplet infection among healthcare workers. Here, we report the results of a theoretical evaluation of the efficacy of this device. METHODS: We used suction-capable masks with and without rubber slits, sleeves for the insertion section of endoscopes and treatment tools, and a cover for the control section of the endoscope. To simulate droplet spread from patients, we created a droplet simulation model and an aerosol simulation model. The results with and without the devices attached and with and without the suction were compared. RESULTS: The droplet simulation model showed a 95% reduction in droplets with masks with rubber slits; furthermore, a reduction of 100% was observed when the insertion sleeve was used. Evaluation of aerosol simulation when suction was applied revealed an aerosol reduction of 98% and >99% with the use of the mask without rubber slits and with the combined use of the mask and insertion sleeve, respectively. The elimination of droplet emission upon instrument removal confirmed that the instrument sleeve prevented the diffusion of droplets. The elimination of droplets upon repeated pressing of the suction button confirmed that the cover prevented the diffusion of droplets. CONCLUSION: We developed a device for infection control, in collaboration with a gastrointestinal endoscopist and Olympus Medical Systems Corporation, that was effective in reducing droplet and aerosol diffusion in this initial theoretical assessment.


Subject(s)
Otolaryngology , Rubber , Aerosols , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protective Devices
19.
Anesth Analg ; 132(1): 2-14, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140282

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created an extraordinary demand for N95 and similarly rated filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) that remains unmet due to limited stock, production constraints, and logistics. Interest in decontamination and reuse of FFR, a product class designed for single use in health care settings, has undergone a parallel surge due to shortages. A worthwhile decontamination method must provide effective inactivation of the targeted pathogen(s), and preserve particle filtration, mask fit, and safety for a subsequent user. This discussion reviews the background of the current shortage, classification, structure, and functional aspects of FFR, and potentially effective decontamination methods along with reference websites for those seeking updated information and guidance. The most promising techniques utilize heat, hydrogen peroxide, microwave-generated steam, or ultraviolet light. Many require special or repurposed equipment and a detailed operational roadmap specific to each setting. While limited, research is growing. There is significant variation between models with regard to the ability to withstand decontamination yet remain protective. The number of times an individual respirator can be reused is often limited by its ability to maintain a tight fit after multiple uses rather than by the decontamination method itself. There is no single solution for all settings; each individual or institution must choose according to their need, capability, and available resources. As the current pandemic is expected to continue for months to years, and the possibility of future airborne biologic threats persists, the need for plentiful, effective respiratory protection is stimulating research and innovation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination , Equipment Contamination , Equipment Reuse , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control , N95 Respirators/virology , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
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